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List of political parties in the Netherlands

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Azure, billetty Or a lion with a coronet Or armed and langued Gules holding in his dexter paw a sword Argent hilted Or and in the sinister paw seven arrows Argent pointed and bound together Or. [The seven arrows stand for the seven provinces of the Union of Utrecht.] The shield is crowned with the (Dutch) royal crown and supported by two lions Or armed and langued gules. They stand on a scroll Azure with the text (Or) "Je Maintiendrai" (French for "I will maintain".)
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Netherlands

This article lists political parties in the Netherlands, which has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments.

The lower house of the legislature, the House of Representatives, is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation. There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote—roughly one seat for every 67,000 votes.

No party has won a majority of seats since the election of 1894,[1] and no party has even approached the seats needed for a majority since the current proportional representation system was implemented in 1918. All Dutch governments since then have been coalitions between two or more parties. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government.

General overview

Members of four Dutch political parties (PvdA, D66, CDA and VVD) campaigning in Ulft, shortly before the 2010 municipal elections
Members of four Dutch political parties (PvdA, D66, CDA and VVD) campaigning in Ulft, shortly before the 2010 municipal elections

National political parties

Parties represented in the States General

Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation Ref.
Eur. EP group Intl.
CDA Christian Democratic Appeal
Christen-Democratisch Appèl
Christian democracy Centre to centre-right Wopke Hoekstra EPP EPP CDI [8][9][10][11]
CU Christian Union
ChristenUnie
Christian democracy Centre to centre-right Gert-Jan Segers ECPM EPP [2][12][13][14]
D66 Democrats 66
Democraten 66
Social liberalism Centre Sigrid Kaag ALDE Renew LI [15][16]
FvD Forum for Democracy
Forum voor Democratie
National conservatism Right-wing to far-right Thierry Baudet ECR [17][18][19]
GL GroenLinks Green politics Centre-left to left-wing Jesse Klaver EGP Greens–EFA GG [12]
PvdA Labour Party
Partij van de Arbeid
Social democracy Centre-left Lilianne Ploumen PES S&D PA [2][12]
PVV Party for Freedom
Partij voor de Vrijheid
Right-wing populism Right-wing to far-right Geert Wilders ID [20][21][22][23]
PvdD Party for the Animals
Partij voor de Dieren
Animal rights Left-wing Esther Ouwehand APEU GUE–NGL [24]
VVD People's Party for Freedom and Democracy
Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie
Conservative liberalism Centre-right Mark Rutte ALDE Renew LI [16][15][25]
SGP Reformed Political Party
Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij
Christian right Right-wing Kees van der Staaij ECPM ECR [2][12][26]
SP Socialist Party
Socialistische Partij
Democratic socialism Left-wing Lilian Marijnissen [27][28][29][30]
50+ 50PLUS Pensioners' interests Centre Liane den Haan [2][15][16][24]
Political parties represented in the House of Representatives only
DENK DENK Identity politics Centre-left Farid Azarkan [31][32]
LHK Henk Krol List
Lijst Henk Krol
Progressive conservatism Centre Henk Krol
Political parties represented in the Senate only
GO Group Otten
Groep Otten
Open government Centre-right Henk Otten NI [33]
OSF Independent Senate Group
Onafhankelijke Senaatsfractie
Regionalism Centre Vacant EFA

Parties without representation in the States General

Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation Ref.
European EP group International
BIJ1 BIJ1 Anticapitalism Left-wing Sylvana Simons [34]
CO Code Orange
Code Oranje
Direct democracy Syncretic Richard de Mos
NVU Dutch People's Union
Nederlandse Volks-Unie
Ethnic nationalism Far-right Constant Kusters
BBB Farmer–Citizen Movement
BoerBurgerBeweging
Agrarianism Centre-right Caroline van der Plas
VP Free-minded Party
Vrijzinnige Partij
Liberalism Centre Norbert Klein
JA21 JA21 Conservative liberalism Right-wing Joost Eerdmans ECR
JL Jesus Lives
Jezus Leeft
Evangelism Right-wing Florens van der Spek
LDP Liberal Democratic Party (LibDem)
Liberaal Democratische Partij
Social liberalism Centre Sammy van Tuyll
LP Libertarian Party
Libertaire Partij
Right-libertarianism Right-wing Robert Valentine EPIL LI [35]
NLB NLBeter Health care reform Syncretic Esther van Fenema
PSP Pacifist Socialist Party '92
Pacifistisch Socialistische Partij '92
Pacifism Left-wing Vacant
PDNM Party The New Human
Partij De Nieuwe Mens
Spiritual left Centre-left Niraï Melis &
Raishrie Gajadin
[36]
PPNL Pirate Party
Piratenpartij
Pirate politics Syncretic Matthijs Pontier PPEU Greens–EFA PPI [37]
DB The Base
De Basis
Universal basic income Syncretic Dennis Rosenbaum
VOLT Volt Netherlands
Volt Nederland
European federalism Centre Reinier van Lanschot Volt Europa Greens–EFA [38]

Regional and local political parties

European Netherlands

Regional parties

Political party Active in Main ideology Position Leader European 
 affiliation
FNP Frisian National Party
Fryske Nasjonale Partij
 Friesland Civic nationalism Centre-left Sijbe Knol EFA
GB Groninger Interest
Groninger Belang
 Groningen Regionalism Centre Bram Schmaal
LB Local Brabant
Lokaal Brabant
 North Brabant Regionalism Centre Harold van den Broek
LL Local Limburg
Lokaal-Limburg
 Limburg Regionalism Centre Raimond Franssen
PvhN Party for the North
Partij voor het Noorden
 Groningen
 Friesland
 Drenthe
Regionalism Centre Dries Zwart
PvZ Party for Zeeland
Partij voor Zeeland
 Zeeland Regionalism Centre François Babijn
OPNH Elderly Party NH
Ouderenpartij NH
 North Holland Pensioners' interests Centre Jeff Leever
SL Strong Local Drenthe
Sterk Lokaal Drenthe
 Drenthe Regionalism Centre Alfred Schoenmaker

Local parties

Political party Main ideology Position Leader
OPA Elderly Politically Active
Ouderen Politiek Actief
Pensioners' interests Single-issue politics Vacant
FN Forza! Netherlands
Forza! Nederland
Right-wing populism Right-wing Paul Meijer
HvDH Heart for The Hague
Hart voor Den Haag/Groep de Mos
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Richard de Mos
ID Islam Democrats
Islam Democraten
Islamic democracy Centre Vacant
LR Livable Rotterdam
Leefbaar Rotterdam
Fortuynism Right-wing Joost Eerdmans
NCPN New Communist Party of the Netherlands
Nieuwe Communistische Partij van Nederland
Communism Far-left Vacant
NIDA NIDA Islamic democracy Syncretic Nourdin El Ouali
PvdE Party of Unity
Partij van de Eenheid
Islamism Right-wing Arnoud van Doorn
TON Proud of the Netherlands
Trots op Nederland
Conservative liberalism Right-wing Vacant
DG The Greens
De Groenen
Green politics Centre Vacant
VCP United Communist Party
Verenigde Communistische Partij
Communism Far-left Engel Modderman
VSP United Seniors Party
Verenigde Senioren Partij
Pensioners' interests Single-issue politics Vacant

Water board parties

Political party Main ideology Position Leader
AWP General Water Board Party
Algemene Waterschapspartij
Apoliticism Syncretic Ron van Megen
WN Water Natuurlijk Green politics Centre-left Peter Snoeren

Caribbean Netherlands

Bonaire

Political party Main ideology Position Leader Affiliation
American Intl.
PDB Bonaire Democratic Party
Partido Demokrátiko Boneriano
Social democracy Centre-left Clark Abraham
UPB Bonaire Patriotic Union
Union Patriótiko Boneriano
Christian democracy Centre James Kroon ODCA CDI
MPB Movement of Bonaire People
Movementu di Pueblo Boneriano
Christian socialism Centre Elvis Tjin Asjoe
FSP Social Progressive Front
Frente Sosial Progresivo
Social democracy Centre-left Robby Beukenboom

Saba

Political party Main ideology Position Leader American
affiliation
SLP Saba Labour Party Social democracy Centre-left Monique Wilson
WIPM Windward Islands People's Movement Christian democracy Centre Rolando Wilson ODCA

Sint Eustatius

Political party Main ideology Position Leader
DP Democratic Party Christian democracy Centre Adelka Spanner
PLP Progressive Labour Party Social democracy Centre-left Rechelline Leerdam

Defunct political parties

History and evolution of all Dutch political parties to ever have had seats in the House of Representatives.
History and evolution of all Dutch political parties to ever have had seats in the House of Representatives.

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe". Retrieved 8 June 2015.
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  9. ^ Syuzanna Vasilyan (2009). "The integration crisis in the Netherlands: the causes and the new policy measures". In Ditta Dolejšiová; Miguel Angel García López (eds.). European Citizenship in the Process of Construction: Challenges for Citizenship, Citizenship Education and Democratic Practice in Europe. Council of Europe. p. 73. ISBN 978-92-871-6478-0.
  10. ^ Hans Vollaard; Gerrit Voerman; Nelleke van de Walle (2015). "The Netherlands". In Donatella M. Viola (ed.). Routledge Handbook of European Elections. Routledge. p. 171. ISBN 978-1-317-50363-7.
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  12. ^ a b c d Josep M. Colomer (24 July 2008). Comparative European Politics. Taylor & Francis. p. 221f. ISBN 978-0-203-94609-1. Retrieved 13 July 2013.
  13. ^ Jort Statema; Paul Aarts. Timo Behr; Teija Tiilikainen (eds.). The Netherlands: Follow Washington, Be a Good European. Northern Europe and the Making of the EU's Mediterranean and Middle East Policies. note on p. 237.
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  15. ^ a b c Hans Keman (2008), "The Low Countries: Confrontation and Coalition in Segmented Societies", Comparative European Politics, Taylor & Francis, p. 221, ISBN 9780203946091
  16. ^ a b c Andeweg, R. and G. Irwin Politics and Governance in the Netherlands, Basingstoke (Palgrave) p.49
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  18. ^ "Forum voor Democratie: Why has the Dutch far right surged?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  19. ^ Tierolf, Bas; Drost, Lisanne; van Kapel, Maaike (December 2018). Zevende rapportage racisme, antisemitisme en extreemrechts geweld in Nederland (PDF) (Report) (in Dutch). Verwey-Jonker Instituut. p. 35. ISBN 978-90-5830-912-9. Retrieved 22 April 2019.
  20. ^ Pauwels, Teun (2014). Populism in Western Europe: Comparing Belgium, Germany and The Netherlands. Routledge. pp. 117–118. ISBN 9781317653912.
  21. ^ Merijn Oudenampsen (2013). "Explaining the Swing to the Right: The Dutch Debate on the Rise of Right-Wing Populism". In Ruth Wodak, Majid KhosraviNik, Brigitte Mral. Right-Wing Populism in Europe: Politics and Discourse. A&C Black. p. 191.
  22. ^ Tjitske Akkerman (2015). "Gender and the radical right in Western Europe: a comparative analysis of policy agendas". Patterns of Prejudice. 49 (1–2): 37–60. doi:10.1080/0031322X.2015.1023655. S2CID 144264153.
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  25. ^ Sean Lusk; Nick Birks (2014). Rethinking Public Strategy. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 168. ISBN 978-1-137-37758-6.
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  27. ^ José Magone (3 July 2013). Contemporary European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Routledge. p. 533. ISBN 978-1-136-93397-4.
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  30. ^ "Contemporary Far Left Parties in Europe", published November 2008, retrieved 18 November 2016: http://library.fes.de/pdf-files/id/ipa/05818.pdf
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  32. ^ "Ethnic minorities desert Labour, turn to Denk ahead of March vote". Dutch News. 6 February 2017.
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External links

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