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List of political parties in Egypt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

By its constitution, Egypt has a multi-party system. However, in practice the National Democratic Party was the long-time ruling party and dominated the Egyptian political arena up until the Egyptian Revolution of 2011, which ousted NDP president Hosni Mubarak. Under Mubarak, opposition parties were allowed, but were widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. As of 8 June 2014, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the president.[1]

On 28 March 2011, the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces introduced the Political Party Law, which eases restrictions on the legal establishment of new political parties in Egypt. The legislation has still however been criticized as discriminatory. Under the law new parties are now required to have at least 5,000 members from at least ten of Egypt's provinces. Originally, new parties were only required to have 1,000 members. This was cited as a barrier for new parties before parliamentary elections which took place at the end of 2011 and beginning of 2012.[2] Also, new party leaders are required to raise at least LE1 million to publish the names of the founding members in two widely circulated dailies, seen as favoring wealthier interests.[3] Also, no parties are able to form on the basis of religion or class, ruling out the formation of Islamic and labor parties.[2] However, in practice, religious parties have been allowed. After first being denied a license by the political parties commission,[4] the Supreme Administrative Court allowed Gamaa Islamiya to form the Building and Development Party.[5] The political parties commission allowed the Al Nour Party to be approved in May 2011, in part because it does not refer to the hudud in their electoral program.[6] An article on the Daily News Egypt website states that religious parties have gone around the ban by not explicitly advocating a state based on Islam in their political programs.[7] The 2014 Egyptian constitution bans parties based on religious grounds,[8] though a similar law that was previously in effect did not bar Islamists from running in the 2012 presidential election or the 2011–12 parliamentary elections.[9]

Full List of Parties

Egyptian politics are subject to unique circumstances and often defy simple classification in terms of the political spectrum. Currently, over 100 registered political parties in Egypt exist.[10] Groups are sometimes associated with the political left or right, especially in international circles, according to their stance on issues. While the current Egyptian constitution prohibits the formation of political parties based on religion, there are parties that seek to establish Islamic sharia laws, or uphold the article in the constitution that states that sharia law is the main source of legislation, and others that support the formation of a secular state. The following is a categorization of political parties based on their social, economical, and political orientation, as well as their legal status:[11][12]

List of Political Parties in Egypt

Party name English Party name Arabic Social platform Economic platform Political platform Legal status Founded Role in 2011 Egyptian Revolution Notes
Revolutionary Guards Party[13]
Human Rights and Citizenship Party[14] حزب حقوق الانسان والمواطنة Centrism 27 September 2011[15]
New Independent Party[13] الحزب المستقل الجديد Created by former members of the National Democratic Party[13]
Popular Current Party[16] 21 September 2014[17]
Consciousness Party[18] 2011[19]
Knights of Egypt Party[20] Liberalism[20] Founded by former members of the Egyptian military[20]
National Bloc[21] لكتلة الوطنية[21] Founded by former members of the Constitution Party[21]
Arabism Egypt Party[22] Founded by Sami Anan[22]
Arabic Popular Movement[23] Founded by members of the Tamarod movement[23]
Egyptian Hope Party[24] Pragmatism[24] Founded by former members of the Constitution Party[24]
Youth for Egypt Party[25] Islamism[26] Founded by former members of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood[25]
My Homeland Egypt Party[27] Misr Baladi[27] Founded by former National Democratic Party members[27]
Bread and Freedom Party[28] Eish we Horria[28] Socialism[28] Left[28] 2013[28] Founded by former members of the Socialist Popular Alliance Party[28]
Egyptian Patriotic Movement[29] Secularism 2013[30] 2012 Founded by Ahmed Shafiq[29]
Republican People's Party[31] Liberalism[31] 1992[31]
Democratic Jihad Party[32] Islamism Centrism[32] Founded by former members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad group[32]
Egyptian Will Party[33] Founded by retired members of the Egyptian military[33]
Constitution Party El-Dostour Big tent, Liberalism Centre-left Secularism, Liberal democracy, Social democracy 2012[34] 2012 Supported Founded by Mohamed ElBaradei
Al Ansar Party[35] Islamism, Salafism[36]
Flag Party[35] Islamism, Salafism Founded by Hazem Salah Abu Ismail[35]
We Are the People Party[37] 2014[38] Founded by former members of the parliament[39]
Nubian Nile Party[40]
Homeland Party[41] Al-Watan[41] Islamism, Salafism[41] 2013[42] 2013[41] Founded by Emad Abdel Ghaffour[41]
Pioneer Party Al Riyada[43] Islamism Unregistered 2011[44] Founded by former members of the Muslim Brotherhood[45]
Victory Party El Nasr[46] Islamism, Sufism Founded by a Sufi order[46]
Arab Party for Justice and Equality[47] El Hezb el Araby lel Adl wel Mosawa[47] Arab nationalism 2011[47] Arab Bedouin tribes in Sinai and Upper Egypt
Social Peace Party[48] Al Salam el Egtemaii[48] Social liberalism 2011[48]
You Are Egyptian Party[49] Enta Masry[49] 2011[49]
Revolution Egypt Party[50] Masr El Thawra[50] Liberal democracy 2011[50]
Free Egypt Party[51] Masr el Horra[51] 2011[51]
Quiver Party[52] El Kenana 2009[52]
Voice of Freedom Party[53] Sot el Horreya[53] Islamism, Sufism Rifa’i Sufi order[54]
Workers and Peasants Party[55] el Ommal wel Fallahin Socialism[55] Left[55] Founded by Kamal Khalil[55]
Life of the Egyptians Party[56] Hayat el Masreyyn[57] Secularism[56] Founded by former MP Mohamed Abu Hamed[58]
Egyptian Alliance Party[59] 2011[59]
Equality and Development Party[60] Supported[61]
Egyptian Reform Party[62] Islamism, Salafism[62] Right Unregistered 2011[63] Young Salafis[64]
National Party of Egypt Masr el Qawmi[65] 2011[65]
Egyptian Citizen Party El Mowaten el Masri[65] Big tent 2011[65]
Egypt Renaissance Party Nahdet Masr[65] Islamism
Egypt Development Party Masr el Tanmeya[65]
Egypt Revival Party Masr el Nahda[65] Founded by Hossam Badrawi[65]
Union Party El Etehad[65] Centrism 2011[65] Founded by Hossam Badrawi[65]
Modern Egypt Party Masr el Haditha[65] Liberalism 2011[65]
Beginning Party El Bedaya[65] 2011[65]
Reform and Renaissance Party El Eslah wel Nahda[66] Islamism[66] Unregistered 2011[66]
Egyptian Change and Development Party Islamism[67] Unregistered
Islamic Party[68] Islamism[69] Far-right
Virtue Party[70] El Fadila[70] Islamism, Salafism[71][72] Right 2011[71]
Arab Unification Party[73] El Tawhid el Arabi[67] Pan-Arabism, Islamism[73] Right 2011[73]
Renaissance Party[74] El Nahda[74] Islamism, Salafism[72] Right
Authenticity Party El-Asala[72] Islamism, Salafism Far-right 2011[72]
People Party El Shaab[75] Islamism Right Unregistered 2012 Salafi Front
Egyptian Nation Party El Omma el Masreya Islamism, Salafism Right Unregistered 2012
Egypt the Future Party[76] Masr el Mostaqbal Moderate Islamism Centrism[77] 2012[78] Founded by Amr Khaled
Conference Party El Mo'tamar Liberalism Centre-left Secularism, Liberal democracy Supported by Amr Moussa, Ayman Nour[79]
New Labour Party[80] El Amal el gadid[80] Islamism, Salafist[80]
Strong Egypt Party[81] Masr Al-Qaweya Moderate Islamism Centrist Registered[82] 2012 Supported Founded by Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh
Life Party El Haya Liberalism Centrism Liberalism, Secularism, Coptic interests 2011 2011 Supported Founded by Coptic Activist Micheal Meunier
Egyptian Current Party El Tayyar el Masri Moderate Islamism Centrism Democratic Registered 2011 Supported Youths of Muslim Brotherhood
Unity Democratic Egyptian Party El Wehda el Dimoqrati el Masri Moderate Centrism Secularism, Democratic Unregistered 2012
Egyptian Arab Union Party El Etehad el Masri el Arabi Pan-Arabism Centrism Secularism Registered 2011
Justice Party[83] El Adl Liberalism Centrism Secularism Registered 2011 Supported April 6 Movement, National Association for Change, Kefaya
Arab Democratic Nasserist Party El Arabi el Dimoqrati el Nasseri Nasserism Left Secularism Registered 1992
Building and Development Party El Benaa wel Tanmeya Islamism Right Islamism Registered 2011
Al-Wasat Party El Wasat Moderate Islamism Centrism 2011[84] 1996 Supported Branching from the Muslim Brotherhood
Conservative Party El Mohafezin Liberalism Right Secularism Registered 2006
Democratic Front Party El Gabha el Dimoqrateya Liberalism Centrism Secularism Registered 2007
Democratic Generation Party El Geel el Dimoqrati Conservative Right Secularism, Liberal democracy Registered 2002 Opposed
Democratic Peace Party El Salam el Dimoqrati Conservative Right Secularism Registered 2005
Democratic Union Party El Etehad el Dimoqrati Left Secularism Registered 1990
Dignity Party El Karama Nasserism Left Secularism Supported
Egypt 2000 Party Masr 2000 Anti-globalization Secularism 2001 Opposed
Egyptian Social Democratic Party El Masry el Dimoqrati el Egtemaai Social Liberalism, Social Democracy Centre-left Secularism, Liberal Democracy 2011 Supported Founded by Mohamed Aboulghar
Egyptian Communist Party El Shoiou'i el Masri Communism Far left Secularism 1975 Supported
Egypt Youth Party Shabab Misr Conservative Right Secularism 2005
Egyptian Arab Socialist Party Masr el Arabi el Eshteraki Pan-Arabism Left 1977 Opposed
Free Egyptians Party El Masreyyn el Ahrar Liberalism Right Liberal Democracy, Capitalism, Free Market 2011 Support[85]
Light Party[67] El Nour Islamism, Salafism, Wahabism Far-right 2011 Neutral
Free Republican Party El Gomhouri el Hor Conservative Right 2006 Opposed
Free Social Constitutional Party El Dostouri el Egtemai' el Hor Conservative Right Secularism, Liberal Democracy 2004
Freedom Egypt Party Masr el Horreya Liberalism Centrism Secularism, Liberal Democracy 2011 Supported
Green Party of Egypt El Khodr Conservative Right Secularism 1990 Opposed
Liberal Egyptian Party El Masri El Liberali Secularism, Liberalism Right Pharaonism, Egyptian nationalism, Liberal Democracy Awaiting license
Liberal Socialists Party El Ahrar el Eshterakeyyn Liberalism Right 1977 Opposed
National Conciliation Party El Wifak el Watani Conservative Left Secularism 2000
National Progressive Unionist Party El Tagamou' el Watani el Taqadomi el Wehdawi Socialism Left Secularism 1977
New Wafd Party El Wafd el Gadid Liberalism Centre-right Secularism, Liberal Democracy 1978
Liberation Party Hizb ut-Tahrir Islamism Islamism Operational 1953, 1974 Founded by Taqiuddin al-Nabhani
People's Democratic Party El Shaab el Dimoqrati Conservative Right Secularism, Liberal Democracy Currently frozen 1992
Popular Socialist Alliance Party El tahalof el Shaabi el Eshteraki Socialism Far Left Secularism 2011
Reform and Development Party El Eslah wel Tanmeya Liberalism Centrism Secularism 2011
Social Justice Party El Adala el Egtemaei'a Conservative Right Registered 1993 Opposed
Egyptian Islamic Labour Party El Amal el Islami el masri Islamism, Socialism Left Suspended 1978
Socialist Party of Egypt El Eshteraki el Masri Democratic Socialism Left Secularism 2011 Supported
Solidarity Party El takafol Islamism Right 1995
Tomorrow Party El Ghad Liberalism Centrism Secularism 2004 Opposed
The Revolution's Tomorrow Ghad el Thawra Liberalism Centrism Secularism 2011 Supported
Workers Democratic Party El Ommal el Dimoqrati Socialism Left Secularism Awaiting license 2011
Young Egypt Party Masr el Fatah Islamism, Socialism Left 1990

Active Egyptian political alliances

Alliance name (English) Alliance name (Arabic) Political orientation Religious orientation Legal status Founded Member parties


Civil Democratic Movement[86] Reform and Development Misruna Party, Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Constitution Party, Justice Party, Egyptian Social Democratic Party, Dignity Party, Freedom Egypt Party, Bread and Freedom Party[86]
Egypt[87] Arab Democratic Nasserist Party, Arab Party for Justice and Equality, Democratic Generation Party, Democratic Peace Party, Egyptian Arab Socialist Party, Egyptian Patriotic Movement, My Homeland Egypt Party, Social Construction Party, Tomorrow Party, Victory Party, Voice of Egypt Party[87]
National Front Alliance[88] تحالف الجبهة الوطنية Egyptian Democratic, Nasserist Party, Future of Egypt Party, Dignity Party,[89] Tagammu Party[90]
For the Love of Egypt[91] Fee Hob Misr Free Egyptians Party,[91] New Wafd Party,[92] Nation's Future Party,[93] Conference Party,[94] Conservative Party, Tamarod, Tomorrow Party, Sadat Democratic Party,[95] Modern Egypt Party,[96] Reform and Renaissance Party[97]
Call of Egypt[98] Human Rights and Citizenship Party, We Are the People Party,[98] New Independent Party,[99] Arab Party for Justice and Equality, Homeland Defenders Party[100]
Independent Current Coalition[101] Democratic Peace Party,[102] Egyptian Arab Socialist Party[103]
Egyptian Front Modern Egypt Party, Republican People's Party,[104] National Party of Egypt, Egyptian Liberation Party,[105] Tomorrow Party,[106] Egyptian Patriotic Movement, My Homeland Egypt Party, Democratic Generation Party, Tomorrow Party[107]
Anti-Coup Alliance[108] Islamist[109] 27 June 2013[109] Building and Development Party, Freedom and Justice Party, New Labour Party, Virtue Party, Egyptian Reform Party, Authenticity Party, People Party[110]

Inactive Egyptian political alliances

Alliance name (English) Alliance name (Arabic) Political orientation Religious orientation Legal status Founded Member parties
Long Live Egypt[111] New Dawn Party, Egyptian Revolution Party[112]
Social Justice Coalition[113] Leftist[113] National Association for Change, Nasserist People's Congress Party, National Conciliation Party,[113] Revolution Egypt Party, Liberal Socialist Party, People Party, Democratic Union Party, Free Social Constitutional Party, Egypt's Future Party, Socialist Labour Party, Revolutionary Rescue Party,[114] Egyptian National Council, Greenpeace Movement, Coalition of Egyptians Abroad, National Youth Council,[115] Senior Nasserist Conference[116]
Civil Democratic Current[117] Dignity Party, Constitution Party, Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Freedom Egypt Party,[117] Popular Current Party,[118] Bread and Freedom Party,[119] Socialist Party of Egypt,[120] Egyptian Social Democratic Party[121]
Reawakening of Egypt[122] National Bloc,[123] Socialist Party of Egypt,[124] Egyptian Communist Party,[125] Civil Democratic Current,[126] Egyptian Democratic, Nasserist Party, Future of Egypt Party[89] Tagammu Party[90][127] Socialist Popular Alliance Party,[128] Justice Party,[129] Reform and Renaissance Party[130]
Leftist Alliance[131] Leftism[132] Tagammu, Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Egyptian Communist Party, Socialist Party of Egypt[131]
Egypt's Unity[133] وحدة مصر
Islamic Alliance to Support Egypt[134] إسلاميون لدعم مصر Free Front of the Islamic Group, Reform of the Islamic Group, Revolt of the Islamic Group, Brotherhood Dissidents, Brotherhood Without Violence[134]
National Alliance[135] My Homeland Egypt Party,[136] Egyptian Patriotic Movement, Democratic Generation Party,[137] Egyptian Arab Socialist Party,[103] Revolutionary Forces Bloc,[138] Free Egyptians Party[122]
Egyptian Wafd Alliance[139] New Wafd Party, Reform and Development Misruna Party, Conservative Party, Consciousness Party,[139] Arab Alliance Party, Arab Party for Justice and Equality,[140] Reform and Renaissance Party,[141]
Nation Alliance[142] Flag Party, Egyptian Reform Party, Authenticity Party, People Party, Islamic Party, Virtue Party, New Labour Party[142]
Islamist coalition[143] Islamist[143] Egyptian Nation Party[143]
Centrist Coalition[144] Unregistered Civilization Party, Wasat Party[144]
Free Nation Coalition[41] Islamist[41] Unregistered Homeland Party, Building and Development Party[145]
Independent Party Current[146] Unregistered Democratic Peace Party[146]
National Salvation Front[147] Unregistered Egyptian Social Democratic Party, New Wafd Party, Farmers General Syndicate[148]
Constitution Party, Egyptian Popular Current, Socialist Popular Alliance Party[147]
National Association for Change[149]
National Progressive Unionist Party,[150]
Conference Party, Reform and Development Misruna Party, Dignity Party[151]
Socialist Party of Egypt[152] Egypt's Future Party,[153] Democratic Generation Party, Social Peace Party, Freedom Party,[154] Freedom Egypt Party,[155] Egyptian Communist Party[156] Free Egyptians Party, Arab Democratic Nasserist Party[157]
Coalition for the Defense of Sharia[158] Islamist Islamic Unregistered Freedom and Justice Party, Building and Development Party, Al Nour Party[159]
Safety and Development Party, Authenticity Party, People Party,[160]Egyptian Reform Party[161]
Civil Democratic Movement[162] Secular[162] Unregistered Arab Democratic Nasserist Party, Democratic Front Party, Egyptian Communist Party, Free Egyptians Party, Freedom Egypt Party, Egyptian Green Party, Ghad El-Thawra Party, Life of the Egyptians Party,Liberal Constitutional Party,Liberals Party, New Wafd Party, Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Young Egypt Party[162]
Egyptian Nation Alliance[163] Social Liberalism, Liberal democracy,

Big tent

Liberal Unregistered 27 September 2012 Conference Party,[164] New Wafd Party, Free Egyptians Party[165] Socialist Party of Egypt, Egyptian Communist Party, Socialist Popular Alliance Party, Socialist Revolutionary Movement (January), Tagammu Party, Workers Democratic Party, Workers and Peasants Party, Egyptian Popular Current[166]Reform and Development Party[167]Egyptian Social Democratic Party[168]Egyptian Renaissance Party, Victory Party, Egyptian Liberation Party, Dignity Party[169]
Social Justice Coalition Secular Unregistered Egyptian Social Democratic Party, Socialist Party of Egypt, Constitution Party,Popular Coalition[77]
The Egyptian Bloc الكتلة المصرية Social Liberalism, Liberal democracy Liberal Registered 16 August 2011 Free Egyptians Party, Egyptian Social Democratic Party, Tagammu[170]
Revolutionary Democratic Coalition[171] التحالف الديمقراطي الثوري Leftism Unregistered 19 September 2012 Socialist Party of Egypt, Tagammu Party, Workers and Peasants Party, Egyptian Communist Party, Egyptian Coalition to Fight Corruption, Socialist Revolutionary Movement (January), Socialist Youth Union, Mina Daniel Movement
Coalition of the People's Representatives[172][173] Unregistered
Egyptian Popular Current التيار الشعبي المصري Big tent[174] Unregistered 21 September 2012
Moderate Current Coalition Centrism Moderate Islamism Non-registered Wasat Party, Egyptian Current, Strong Egypt, Civilization Party, Justice Party
Democratic Alliance for Egypt التحالف الديمقراطي من أجل مصر Nationalist, Islamist Mainly Islamic Registered June 2011 Democratic Generation Party, Egyptian Arab Socialist Party, Ghad El-Thawra Party, Dignity Party, Labour Party, Ahrar Party, Egyptian Reform Party, Reform and Renaissance Party, Freedom and Justice Party,Freedom and Development Party[175]
The Revolution Continues Alliance تحالف الثورة مستمرة Center-left Mainly Secular Registered 23 October 2011 Freedom Egypt Party, Egyptian Alliance Party, Equality and Development Party
Islamist Bloc الكتلة الإسلامية Far-right Islamist (hardline Salafi) Al Nour Party, Building and Development Party, Authenticity Party

See also


  1. ^ "El-Sisi sworn in as Egypt president". Ahram Online. 8 June 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  2. ^ a b "Egypt's new Political Party Law fails to please everyone". Egypt Independent. 29 March 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  3. ^ "Egypt's workers: Between party politics and unionization". Egypt Independent. 1 May 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  4. ^ "Commission denies Islamists permit to form electoral party". Egypt Independent. 19 September 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  5. ^ "Two Egypt Liberal, Islamist parties approved by Administrative Court". Egypt Independent. 10 October 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  6. ^ "Islamist leader lashes out at government's refusal to grant party license". Egypt Independent. 20 September 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  7. ^ "Salafis, dark horse of Egypt's vote, seek to assure Copts". Daily News Egypt. 2 December 2011. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  8. ^ "Peaceful final day of voting on new Egypt constitution". BBC. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  9. ^ Yussef Auf (25 November 2014). "Political Islam's Fate in Egypt Lies in the Hands of the Courts". Atlantic Council. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  10. ^ "Ahead of the parliamentary race, what's left of Egypt's political parties?". Ahram Online. 7 September 2015. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  11. ^ "Explainer: Egypt's crowded political arena". Al Jazeera English. 17 November 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  12. ^ "Egypt Elections: How would you vote? (vote compass containing position of Egyptian parties on various issues)". Al Jazeera English. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2015.
  13. ^ a b c "What's What". Connected in Cairo. Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  14. ^ "السبت..تدشين ائتلاف"نداء مصر"على غرار"نداء تونس"لخوض منافسةحزب الصرح: ائتلاف "نداء مصر" مستمر بعد الانتخاباتالبرلمانية المقبلة". Youm7. 27 December 2014.
  15. ^ "حزب حقوق الإنسان والمواطنة". State Information Service. 20 October 2011.
  16. ^ "Popular Current seeks to become new political party under youth leadership". Cairo Post. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  17. ^ "Sabahi's Popular Current turns into political party". Aswat Masriya. 21 September 2014. Retrieved 21 September 2014.
  18. ^ "Early second round results: FJP, Nour Party lists on top". Egypt Independent. 16 December 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  19. ^ "Tuesday's papers: Striking teachers attacked". Egypt Independent. 20 September 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
  20. ^ a b c "Egypt's Knights to the rescue". Mada Masr. 7 October 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  21. ^ a b c "من قيادات "الدستور" المستقيلين يشكلون "الكتلة الوطنية" لخوض الانتخابات". Al Masry Al Youm. 10 December 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2014.
  22. ^ a b "Anan will officially declare new political party". Cairo Post. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  23. ^ a b "Tamarod to announce its new political party's program". Cairo Post. 1 July 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  24. ^ a b c "Dostor members break away, form new Egyptian Hope Party for elections". Cairo Post. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  25. ^ a b "What Does the Muslim Brotherhood Want?". Al Monitor. 9 October 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  26. ^ "Brotherhood dissidents to form Islamist electoral alliance with Nour Party". Egypt Independent. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  27. ^ a b c "Al-Sisi's 'Greetings to Egypt'". Al-Ahram Weekly. 3 April 2014. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
  28. ^ a b c d e f "New socialist party launched in Egypt". Ahram Online. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  29. ^ a b "Shafiq to launch 'Egyptian Patriotic Movement' political party". Ahram Online. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  30. ^ "Political Parties Affairs Committee approves new Shafiq party". Egypt Independent. 7 January 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2013.
  31. ^ a b c "Former ministers support Moussa". Egypt Independent. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  32. ^ a b c "Ex-Jihad members to found party, back Shafiq in Egypt presidency runoff". Ahram Online. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2013.
  33. ^ a b "Military Veterans Form Party Calling For Morsi to Step Down". Al Monitor. 14 May 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2013.
  34. ^ "ElBaradei's Constitution Party legally recognised". Ahram Online. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2012.
  35. ^ a b c "Abu Ismail initiates Al-Raya Party". Daily News Egypt. 27 February 2013. Retrieved 11 March 2013.
  36. ^ "Egypt's Salafis Emerge As Powerful And Controversial Political Force". NPR. 28 January 2013. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  37. ^ "نواب من الوطني المنحل" يشكلون حزب "إحنا الشعب".. ويعلنون "30 يونيو مرجعيتهم". Al Masry al Youm. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
  38. ^ "Newly approved political party formed to 'purge' Egypt of terrorists". Mada Masr. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
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