To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

List of oldest known surviving buildings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article lists the oldest known surviving free-standing buildings constructed in the world, including on each of the continents and within each country. "Building" is defined as any human-made structure used or interface for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy. In order to qualify for this list a structure must:

  • be a recognisable building;
  • incorporate features of building work from the claimed date to at least 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) in height;
  • be largely complete or include building work to this height for most of its perimeter.
  • contain an enclosed area with at least one entry point.

This consciously excludes ruins of limited height and statues. The list also excludes:

  • dolmens, a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of three or more upright stones supporting a large flat horizontal capstone. Dolmens were typically covered with earth or smaller stones to form a tumulus (which are included in the list). In many instances, that covering has weathered away, leaving only the stone "skeleton" of the burial mound intact. Neolithic dolmens are extremely numerous, with over 1,000 reported from Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in Germany alone.[1]
  • cairns, which are simply large piles of loose stones (as opposed to chambered cairns)
  • standing stone rings, such as Stonehenge, also do not count because they are not enclosed and do not have roofs.

Dates for many of the oldest structures have been arrived at by radiocarbon dating and should be considered approximate.

By age

The following are amongst the oldest buildings in the world that have maintained the requirements to be such. Occupation sites with older human made structures such as those in Göbekli Tepe do exist, but the structures are monuments and do not meet the definition of building (which can be seen above). Many of the buildings within the list contain primarily bricks, but most importantly maintain their walls and roof. There are numerous extant structures that survive in the Orkney islands of Scotland, some of the best known of which are part of the Heart of Neolithic Orkney World Heritage Site.[2] The list also contains many large buildings from the Egyptian Age of the Pyramids.

Building Image Country Continent First Built Use Notes
Barnenez
Barnenez front2.jpg
France Europe 4850 BC Passage grave Located in northern Finistère and partially restored. According to André Malraux it would have been better named 'The Prehistoric Parthenon'. The structure is 72 m (236 ft) long, 25 m (82 ft) wide and over 8 m (26 ft) high.[3][4]
Tumulus of Bougon
Barnenez
France Europe 4700 BC Tumulus A complex of tombs with varying dates near Poitiers, the oldest being F0.[3]
Saint-Michel tumulus
Barnenez
France Europe 4500 BC Tumulus The tumulus forms what is almost an artificial hillock of more than 30,000 m3 (1,100,000 cu ft) (60 m × 125 m × 10 m (197 ft × 410 ft × 33 ft)).[5][6]
Anu ziggurat of Uruk
Anu district.svg
Iraq Asia 4000–3800 BC Ziggurat A massive White Temple was built atop of the ziggurat. Under the northwest edge of the ziggurat a Stone Temple has been discovered.
Monte d'Accoddi
Monted'accoddisardegna.png
Italy (Sardinia) Europe 4000–3650 BC[7][8] Possibly an open-air temple, or a step pyramid. A trapezoidal platform on an artificial mound, reached by a sloped causeway. New radiocarbon dating (2011) allow us to date the building of the first monument to 4000–3650 BC, the second shrine dating to 3500–3000 BC."[9]
Knap of Howar
Knapofhowarinsun.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3700 BC House Oldest preserved stone house in north west Europe.[10][11][12]
Ġgantija
Ggantija Temples, Xaghra, Gozo.jpg
Malta Europe 3700 BC Temple Two structures on the island of Gozo. The second was built four centuries after the oldest.[13][14]
Dolmen of Menga
Dolmen of Menga.jpg
Spain Europe 3700 BC Tomb A megalithic burial mound called a tumulus, a long barrow form of dolmen
West Kennet Long Barrow
Westkennet.jpg
United Kingdom (England) Europe 3650 BC Tomb Located near Silbury Hill and Avebury stone circle.[15]
Listoghil
Sligo carrowmore.jpg
Ireland Europe 3550 BC Passage Tomb At the centre of the Carrowmore passage tomb cluster, a simple box-shaped chamber is surrounded by a kerb c.34 m (112 ft) in diameter and partly covered by a cairn. It has been partly reconstructed.[16]
Stoney Littleton Long Barrow
Side of Stoney Littleton Long Barrow.jpg
United Kingdom (England) Europe 3550 BC Tomb Neolithic chambered tomb with multiple burial chambers, belonging to the Severn-Cotswold group located near Wellow, Somerset, England.[17]
Sechin Bajo
Sechin casma valley.JPG
Peru South America 3500 BC Plaza The oldest known building in the Americas.[18]
La Hougue Bie
La Hougue Bie entrance and chapel, Jersey.jpg
Jersey Europe 3500 BC Passage grave An 18.6 m (61 ft) long passage chamber. The chapel above is medieval.[19]
Midhowe Chambered Cairn
Midhowe Cairn interior - geograph.org.uk - 33776.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3500 BC Tomb A well-preserved example of the Orkney-Cromarty type on the island of Rousay.[20]
Gavrinis passage tomb
Cairn Gavrinis entrance.jpg
France Europe 3500 BC Tomb On a small island, situated in the Gulf of Morbihan.[21]
Wayland's Smithy
Wayland Smithy Long barrow.jpg
United Kingdom (England) Europe 3460 BC Chamber tomb A barrow constructed on top of an older burial chamber.[22]
Unstan Chambered Cairn
Unstan chambered cairn entrance by Bruce McAdam.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3450 BC Tomb Excavated in 1884, when grave goods were found, giving their name to Unstan ware.[23][24][25]
Knowe of Yarso chambered cairn
Knowe of Yarso Chambered Cairn 20110525.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3350 BC Tomb One of several Rousay tombs. It contained numerous deer skeletons when excavated in the 1930s.[23][26][27]
Quanterness chambered cairn
Chambered Cairn and Farm House - geograph.org.uk - 1075905.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3250 BC Tomb The remains of 157 individuals were found inside when excavated in the 1970s.[23][28]
Loughcrew
Cairn T Loughcrew.jpg
Ireland Europe 3400 BC Tomb It is the site of megalithic burial grounds dating back to approximately 3500 and 3300 BC
Tarxien Temples
Tarxien Temple
Malta Europe 3250 BC Temples Part of the Megalithic Temples of Malta World Heritage Site.[13][29]
Shahr-e Sukhteh
Shahr-e Sukhteh 20160329 02.jpg
Iran Asia 3200 BC Settlement A rich source of information regarding the emergence of complex societies and contacts between them in the third millennium[30]
Newgrange
Newgrange.JPG
Ireland Europe 3200 BC[31] Burial Partially reconstructed around original passage grave.[32]
Knowth
KnowthPS.jpg
Ireland Europe c. 3200 BC Passage grave
Dowth
View of Dowth.jpg
Ireland Europe between 3200 and 2900 BC Tomb The cairn is about 85 metres (280 ft) in diameter and 15 metres (50 ft) high.
Skara Brae
Skara Brae 12.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3180 BC Settlement Northern Europe's best preserved Neolithic village.[33]
Tomb of the Eagles
Isbister Chambered Cairn 20110524.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3150 BC Tomb In use for 800 years or more. Numerous bird bones were found here, predominantly white-tailed sea eagle.[34][35]
Tepe Sialk ziggurat
Tepe Sialk, Kashan, Irán, 2016-09-19, DD 24.jpg
Iran Asia 3000 BC Ziggurat The oldest settlements in Sialk to date to around 6000–5500 BC.[36][37] The Sialk ziggurat was built around 3000 BC.
Dolmen de Bagneux
Saumur Dolmen Bagneux 2007.jpg
France Europe 3000 BC Dolmen This is the largest dolmen in France, and perhaps the world, the overall length of the dolmen is 23 m (75 ft), with the internal chamber at over 18 m (59 ft) in length and at least 3 m (9.8 ft) high.[38][39][40]
Grey Cairns of Camster
The Grey Cairns of Camster - geograph.org.uk - 675.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3000 BC or older Tomb Located near Upper Camster in Caithness.[41][42]
Hulbjerg Jættestue
Hulbjerg Jættestue.jpg
Denmark Europe 3000 BC Passage grave The grave is concealed by a round barrow on the southern tip of the island of Langeland. One of the skulls found there showed traces of the world's earliest dentistry work.[43][44][45]
Dolmens of North Caucasus
Dolmen Russia Kavkaz Jane 3.JPG
Russia Europe 3000 BC Tomb There are numerous tombs, some perhaps originating in the Maikop culture, in the North Caucasus.[46][47]
Taversoe Tuick chambered cairn
Taversoe Tuick - geograph.org.uk - 1448330.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3000 BC Tomb Unusually, there is an upper and lower chamber.[48]
Holm of Papa chambered cairn
Inside the chambered cairn on the Holm of Papa Westray - geograph.org.uk - 1364571.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3000 BC Tomb The central chamber is over 20 m (66 ft) long.[49][50]
Barpa Langass
Entrance to Barpa Langass Chambered Cairn - geograph.org.uk - 1523313.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3000 BC Tomb The best preserved chambered cairn in the Hebrides.[51][52]
Cuween Hill Chambered Cairn
Cuween Hill, front external view, 2012 March.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3000 BC Tomb Excavated in 1901, when it was found to contain the bones of men, dogs and oxen.[53][54]
Quoyness cairn
Quoyness Chambered Cairn - geograph.org.uk - 86230.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 2900 BC Tomb An arc of Bronze Age mounds surrounds this cairn on the island of Sanday.[55]
Maeshowe
Maes Howe 1861.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 2800 BC Tomb The entrance passage is 36 feet (11 m) long and leads to the central chamber measuring about 15 feet (4.6 m) on each side.[56][57]
Shunet El Zebib
Khasekhemwy Monument (I).jpg
Egypt Africa 2700 BC Mortuary temple Built as a funerary enclosure, a place where the deceased king was worshipped and memorized.
Pyramid of Djoser
Pyramid of Djoser 2010.jpg
Egypt Africa 2667–2648 BC Burial Earliest large-scale cut stone construction.[58]
Harappa
WellAndBathingPlatforms-Harappa.jpg
Pakistan Asia 2600 BC Settlement A Bronze Age fortified city with clay sculptured houses in west of Sahiwal.[59]

The civilization, with a possible writing system, urban centers, and diversified social and economic system.

Mohenjo Daro
Mohenjo-daro-2010.jpg
Pakistan Asia 2600 BC Settlement Archeological site near Lankana, Sindh.[60]

World's earliest settlement with one and two storied brick houses, public baths, assembly halls, central marketplace and covered drains.

Dholavira
Dholavira1.JPG
India Asia 2650 BC–2100 BC Settlement A complex of ruins with varying dates at Dholavira.[61][62][63]

Brick water reservoirs, with steps, circular graves & ruins of well planned town.

Caral
Piramide de Caral.jpg
Peru South America 2600 BC Pyramid Once thought to be the oldest building in South America.[64]
Pyramid of Meidum
Pyramid of sneferu Meidum 01.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2580 BC Tomb Fourth Dynasty structure completed by Sneferu.
Bent Pyramid
Snefru's Bent Pyramid in Dahshur.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2580 BC Tomb A second structure completed by Sneferu.
Red Pyramid
Snofrus Red Pyramid in Dahshur (2).jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2580 BC Tomb Third large pyramid completed by Sneferu.[65]
Great Pyramid of Giza
Kheops-Pyramid.jpg
Egypt Africa 2560 BC Tomb Mausoleum for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu.[66] World's tallest man-made structure for over 3800 years, until Lincoln Cathedral in 1311.
Megalithic Monuments of Alcalar
MegalithicMonumentAlcalar.jpg
Portugal Europe Between 3000–2000 BC Tomb A group of burial tombs that comprise a Calcolithic necropolis.
Capel Garmon
Capel garmon 2.jpg
United Kingdom (Wales) Europe c. 2500 BC Tomb Burial chamber dating from the 3rd millennium BC, belonging to the Severn-Cotswold group.[67]
Pyramid of Khafre
Khafre's Pyramid343.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2500 BC Tomb One of the Pyramids of Giza.[68]
Pyramid of Menkaure
Menkaure's pyramid.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2500 BC Tomb Menkaure was probably Khafre's successor.
Pyramid of Userkaf
Saqqarah Ouserkaf 06.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2480 BC Tomb Located close to Pyramid of Djoser.[69]
Pyramid of Sahure
Pyramide de Sahourê Abousir.JPG
Egypt Africa c. 2480 BC Tomb Built for Sahure.[70]
Pyramid of Neferirkare Kakai
Neferefre Abusir Pyramid.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2460 BC Tomb Built for Neferirkare Kakai.[70]
Pyramid of Neferefre
Abousir Neferefre 01.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2455 BC Tomb Never completed but does contain a tomb.[70]
Pyramid of Niuserre
Pyramid of Niuserre.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2425 BC Tomb [71]
Royal Palace of Ebla
Ebla - DecArch - 2-126.jpg
Syria Asia 2400–2300 BC Palace
Pyramid of Djedkare-Isesi
Pyramid of Djedkare, Saqqara, 1990ies.png
Egypt Africa c. 2370 BC Tomb
Pyramid of Unas
Sakkara C02-29.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2340 BC Tomb [72]
Pyramid of Teti
PiramideTeti.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2330 BC Tomb
Labbacallee
Labbacallee.jpg
Ireland Europe c. 2300 BC Tomb The largest wedge tomb in Ireland.[citation needed]
Shimao China (Shaanxi) Asia 2300–2000 BC Settlement Fortified Neolithic site, centered on a large stepped pyramid with a height of 70m. [73]
Pyramid of Merenre
Pyramid of Merenre, Saqqara, 1990ies.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2275 BC Tomb Built for Merenre Nemtyemsaf I but not completed.
Pyramid of Pepi II Neferkare
PepiIIPyramid.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 2180 BC Tomb
Crantit cairn United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 2130 BC Tomb Discovered in 1998 near Kirkwall.[74][75]
Ziggurat of Ur
Iraq Asia 2100 BC Temple The Great Ziggurat of Ur was a temple built by Neo-Sumerians under king Ur-Nammu in honor of goddess Nanna. It was partially reconstructed in the 1980s under Saddam Hussein.
Dolmen de Viera
Dolmen de Viera.JPG
Spain Europe 2000 BC Tomb The Dolmen de Viera or Dolmen de los Hermanos Viera is a dolmen—a type of single-chamber megalithic tomb[76]
Dolmen of Cava dei Servi
The Cava dei Servi dolmen (Ragusa-Sicily).jpg
Italy (Sicily) Europe 2000 BC Tomb The dolmen of Cava dei Servi is a semi-oval monument formed by four rectangular slabs fixed into the ground. Three slabs are on top, leaning in such a way they reduce the surface and form a false dome.[77]
Rubha an Dùnain passage grave
Chambered Cairn at Rubh' an Dunain - geograph.org.uk - 180698.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 2000 BC or older Tomb [78][79][80]
Corrimony chambered cairn
Corrimony Chambered Cairn - 3 - 29042008.JPG
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 2000 BC or older Tomb A Clava-type passage grave surrounded by a circle of 11 standing stones.[81][82]
Bryn Celli Ddu
BrynCelliDdu3.jpg
United Kingdom (Wales) Europe 2000 BC Tomb Located on the island of Anglesey.[83]
Balnuaran of Clava
Clava Cairns - geograph.org.uk - 476673.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 2000 BC Tomb The largest of three is the north-east cairn, which was partially reconstructed in the 19th century. The central cairn may have been used as a funeral pyre.[80][84][85]
Vinquoy cairn, Eday
Vinquoy chambered tomb - geograph.org.uk - 190143.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 2000 BC Tomb [86]
Pyramid of Amenemhat I
AmenemhetIPyramid.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 1960 BC Tomb
Pyramid of Senusret I
Licht-senwsPyramids 01.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 1920 BC Tomb
Pyramid of Senusret II
SenusretIIPyramid.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 1875 BC Tomb
Knossos
Greece Europe 1850–1750 BC Palace Minoan structure on a Neolithic site.[87]
Pyramid of Senusret III
Photo-pyramide-sesostris3.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 1835 BC Tomb Built for Senusret III
Black Pyramid
BlackPyramidOfAmenemhetIII.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 1820 BC Tomb Built for Amenemhat III, it has multiple structural deficits.
Hawara
Pyramid of amenemhet hawarra 01.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 1810 BC Tomb Also built for Amenemhat III.
Pyramid of Khendjer
Khendjer-complexe-1.jpg
Egypt Africa c. 1760 BC Tomb Built for pharaoh Khendjer
Nuraghe Santu Antine
Torralba San Antine 10.JPG
Italy (Sardinia) Europe 1600 BC Possibly a fort The second tallest of these megalithic edifices found in Sardinia and tallest still standing.[88]
Su Nuraxi di Barumini
Nuraghe Su Nuraxi.jpg
Italy (Sardinia) Europe 1500 BC Possibly a fort or a palace The palace of Barumini is formed by a huge quatrefoiled nuraghe, whose central tower is its oldest construction. Originally it was almost 20 m (66 ft) high and divided into three floors.[89][90]
Nuraghe La Prisciona
Nuraghe la Prisciona.jpg
Italy (Sardinia) Europe 1400 BC Possibly a fort The monument has a central tower and 2 side towers, the former with an entrance defined by a massive lintel of 3.20 m (10.5 ft). The central chamber has a false dome, which is more than 6 m (20 ft) high.[91]
The King's Grave
Kivik Kungagraven.JPG
Sweden Europe 1400 BC Tomb Near Kivik is the remains of an unusually grand Nordic Bronze Age double burial.[92]
The Ziggurat of Dur-Kurigalzu
‘Aqar Qūf.jpg
Iraq Asia 14th century BC Probably religious rituals Built for the Kassite King Kurigalzu I.[93]
Treasury of Atreus
Treasure of Atreus.jpg
Greece Europe 1250 BC Tomb The tallest and widest dome in the world for over a thousand years.[94]
Chogha Zanbil
Choghazanbil2.jpg
Iran Asia 1250 BC Temple One of the few extant ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia.[95]
Naveta d'Es Tudons
Tudons01.jpg
Spain Europe 1200–750 BC Ossuary The most famous megalithic chamber tomb in Menorca.[96]
Dún Aonghasa
Dun Aengus 2009.jpg
Ireland Europe 1100 BC Fort Dún Aonghasa, also called Dun Aengus, has been described as one of the most spectacular prehistoric monuments in western Europe. The drystone walled hillfort is made up of 4 widely spaced concentric ramparts.[97][98]
Cuicuilco Circular Pyramid
Leading2PyramidCuicuilcoDF.JPG
Mexico North America 800–600 BC Ceremonial center One of the oldest standing structures of the Mesoamerican cultures. First steps in the creation of a sun based calendar.[99]
Van Fortress
Van kalesi.jpg
Turkey Asia 750 BC Fortress Massive Urartean stone fortification overlooking Tushpa.
Necropolises of Cerveteri and Tarquinia
TombaDadoBanditaccia.jpg
Italy Europe 700 BC Tombs These Etruscan necropolises contain thousands of tombs, some organized in a city-like plan.[100]
Temple of Cyrene
Archaeological Site of Cyrene-109021.jpg
Libya Africa c. 630 BC Temple The temple was destroyed and rebuilt around 115 AD and was damaged in the 4th century AD.
Temple of Hera
Veduta di Paestum 2010.jpg
Italy Europe 550 BC Temple Part of a complex of three great temples in Doric style.[101]
Tomb of Cyrus
CyrustheGreatTomb 22057.jpg
Iran Asia 530 BC Tomb Tomb of Cyrus the Great, located in Pasargadae
Persepolis
Persepolis001.jpg
Iran Asia 522 BC Ceremonial capital Ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire
Yeha Temple
Yeha Tigray Ethiopia.jpg
Ethiopia Africa 500 BC Temple Temple of the sun and moon.
Parthenon
The Parthenon in Athens.jpg
Greece Europe 432–447 BC Temple In the Acropolis of Athens
Tomb of Seuthes III
Tomb of Seuthes III
Bulgaria Europe 450–400 BC Tomb The tomb was originally a monumental temple at Golyama Kosmatka Mound, built in the second half of the 5th century BC. After extended use as a temple, at the later part of the 3rd century BC the Thracian king Seuthes III was buried inside.
Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak
The thracian tomb in Kazanlak from outside.jpg
Bulgaria Europe 300–400 BC Tomb Located near Seutopolis, the capital city of the Thracian king Seuthes III, and part of a large necropolis.[102]

It is one of the most elaborate tombs in the Valley of the Thracian Rulers.

Sanchi Stupa
Sanchi Stupa from Eastern gate, Madhya Pradesh.jpg
India Asia 300 BC Buddhist temple In the village of Sanchi
Thracian Tomb of Sveshtari
The Entrance to the Tomb Mound
Bulgaria Europe 300–200 BC Tomb Discovered in 1982 in a mound, this 3rd century BC Getic tomb reflects the fundamental structural principles of Thracian cult buildings. The tomb's architectural decor is considered to be unique, with polychrome half-human, half-plant caryatids and painted murals.
Dhamek Stupa
Sarnath1.jpg
India Asia 249 BC rebuilt c. 500 AD Buddhist Temple In Sarnath, Varanasi
Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor
Terracotta Army Pit 1 front rank.JPG
China Asia Began construction 246 BC, finished 208 BC Tomb Commonly known as the Terracotta Army, this is one of the largest tombs ever built. It does not only contain the entire stone army, but a complex of halls and of course the resting place of Qin Shi Huang.
Ruwanwelisaya
Ruwanwelisaya cent. 140 BC.JPG
Sri Lanka Asia 140 BC Stupa In Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka
Broch of Mousa
Mousa broch.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 100 BC Broch Located in Shetland it is among the best-preserved prehistoric buildings in Europe.[103][104]
Dun Carloway
Dun Carloway.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 100 BC Broch Built in the first century BC[105]
Maison Carrée
Maison Carree in Nimes (16).jpg
France Europe 4–7 AD Temple one of the best preserved Roman temples, in Nîmes
Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb Museum
Lei Cheng Uk Han Tomb.jpg
Hong Kong Asia 25 AD Tomb
Temple of Garni
Garni Temple 02.JPG
Armenia Asia c. 77 AD Temple
Colosseum
Colosseum in Rome, Italy - April 2007.jpg
Italy Europe 70–80 AD Amphitheatre

By continent

The following are amongst the oldest known surviving extant buildings on each of the major continents.

Building Image Country Continent First Built Use Notes
Shahr-e Sukhteh
ورودی قلعه رستم.JPG
Iran Asia 3200 BC Settlement A rich source of information regarding the emergence of complex societies and contacts between them in the third millennium[30]
Barnenez
Barnenez front2.jpg
France Europe 4850 BC Passage grave Located in northern Finistère and partially restored. According to André Malraux it would have been better named 'The Prehistoric Parthenon'. The structure is 72 m (236 ft) long, 25 m (82 ft) wide and over 8 m (26 ft) high.[3][4]
Sechin Bajo
Sechin casma valley.JPG
Peru South America 3500 BC Plaza The oldest known building in the Americas.[18][106]
Pyramid of Djoser
Pyramid of Djoser 2010.jpg
Egypt Africa 2667–2648 BC Burial Earliest large-scale cut stone construction[58]
Cuicuilco Circular Pyramid
Leading2PyramidCuicuilcoDF.JPG
Mexico North America 800–600 BC Ceremonial center One of the oldest standing structures of the Mesoamerican cultures.[99]
Wiebbe Hayes Stone Fort
The Fort - West Wallabi Island - Colour.JPG
Australia Australia 1629 AD Defensive fort Oldest known building in Australia, a defensive fort used by the survivors of the Batavia shipwreck on West Wallabi Island.[107]
Cape Adare huts
Borchgrevink Hut.jpg
Ross Dependency Antarctica 1899 AD Explorers' huts Wooden buildings constructed by Carsten Borchgrevink in Victoria Land.[108]

By country

The following are among the oldest buildings in their respective countries.

Building Image Country Continent First Built Use Notes
Weibbe Hayes Stone Fort
Ongeluckige voyagie vant schip Batavia (Plate 3).jpg
Australia Australia 1629 AD Stone Fort Old stone fort built by the survivors of the Batavia shipwreck.
Tomb of Seuthes III
Tomb of Seuthes III
Bulgaria Europe 450–400 BC Tomb The tomb was originally a monumental temple at Golyama Kosmatka Mound, built in the second half of the 5th century BC. After extended use as a temple, at the later part of the 3rd century BC the Thracian king Seuthes III was buried inside.
L'Anse aux Meadows
L'Anse aux Meadows, entrance to long house.jpg
Canada North America c. 1000 AD Settlement Located on the northernmost tip of the island of Newfoundland, the Norse settlement is widely accepted as evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact.
Hulbjerg Jættestue
Hulbjerg Jættestue.jpg
Denmark Europe 3000 BC Passage grave The Hulbjerg passage grave is concealed by a round barrow on the southern tip of the island of Langeland. One of the skulls found there showed traces of the world's earliest dentistry work.[43]
West Kennet Long Barrow
Westkennet.jpg
United Kingdom (England) Europe 3650 BC Tomb Located near Silbury Hill and Avebury stone circle.[15]
Yeha Temple
Yeha Tigray Ethiopia.jpg
Ethiopia Africa 500 BC Temple Oldest standing structure in Ethiopia
Barnenez
Barnenez front2.jpg
France Europe 4850 BC Passage grave Located in northern Finistère and partially restored. The structure is 72 m long, 25 m wide and over 8 m high.[3][4] The oldest known building in Eurasia.
Porta Nigra
Trier Porta Nigra BW 1.JPG
Germany Europe 180 AD Roman city gate It is today the largest Roman city gate north of the Alps.[109]
Knossos
Minoan Palace of Knossos.jpg
Greece Europe 2000–1300 BC Palace Minoan structure on a Neolithic site.[87]
Dholavira
Dholavira1.JPG
India Asia 2600–2100 BC Reservoir A planned urban settlement comprising reservoirs, pottery artifacts, seals, ornaments, vessels, etc.
Chogha Zanbil
Choghazanbil2.jpg
Iran Asia 1250 BC Temple One of the few extant ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia.[95]
The Ziggurat of Dur-Kurigalzu
‘Aqar Qūf.jpg
Iraq Asia 14th century BC Probably religious rituals Built by the Kassite King Kurigalzu I.[93]
Newgrange
Newgrange.JPG
Ireland Europe 3200–2900 BC Burial Partially reconstructed around original passage grave.[32]
Monte d'Accoddi
Monted'accoddisardegna.png
Italy (Sardinia) Europe 4000–3600 BC Possibly an open-air temple, a ziggurat, or a step pyramid, mastaba. "A trapezoidal platform on an artificial mound, reached by a sloped causeway."[9]
Ġgantija
Ggantija Temples (1).jpg
Malta Europe 3700 BC Temple Two structures on the island of Gozo. The second was built four centuries after the oldest.[13][14]
Cuicuilco Circular Pyramid
Leading2PyramidCuicuilcoDF.JPG
Mexico North America 800–600 BC Ceremonial center One of the oldest standing structures of the Mesoamerican cultures.[99]
Hunebed (Dolmen)
Hunebed
Hunebed
Netherlands Europe 4000–3000 BC Burial Commen theory states Hunebedden of dolmen are prehistoric burial chambers.
Mission House
Kemp House, Kerikeri, New Zealand.jpg
New Zealand 1822 AD Religious Built by Māori and missionary carpenters.[110]
Mehrgarh Pakistan Asia c. 2600 BC Mud brick storage structures A complex of ruins with varying dates near Bolan Pass.[111][112]
Sechin Bajo
Sechin casma valley.JPG
Peru South America 3500 BC Plaza The oldest known building in the Americas.[18]
Dolmens of North Caucasus
Dolmen Russia Kavkaz Jane 3.JPG
Russia Europe 3000 BC Tomb There are numerous tombs, some perhaps originating in the Maikop culture, in the North Caucasus.[113][114]
Knap of Howar
Knapofhowarinsun.jpg
United Kingdom (Scotland) Europe 3700 BC House Oldest preserved stone house in north west Europe.[10][11][12]
Naveta d'Es Tudons
Tudons01.jpg
Spain Europe 1200–750 BC Ossuary The most famous megalithic chamber tomb in Menorca.[96]
The King's Grave
Kivik Kungagraven.JPG
Sweden Europe 1000 BC Tomb Near Kivik is the remains of an unusually grand Nordic Bronze Age double burial.[115]
Hattusa
Lion Gate, Hattusa 01.jpg
Turkey Asia c. 1600 BC Ramparts and ruined buildings Capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age located near modern Boğazkale.[116]
Ancestral Puebloan communities
Dark Canyon Ruin.jpg
United States North America 750 AD Villages Pueblo construction began in 750 AD and continues to the present day. These buildings have been within the U.S. since 1848, when New Mexico was annexed.
Bryn Celli Ddu
BrynCelliDdu3.jpg
United Kingdom (Wales) Europe 2000 BC Tomb Located on the island of Anglesey.[83]
Great Zimbabwe
Great-zim-aerial-looking-West.JPG
Zimbabwe Africa 1000 AD Palace Capital of the medieval kingdom

Miscellaneous

Oldest of their type

The following are probably the oldest buildings of their type.

Building Image Location First built Use Notes
Hōryū-ji
Horyu-ji11s3200.jpg
Nara, Japan 670 AD Temple Oldest wooden building still standing.[117]
Pyramid of Djoser
Pyramid of Djoser 2010.jpg
Saqqara, Egypt 2667–2648 BC Tomb Oldest large-scale cut stone construction[58]
Luxor Temple
Luxor, Luxor Temple, south west view 2, Egypt, Oct 2004.jpg
Luxor, Egypt 1400 BC Religious The oldest standing building partly in use. There is an active mosque within the main structure, visible in the picture, that stands on the ancient pillars of the Egyptian temple.
Jokhang
Jokhang Temple in Tibet.jpg
Lhasa, China c. 639 AD Buddhist temple Perhaps the world's oldest timber frame building.[118]
Nanchan Temple
Nanchan Temple 2.JPG
Wutai, China 782 AD Buddhist Temple Its Great Buddha Hall is currently China's oldest extant timber building.
Ditherington Flax Mill
DitheringtonFlaxmillReverse.jpg
United Kingdom (England, Shrewsbury) 1797 AD Industrial The oldest iron framed building in the world.[119]
Maison Carrée
Maison Carree in Nimes (16).jpg
France 16 BC Temple The only completely preserved temple of the ancient world.[120]
Pantheon, Rome
Rudolf von Alt - Das Pantheon und die Piazza della Rotonda in Rom - 1835.jpeg
Italy 125 AD Religious Oldest standing building still in regular use.[121]
Aula Palatina
Trier - Aula Palatina.JPG
Germany 306 AD Palace basilica Contains the largest extant hall from antiquity.[109]
Greensted Church
Greensted Church North Side.jpg
United Kingdom (England) c. 1053 AD Church May be the oldest, extant wooden church in the world and the oldest, extant wooden building in Europe.[122][123]
Roykstovan in Kirkjubø
Faroe Islands, Streymoy, Kirkjubøur (1).jpg
Faroe Islands No clear date, middle of 11th century AD Farmhouse May be the oldest continuously inhabited wooden building in the world[124]
Mundeshwari Temple
Maa Mundeshwari Devi.jpg
Bihar, India conflicting accounts; between 105–320 AD Hindu Temple May be the oldest surviving (non rebuilt) Hindu temple in the world[125][126]

Other structures

The following are very old human constructions that do not fit the above criteria for a building, typically because they are ruins that no longer fit the height requirement specified above or for which the only significant above-ground elements are single large stones.

Building Image Location First Built Use Notes
Theopetra cave
Cliffs of meteora.jpg
Greece 21000 BC Stone wall The oldest known human-made structure.

The structure is a stone wall that blocked two-thirds of the entrance to the Theopetra cave near Kalambaka on the north edge of the Thessalian plain. It was constructed 23,000 years ago, probably as a barrier to cold winds.[127][128]

Tell Qaramel
Tell Qaramel vue aérienne.jpg
Syria 11000–9670 BC Towers/Village The oldest known tower structure.[129]
Göbekli Tepe
Göbekli Tepe, Urfa.jpg
Turkey 9500–8400 BC Ceremonial The oldest known human-made religious structure.[130][131]
Tower of Jericho
Tower of Jericho.jpg
Palestinian territories 8000 BC Defensive/agricultural See also Wall of Jericho.[132]
Çatalhöyük
CatalHoyukSouthArea.JPG
Turkey 7400–6200 BC Village ruins [133]
Khirokitia
Khirokitia4.jpg
Cyprus 5800–3000 BC Houses Site has reconstructions of round houses.[134]
Durankulak
Durankulak lake E31.jpg
Bulgaria 5500–5000 BC Neolithic settlement The excavations of the Paleolithic and Neolithic settlement on the Big Island in Bulgaria's Durankulak Lake first started in 1974. They discovered Paleolithic finds dating back to around 10,000 BC; and a Neolithic settlement dating back to between 5500–5400 BC and 5100–5000 BC. The settlement, which created what is said to be Europe's first stone city.[135][circular reference][136]
Perperikon
Perperikon Nenko Lazarow 131.JPG
Bulgaria 5000 BC Ancient architectural complex Perperikon is the largest megalith ensemble in the Balkans. Human activity in the area dates back to 5000 B.C. The first traces of civilization on the hill date from the Bronze Age, while the ceramics found on the place date from the Early Iron Age, as well as the impressive round altar, almost 2 m in diameter, hewn out of the rocks. At Perperikon, a twelve days' journey from the sea, Medokos called himself king of Thrace after Sitalces's death in 424 BC, but failed to hold a throne.[137][138][circular reference]
Les Fouaillages
Vue du site des Fouaillages.jpg
Guernsey 4500 BC[139] Tomb Burial mound and associated building, in use from 4500–4000 and 3000–2000 BC. Findings include pottery sherds, stone tools, jewelry, flint, and arrowheads. Originally covered by a turf mound 35m long.[140]
Tumulus de Dissignac
Tumulus Dissignac2.jpg
France 4500–4000 BC[141] Tumulus Two Dolmenic chambers are covered by 15 metre diameter tumulus with corridors 11 metres in length. Substantially rebuilt.[142]
Table des Marchand
PSM V67 D641 Table des marchands lockmariaquer brittany.png
France 4000 BC Dolmen A modern cairn has been rebuilt over the capstone and supporting pillars.[143]
Temple of Ba`alat Gebal
Byblos(js) 4.jpg
Lebanon c. 2700 BC Temple Located in the Phoenician city of Byblos, the nearby Temple of the Obelisks dates to c.1900–1600 BC.[144][145]
Pyramid of Sekhemkhet aka the Buried Pyramid
Sekhemkhet pyramid at Saqqara.jpg
Egypt c. 2630 BC Burial An unfinished Third Dynasty structure largely hidden under sand. Only the lowest step of the pyramid was constructed at the time of his death.[146]
Great Sphinx of Giza
Great Sphinx of Giza - 20080716a.jpg
Egypt 2558–2532 BC Statue The largest monolith statue in the world, possibly completed during the reign of Khafra, although the subject is controversial.[147][148]
Arkadiko Bridge
Arkadiko Mycenaean Bridge II.JPG
Greece 1300–1190 BC Bridge
King David's Palace
KDP IMG 4881.JPG
Israel 1000 BC Palace Most Likely the ruins of King David's palace.[149]
Theatre of Dionysus
Athen Akropolis (18512008726).jpg
Greece c. 580 BC Theatre [150]
Panathenaic Stadium
Kallimarmaron stadium.JPG
Greece c. 144 AD Race Course
Falkland Palace
Falkland-Palace-tennis-court.jpg
United Kingdom c. 1539 AD Tennis Court
Broad Green railway station
Broad Green railway station.jpg
United Kingdom 1830 AD Railway platform
Cragside
Burnfoot Power House. Generator, turbine, etc, Cragside Estate, Rothbury, England.jpg
United Kingdom 1870 AD Hydro-electric power station


See also

Lists

Sites

References

  1. ^ "Megaliths in Mecklenburg–Vorpommern". University of Toronto. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  2. ^ "Heart of Neolithic Orkney". UNESCO. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  3. ^ a b c d Chris Scarre, Roy Switsur, Jean-Pierre Mohen (1993) "New radiocarbon dates from Bougon and the chronology of French passage-graves". Antiquity/The Free Library. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  4. ^ a b c Gibson, Marion; Trower, Shelley; Tregidga, Garry (2013) Mysticism, Myth and Celtic Identity. Routledge. Abingdon. p. 133
  5. ^ "The Saint-Michel Tumulus". Culture.gouv.fr. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  6. ^ "Saint-Michel tumulus". Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 11 September 2013.
  7. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2014-06-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Delfino, Carlo (ed) (2000) "The Prehistoric Altar of Monte d'Accoddi" Archived 2012-05-19 at the Wayback Machine. (pdf) Archaeological Sardinia. 29. Retrieved 14 October 2013. p. 45.
  9. ^ a b Blake, Emma; Arthur Bernard Knapp (2004). The archaeology of Mediterranean prehistory. Wiley Blackwell. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-631-23268-1. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
  10. ^ a b "Knap of Howar" Historic Scotland. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  11. ^ a b "The Knap o' Howar, Papay". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  12. ^ a b Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn. p. 40.
  13. ^ a b c "Megalithic Temples of Malta". UNESCO. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  14. ^ a b Mcintosh, Jane (2009). Handbook of Life in Prehistoric Europe. Oxford University Press. pp. 261–62. ISBN 9780195384765. Retrieved 2012-08-12.
  15. ^ a b "West Kennet Long Barrow, Avebury" English Heritage. Retrieved 15 July 2012.
  16. ^ Alastair Whittle, Frances Healy & Alex Bayliss. Gathering time: dating the Early Neolithic enclosures of southern Britain and Ireland. 2 volumes. 2011. Oxford: Oxbow; 978-1-84217-425-8
  17. ^ "Stoney Littleton Long Barrow". English Heritage. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  18. ^ a b c McDonnell, Patrick J. (February 26, 2008) "A new find is the Americas' oldest known urban site". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  19. ^ "La Hougue Bie". Wondermondo. 2011-03-31. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  20. ^ "The Midhowe Stalled Cairn, Rousay". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  21. ^ Milisauskas, Sarunas (2002) European Prehistory: A Survey. Birkhäuser p. 231
  22. ^ "Wayland's Smithy". English Heritage. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  23. ^ a b c Fraser, David (1980) Investigations in Neolithic Orkney. Glasgow Archaeological Journal. 7 p. 13. ISSN 1471-5767
  24. ^ "Unstan Chambered Cairn". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  25. ^ Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn. p. 48
  26. ^ "Rousay, Knowe of Yarso". Canmore. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  27. ^ Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn. pp. 56–57
  28. ^ Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn. p. 50
  29. ^ Cilia, Daniel (2004-04-08). "Tarxien". The Megalithic temples of Malta. Retrieved 2007-07-07.
  30. ^ a b "Shahr-i Sokhta".
  31. ^ "Newgrange Stone Age Passage Tomb – Boyne Valley, Ireland". www.newgrange.com. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  32. ^ a b O'Kelly, Michael J. 1982. Newgrange: Archaeology, Art and Legend. London: Thames and Hudson. Page 13.
  33. ^ Clarke, David (2000) Skara Brae; World Heritage Site. Historic Scotland. ISBN 1900168979
  34. ^ "Tomb of the Eagles" tomboftheeagles.co.uk. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
  35. ^ Hedges, J. 1990. Tomb of the Eagles: Death and Life in a Stone Age Tribe. New Amsterdam Books. ISBN 0-941533-05-0 p. 73
  36. ^ Fazeli, H., Beshkani A., Markosian A., Ilkani H., Young R. L. 2010 The Neolithic to Chalcolithic Transition in the Qazvin Plain, Iran: Chronology and Subsistence Strategies: in Archäologische Mitteilungen Aus Iran and Turan 41, pp. 1–17
  37. ^ Matthews, R. and Nashli, H. F., eds. 2013 The Neolithisation of Iran: the formation of new societies. British Association for Near Eastern Archaeology and Oxbow Books, Oxford, pp272.
  38. ^ "The Loire Dolmens, France". Archived from the original on 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2012-09-01.
  39. ^ "Le Grand Dolmen de Bagneux".
  40. ^ "The Modern Antiquarian: Le Grand Dolmen de Bagneux".
  41. ^ "Grey Cairns of Camster". Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  42. ^ "Grey Cairns of Camster". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  43. ^ a b Danish National Museum Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 12 July 2012
  44. ^ Gron, Ole "The World's Oldest Root-canal Work" Archived 2016-07-12 at the Wayback Machine. Kulturarv.dk. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  45. ^ "Hulbjerg Jættestue". The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  46. ^ http://lah.ru/fotoarh/megalit/rus/kavkaz.htm
  47. ^ Markovin, V.I. "western Caucasian Dolmens". (pdf) Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia. 41, no. 4 (Spring 2002), pp. 68–88
  48. ^ "The Taversoe Tuick, Rousay"[permanent dead link] Orkneyjar. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  49. ^ "Info Board, Holm of Papa Westray Cairn" Wikimedia Commons/Historic Scotland. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  50. ^ Wickham-Jones, Caroline (2007) Orkney: A Historical Guide. Edinburgh. Birlinn pp. 62–63
  51. ^ "North Uist, Barpa Langass". Canmore. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  52. ^ Armit, Ian (1996) The archaeology of Skye and the Western Isles. Edinburgh University Press/Historic Scotland. p. 71
  53. ^ "The Cuween Hill Cairn, Firth". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  54. ^ "Cuween Hill Chambered Cairn". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  55. ^ "The Quoyness Cairn, Sanday". Orkneyjar. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  56. ^ Childe, V. Gordon; W. Douglas Simpson (1952). Illustrated History of Ancient Monuments: Vol. VI Scotland. Edinburgh: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. pp.18–19
  57. ^ Ritchie, Graham & Anna (1981). Scotland: Archaeology and Early History. New York: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-27365-4. p. 29
  58. ^ a b c Shaw, Ian, ed (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 480. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
  59. ^ "Archaeological Site of Harappa"
  60. ^ "Archaeological Site of Mohen-Jo-Daro"
  61. ^ Subramanian, T S (5–18 June 2010). "The rise and fall of a Harappan City". Frontline. 27 (12). Archived from the original on 28 April 2013. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
  62. ^ Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark. Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Oxford University Press. 1998
  63. ^ "Will Dholavira ruins rewrite history of ancient theatre? by Robin David". Times of India. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  64. ^ "Oldest evidence of city life in the Americas reported in Science, early urban planners emerge as power players". American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  65. ^ "King Snefru: The First Great Pyramid Builder" Archived 2012-04-01 at the Wayback Machine. Fathom. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  66. ^ "Egyptian researchers claim to have exact date for Great Pyramid". Ria Novosti. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  67. ^ "Capel Garmon Burial Chamber". Cadw. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  68. ^ "Pyramid of Chefren". SkyscraperPage. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  69. ^ Winston, Alan "The Pyramid Complex of Userkaf at Saqqara". Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  70. ^ a b c Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 480. ISBN 978-0-19-815034-3.
  71. ^ Lehner, Mark (1997) The Complete Pyramids London: Thames and Hudson pp. 148–49 ISBN 0-500-05084-8
  72. ^ Jaromir Malek, "The Old Kingdom (c. 2160–2055 BCE)" in Ian Shaw (editor) (2000) The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: University Press. p. 112
  73. ^ [1]
  74. ^ "C14 Radiocarbon dating for Crantit" Canmore. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  75. ^ "Crantit" Canmore. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  76. ^ http://www.nuevaacropolismalaga.org/archives/malaga/dolmenes_de_antequera.php
  77. ^ Salvatore Piccolo, Ancient Stones: the Prehistoric Dolmens in Sicily, Brazen Head Publishing, Thornam/Norfolk (UK) 2013.
  78. ^ Armit, Ian (1996) The archaeology of Skye and the Western Isles. Edinburgh University Press/Historic Scotland. p. 73
  79. ^ "Skye, Rubh' An Dunain, 'Viking Canal' ". Canmore. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  80. ^ a b "The Cairns of Clava, Scottish Highlands". The Heritage Trail. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  81. ^ "Corrimony Chambered Cairn & RSPB Nature Reserve". Glen Affric.org. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  82. ^ "Corrimony Chambered Cairn". Historic Scotland. Retrieved 21 July 2012.
  83. ^ a b "Bryn Celli Ddu". Ancient Britain Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  84. ^ "A Visitors' Guide to Balnuaran of Clava: A prehistoric cemetery. (2012) Historic Scotland.
  85. ^ Bradley, Richard (1996) Excavation at Balnuaran of Clava, 1994 and 1995. Highland Council.
  86. ^ Uney, Graham (2010) Walking on the Orkney and Shetland Isles: 80 Walks in the Northern Isles. Cicerone Press. p. 71
  87. ^ a b "Knossos". Interkriti. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  88. ^ "Nuraghe Santu Antine e Museo della Valle dei Nuraghi". Museo Valle de Inuraghi. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  89. ^ "Su Nuraxi di Barumini". Google World Wonders. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  90. ^ "Su Nuraxi di Barumini". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  91. ^ "Nuraghe la Prisgiona -Arzachena Costa Smeralda". Beepworld. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  92. ^ Goldhahn, Joakim (2005) Bredarör i Kivik. Department of Archaeology, University of Gothenburg. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  93. ^ a b J A Brinkman, Materials and Studies for Kassite History Vol I: A Catalogue of Cuneiform Sources Pertaining to Specific Monarchs of the Kassite Dynasty, Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1976, ISBN 0-918986-00-1
  94. ^ "Treasury of Atreus" Structurae.de. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  95. ^ a b "Chogha Zanbil" The Megalithic Portal. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  96. ^ a b "Naveta des Tudons". MenorcaWeb.com. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  97. ^ "Dun Aonghasa". Archaeology Travel. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  98. ^ "Dún Aonghasa" Archived 2016-04-10 at the Wayback Machine. The Discovery Programme. Retrieved 8 August 2012
  99. ^ a b c "Zona Arqueológica Cuicuilco". Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. (Spanish). Retrieved 12 July 2012
  100. ^ "Necropolises of Cerveteri and Tarquinia". UNESCO. Retrieved 20 August 2012.
  101. ^ "Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park with the Archeological sites of Paestum and Velia, and the Certosa di Padula". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  102. ^ "Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  103. ^ Fojut, Noel (1981)"Is Mousa a broch?" Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot. 111 pp. 220–228.
  104. ^ Armit, I. (2003) Towers in the North: The Brochs of Scotland. Stroud. Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-1932-3 p. 15.
  105. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-14. Retrieved 2012-08-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  106. ^ "Senchin Bajo – Plaza in Peru may be the America's oldest urban site". Gogeometry.com. Retrieved 12 July 2012
  107. ^ Elder, Bruce (2005). "The Brutal Shore". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  108. ^ "Historic Huts in the Antarctic from the 'Heroic Age'." Antarctic-Circle.org. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  109. ^ a b "Roman Monuments, Cathedral of St Peter and Church of Our Lady in Trier".
  110. ^ "Kemp House. Kerikeri.co.nz. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  111. ^ Jarrige, J. F. (1979). "Excavations at Mehrgarh-Pakistan". In Johanna Engelberta Lohuizen-De Leeuw (ed.). South Asian archaeology 1975: papers from the third International Conference of the Association of South Asian Archaeologists in Western Europe, held in Paris. Brill. pp. 76–87. ISBN 978-90-04-05996-2. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
  112. ^ "Archaeological Site of Mehrgarh". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  113. ^ http://lah.ru/fotoarh/megalit/rus/kavkaz.htm
  114. ^ Markovin, V.I. "western Caucasian Dolmens". (pdf) Anthropology & Archeology of Eurasia. 41, no. 4 (Spring 2002), pp. 68–88
  115. ^ Goldhahn, Joakim (2005) Bredarör i Kivik. Department of Archaeology, University of Gothenburg.
  116. ^ Hattusha: the Hittite Capital. UNESCO. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  117. ^ "Buddhist Monuments in the Horyu-ji Area, UNESCO World Heritage". Retrieved 2016-10-05.
  118. ^ Alexander, André (2006) "The Lhasa Jokhang – is the world's oldest timber frame building in Tibet?" Web Journal on Cultural Patrimony. University of Napoli. ISSN 1827-8868
  119. ^ Jones, Nigel (2005). Architecture of England, Scotland, and Wales. England: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 92. ISBN 978-0-313-31850-4. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  120. ^ "Maison Carrée | Avignon et Provence".
  121. ^ Pantheon", Oxford English Dictionary, Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, revised December 2008
  122. ^ Historic England. "Details from listed building database (1124095)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  123. ^ "Early church date". British Archaeology (December 1995) No 10.
  124. ^ Jákupsson, Bárður (1989). "Múrurin og onnur fornminnið í Kirkjubø" (PDF). Søvn Landsins. Føroya Fornminnisavn. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
  125. ^ http://oborge.com/oldest-hindu-temple-world/
  126. ^ http://www.navhindtimes.in/iwatch/oldest-temple-india
  127. ^ http://news.discovery.com/history/oldest-man-made-structure-found-in-greek-cave.html
  128. ^ "Caves of Greece: Theopetra Cave".
  129. ^ Mazurowski, R.F. (2006). "Tell Qaramel (Syria)".
  130. ^ "Gobekli Tepe, Turkey – Overview". Global Heritage Fund. Retrieved 10 July 2012.
  131. ^ "The World's First Temple". (Nov/Dec 2008) Archaeology. Volume 61, Number 6.
  132. ^ O'Sullivan, Arieh (14 February 2011) "World’s first skyscraper sought to intimidate masses". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  133. ^ "Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük". UNESCO. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  134. ^ Mitsis, F.J.; Taramidis, G.(1995) "Alveolar bone loss on neolithic man remains on 38 skulls of Khirokitia's (Cyprus) inhabitants". Journal of Clinical Periodontology. Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  135. ^ Durankulak
  136. ^ "Durankulak Lake Paleolithic & Neolithic Settlement – Durankulak, Bulgaria".
  137. ^ Christopher Webber and Angus McBride, The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms), 2001, page 6: "... after Sitalkes' death, Xenophon would find that Medokos (based at Perperikon, twelve days' journey inland from the sea) called himself the king of Thrace. Medokos however was unable to stop Seuthes..."
  138. ^ Perperikon
  139. ^ "Archaeological Sites of Guernsey". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  140. ^ "Les Fouaillages site information sign". Retrieved 4 June 2015.
  141. ^ "The Tumulus of Dissignac | Saint Nazaire | Loire-atlantique". Guide2 Pays de la Loire. Retrieved 10 September 2013.
  142. ^ "Dissignac Tumulus".
  143. ^ "Dolmen dit Table-des-Marchands". Culture.gouv.fr. Retrieved 13 July 2012.
  144. ^ "The Temple of Baalat Gebal, the Lady of Byblos'." Archived 2012-07-17 at the Wayback Machine Hethert.org. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  145. ^ "Byblos". UNESCO. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
  146. ^ Jaromir Malek (2002) 'The Old Kingdom' in The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt by Ian Shaw (ed.) Oxford University Press. p. 92
  147. ^ Dunford, Jane; Fletcher, Joann; French, Carole (ed., 2007). Egypt: Eyewitness Travel Guide Archived 2009-02-18 at the Wayback Machine. London: Dorling Kindersley, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7566-2875-8.
  148. ^ "Great Sphinx of Giza". Emporis. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
  149. ^ Erlanger, Steven (24 August 2005) "King David's palace found? Scholars differ". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  150. ^ "Theatre of Dionysus". This is Athens. Retrieved 2020-07-08.
This page was last edited on 17 November 2020, at 18:03
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.