To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

List of oldest heraldry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Heraldry developed in the High Middle Ages based on earlier traditions of visual identification by means of seals, field signs, emblems used on coins, etc. Notably, lions that would subsequently appear in 12th-century coats of arms of European nobility have pre-figurations in the animal style of ancient art (specifically the style of Scythian art as it developed from c. the 7th century BC).[1]

The origin of the term heraldry itself (Middle English heraldy, Old French hiraudie), can be placed in the context of the early forms of the knightly tournaments in the 12th century. Combatants wore full armour, and identified themselves by wearing their emblems on their shields. A herald (Old French heraut, from a Frankish *hariwald "commander of an army") was an officer who would announce the competitors. The display of heraldic emblems on shields is an innovation of the 12th century. The kite shields shown in the Bayeux Tapestry (c. 1070) sometimes show simple cross or spiral ornaments, but no heraldic emblems. Similarly, Frankish or German round shields of the 11th century (Ottonian, Salian) are sometimes depicted with simple geometric ornamentation, but not with figurative emblems.[2] Early mention of heraldic shields in Middle High German literature likewise dates to the 12th century.[3]

In some cases, the adoption of a symbol on a coat of arms was the culmination of a gradual progression, whereby a family can be seen using a symbol in a quasi-heraldic manner prior to its adoption as part of a formal coat. An example of this are the Counts of Saint-Pol, who between 1083 and 1130 decorated their coins with wheat sheafs that are then found on the equestrian seal of Count Engueraud (1141–50) placed in the blank space surrounding the mounted knight, before appearing on the shield of count Anselm and his successors from 1162. Similarly, the fleur-de-lis progressed from use as a decorative emblem by Henry I of France (1031–60) to then be displayed as a quasi-heraldic symbol by Louis VI, Louis VII, and Philip II (1180-1223) before becoming the charge of the French royal arms under the last of these kings.[4] Lions were used as heraldic emblems by Henry "the Lion" (before 1146), and Alfonso VII of León (d. 1157),[5] and probably by Henry I of England (d. 1135),[6] in the first half of the 12th century, and lions later appear on the coats of arms of their respective realms.

The oldest surviving heraldic seals are the equestrian seals (German: Reitersiegel) used by high nobility in the second half of the 12th century. Among the oldest examples from the Holy Roman Empire, of what would develop into German heraldry, is the lion (or "leopard") of the Staufer coat of arms, first used before 1146 by Henry "the Lion", and in 1181 on the seal of Frederick VI of Swabia.[7] Similar seals are known from England, one of the oldest being the equestrian seal of King Richard Lionheart of the House of Plantagenet, dated 1189, showing a heraldic lion design on the king's shield. His second seal, dated 1198, shows the three lions design which would subsequently become the royal coat of arms of England.

The earliest known colored heraldic representation appears on the funerary enamel of Geoffrey of Anjou (d. 1151), showing a coat of arms that appears to be the same as one later used by some of his descendants. Depiction of heraldic shields in manuscript miniatures becomes more common in the early-to-mid 13th century, and dedicated armorials become fashionable in the mid-to-late 13th century.

Year Contemporary depiction Modern interpretation Attribution
1135
Ralph I, Count of Vermandois: A gonfanon is found on an equestrian seal dated to 1135 that depicts a chequy pattern, though the shield face is not visible in the seal and so there is no evidence that Ralph himself bore arms. This seal is of note only because the direct descendants of Ralph I would later adopt for arms, Chequy Or and azure; the descendants of his nephew Waleran de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Worcester would adopt, Chequy Or and gules.
1138
Waleran de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Worcester: The earliest known armorial seal in England or Normandy is attributed to Waleran de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Worcester. The seal dates to 1138, in which Worcester bears arms chequy. The descendants of Worcester would adopt for arms, Chequy Or and gules. Worcester's brother and their descendants bear, Chequy Or and azure.[8] Worcester is the nephew of Ralph I, Count of Vermandois that bears, Chequy Or and azure.
1138
Theobald II, Count of Champagne: An equestrian seal depicts what could be interpreted as an escarbuncle, however, the seal may simply be depicting braces that were commonly added to shields for reinforcement. Such braces are believed to be the origin of the heraldic escarbuncle.
1138-1161
Robert III de Vitré: An equestrian seal showing a shield with a sixteen-armed escarbuncle, but this may be a depiction of braces rather than a heraldic device.
1141
Enguerrand de Campdavaine, Count of Saint-Pol: In a seal dated to 1141, Saint-Pol can be seen on horseback surrounded by several garbs of wheat. The descendants of Saint-Pol would later adopt, Azure a garb of what Or as their armorial bearings.
1143-1151
Humbert III, Count of Savoy: It is speculated that the cross of Savoy may have been adopted as a symbol by Amadeus III while on campaign during the Second Crusade, leading to his son Humbert III assuming the same symbol after succeeding his father. The cross of Savoy has been used on seals dated to 1143-1151. There are also two seals that depict Savoy with a shield bearing an eagle.
1146
Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria: A total of seven seals of Henry's are known. Of these, only the second shows a recognizable lion displayed on his shield. This seal is attached to two documents dated to 1146. It is possible that the lion was also on the first seal (c. 1142), but it is no longer recognizable.[9] The lion remained a symbol of the descendants of Henry, with the ancient House of Welf first adopting Or a lion rampant azure before the modern house took up Or a lion rampant sable for their arms.
1146
Gilbert fitz Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke: The seals of this uncle and nephew show variants of a common de Clare motif, with Pembroke using a chevrony coat also used by Hertford's sister, while Hertford's seal displays a simplified coat with three chevrons that would be used by Pembroke's son and the later Hertford earls. The charters to which the seals are attached are undated, but placed contextually no later than 1146.[10]
1146
Gilbert FitzRichard de Clare, 1st Earl of Hertford: The seals of this uncle and nephew show variants of a common de Clare motif, with Pembroke using a chevrony coat also used by Hertford's sister, while Hertford's seal displays a simplified coat with three chevrons that would be used by Pembroke's son and the later Hertford earls. The charters to which the seals are attached are undated, but placed contextually no later than 1146.[10]
1150
Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona: A pattern of red and gold striping is seen in the decoration of the tomb of countess Ermesinde in the mid-11th century (whether the colouring is original is disputed), and the same motif would be adopted for the arms of the dynasty of the counts of Barcelona and of the Principality of Catalonia and Crown of Aragon.
1150 Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Provence: Seems to be a break in the coat of arms of his uncle Ramon Berenguer IV of Barcelona, regent of Provence, who therefore had to wear the shield with four pales from before 1150.
1150-1194
Sancho Garcés VI, King of Naverre: The equestrian seal of Sancho VI, which must predate his 1194 death, includes a coat of arms.
1155-1160
Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou: Appearing on funerary enamel commissioned by Geoffrey's widow Mathilda of England between 1155 and 1160 for his tomb (Le Mans Cathedral). The enamel shows four lions on the visible half of the shield, but is generally accepted as representing the same six-lion coat depicted on his grandson William Longespee's tomb effigy and known to have had the same tinctures. A late-12th-century chronicler wrote that in 1128, King Henry I presented to Geoffrey a badge of a gold lion.[11]
1155
Bouchard II, Seigneur of Guise: Guise holds a shield charged with un águila rodeada de un radio de carbunclo[12]
1156
Henry II, Duke of Austria: A seal shows Henry bearing an eagle upon his shield.[13]
1156 Henry the Young King: Son of Godfrey V of Anjou, uncle of Richard I of England. "A lion".[14][15]
1160
Ottokar III of Styria: An equestrian seal of similar antiquity is that of Ottokar III of Styria, dated 1160, with an early form of the Styrian panther on his shield.
1160
William I de Garlande, Seigneur en Brie: An equestrian seal.
1162
Philip I, Count of Flanders: Although the various seals and counter-seals of Philippe d'Alsace represent a lion either rampant or contorted.
1163 William FitzEmpress: The seal of William, son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, is attached to a charter dated about 1163. It shows a single lion on both shield and livery, and may be the earliest representation of the arms later to appear on Richard I's first seal.[16]
1167
Frederick V, Duke of Swabia: Frederick V is known to have displayed a lion rampant from 1167.
1177
Matthew I of Montmorency: From a seal.
1178
Raynald II, Count of Soissons: From a seal.
1180
Henry I, Count of Champagne: Douët d'Arcq specifies "It seems that one can see a carbuncle spoke on the shield", in this case as on that of his father Thibaud IV; see above 1138.
1181
Henry II, Count of Champagne: clarified band with potent and counter-potent cotices his brother and successor Thibaud III wears only two simple cotices in 1198; see above 1198.
1181 Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia: Frederick VI is known to have displayed a lion rampant from 1181. His reitersiegel, dated 1188, shows a shield charged with two lions rampant. Frederick's younger brother, Philip of Swabia used three lions passant as seen on a seal dated 1197. The three lions are later (after 1220) are used as the arms of the Staufer after 1220, and later still as the coat of arms of Swabia.[17]
1185-1199
John, King of England: John used a heraldic seal with two lions passant during his tenure as Lord of Ireland before becoming King of England. These he adopted during the last years of the reign of his father, and continued to use the seal during that of his brother Richard. On succession to the throne, he adopted his brother Richard's three-lion coat.[18]
1189
Mathieu III de Beaumont: alias gules, a lion argent, Rietstap.
1189
King Richard the Lionheart: The first documented royal coat of arms of England. With only half of the shield visible, it is unclear if the unseen half had a second lion or if only the visible lion was present, and if the latter, whether the direction the lion faced was relevant or simply reflected artistic licence. Colours are unknown, but several close kin of his father used arms with one or more gold lions on a red background, so these were perhaps the tinctures of this shield.
1190 Ralph I, Lord of Coucy: Rietstap.
1191 Raoul I of Lusignan: it is clearly specified "burly of eight pieces, with the label of five pendants". His successors will wear a "burly of ten pieces, with the label of three pendants".
1192
Ansel de Garlande: DA {{#}}2259, {{#}}2260, Wijnbergen {{#}}32.
1192/93
Welf VI, Welf VII: Heraldic lion in sandstone at Steingaden Abbey, presumably as funerary monument for Welf VI of Bavaria (d. 1191), margrave of Tuscany and duke of Spoleto, of the House of Welf, and his pre-deceased son Welf VII (d. 1167). The original monument consists of the lion on its own, the escutcheon outline was added in the later 13th century. The lion was originally colored blue. The gravestone is considered as the oldest heraldic monument in Germany. The Bavarian National Museum, Munich, where it is located today, estimates that it was created in the years after the death of Welf VI. around 1192/93. However, it is sometimes considered possible that it might have been created after the son's death (1167). But it was not until 1176 that the Romanesque monastery church was consecrated.
1193
Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut: Counter-seal, coat of arms.[citation needed]
1194 Gérard, seigneur de Saint-Aubert: On the seal, the shield bears a border.[19]
1194
Geoffrey III, Count of Perche: Unseal dating from 1194 shows two chevrons[N. 1][citation needed]
1194
Canute VI of Denmark: The seal of Canute VI, dated c. 1194, shows an early form of what would become the family coat of arms of the House of Estridsen, and in modern times the coat of arms of Denmark, coat of arms of Tallinn and the coat of arms of Estonia.[20]
1196
John, Count of Corbeil: Equestrian seal, shield with besanté border. The seal is interesting especially because it is the last in France representing a nasal helmet. The edging may just be a reinforcement of the shield.[citation needed]
1197
Baldwin V, Count of Hainaut:
1197
Roger de Meulan, Viscount d'Évreux: DA {{#}}2834. As early as 1195, its first non-heraldic seal bears a natural lion passing bypassed (DA {{#}}|2833)[21] · [N. 2] The colors are hypothetical but plausible since they are identical to that of his brother-in-law Simon III de Montfort, count of Évreux, as well as the old arms of the city of Bernay in Eure.
1197
Philip of Swabia: Philip of Swabia used three lions passant as seen on a seal dated 1197
1197
Geoffrey III, Count of Perche: This other seal from 1197 shows three chevrons (DA {{#}}999).
1198
King Richard the Lionheart: Richard's 2nd Great Seal of the Realm (reverse) (several surviving exemplars in England and France). The colours are unknown, but likely matched the coat used by his successors, with three gold lions on red, which remain the arms of England.
1198
Theobald III, Count of Champagne: DA {{#}}570. A fine example of a break with his brother and predecessor Henry II. see 1181 above.
1199
Walter II d'Avesnes, Seigneur d'Avesnes, Leuze, Count et de Guise: His father and brother, both named Jacques, may have worn this shield from 1188.[N. 3]
1199
William, Count of Clermont and Montferrand: DA {{#}} 383. His descendants will take the title of dolphin of Auvergne and will affix it to their shield.
1208-1216
Ferdinand II of León: The lion had long been a canting representation of the kingdom of Leon, and its use as an emblem by King Alfonso VII (1126-1157) was reported in the contemporary Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris,[5] though the details of this lion are not provided. An illustration of Ferdinand II of Leon in the "Tumbo A" manuscript, a cartulary of Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, thought to have been drawn during his life, shows the monarch carrying a shield bearing an uncolored lion, while underneath the king a purple lion is shown, together apparently representing proto-heraldic use of a lion emblem. Later in the same manuscript in an illustration dated between 1208 and 1216, Alfonso IX is depicted with a true heraldic device, a shield with purple lion on a silver background that would be used by his son Ferdinand III as personal arms before being quartered with those of the Kingdom of Castile to represent the union of the two kingdoms.[22]
1208-1216
Alfonso IX of León: The lion had long been a canting representation of the kingdom of Leon, and its use as an emblem by King Alfonso VII (1126-1157) was reported in the contemporary Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris,[5] though the details of this lion are not provided. An illustration of Ferdinand II of Leon in the "Tumbo A" manuscript, a cartulary of Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, thought to have been drawn during his life, shows the monarch carrying a shield bearing an uncolored lion, while underneath the king a purple lion is shown, together apparently representing proto-heraldic use of a lion emblem. Later in the same manuscript in an illustration dated between 1208 and 1216, Alfonso IX is depicted with a true heraldic device, a shield with purple lion on a silver background that would be used by his son Ferdinand III as personal arms before being quartered with those of the Kingdom of Castile to represent the union of the two kingdoms.[22]
1220
36 Polish families: Świerczek, Polish noble coat of arms belonging to many families that lived and still live in Poland. The oldest known mention of this coat of arms is a seal from 1220.[23] Historically, this coat of arms was used by 36 Polish noble families.[24]
1231-1240
Conrad of Thuringia: The depiction of heraldic designs on actual cavalry shields (knightly shields), the historical origin of the escutcheon, no doubt date to their depiction on seals in the 12th century. However, this artefact type is very rarely preserved, and the oldest extant examples date to the first half of the 13th century. An early example is the shield of Conrad of Thuringia (c. 1230), showing the Ludovingian lion barry (later the coat of arms of Hessen and Thuringia). In the lower left corner there is a small coat of arms of the Teutonic Order. Exhibited in Marburg Castle.
1237
Ferdinand III of Castile: Ferdinand III had previously used his father's lion arms as his personal coat on the front of his seal, while on the back displayed the arms of Castile to represent the kingdom he ruled through maternal inheritance. When he succeeded his father, he combined the two arms to represent the union of the two kingdoms, creating the earliest known quartered arms, an innovation in heraldic representation that would rapidly propagate throughout Europe.[22]
c. 1260 Burgher arms: Italian merchants and bankers first adopt heraldic emblems in the mid 13th-century.[25]
1278
Polish clan arms: Alabanda is one of the oldest coat of arms in Poland. The oldest known image of this coat of arms is the seal of two brothers, Stefan Kobylagłowa and Strzeżywoj Kobylagłowa.[26] Historically, this coat of arms was used by 9 Polish noble families.[27][28][26]
1282
Topór is one of the oldest Polish coats of arms. The oldest known image is the seal of Żegota, the Kraków voivode.[29] Historically, this coat of arms was used by 639 Polish noble families.[30]
1294
Pope Boniface VIII: Popes of the late medieval and early modern period used their family coats of arms (the earliest exception being Nicholas V, r. 1447–1455). The coat of arms of Boniface VIII (r. 1294–1303), an early form of the Caetani coat of arms, happens to be the first coat of arms used by a pope preserved in a contemporary depiction.

[31]

1290s
Diocese of Ely: Possibly the earliest documented coat of arms for a diocese.[32]
1315
Brno, Moravia, Czech Republic: The oldest known civic arms which were assumed in 1315 shows show four bars, red and silver. These arms would not be officially granted until February 3, 1645 by Emperor Frederik III of Austria.[33]
c. 1340
Burgher arms (Holy Roman Empire): The earliest coats of arms taken by non-nobles, mostly families of the patriciate of imperial cities (Bürgerwappen), but also free farmers (Bauernwappen), appear in the 14th century. An early example of coats of arms attributed to commoners are found in Codex Manesse, "masters" (Meister, a title given to commoners) Heinrich Frauenlob and Heinrich Teschler (shown here is Teschler's coat of arms from Codex Manesse. The name Teschler translates to "bag maker", and the coat of arms shows argent a bag sable).
1369
Košice, Slovakia: The oldest known coat of arms of a town issued by an official grant, which was ordered by Louis I of Hungary,
1441
King's College (Cambridge): Possibly earliest documented coat of arms for an academic institution, at least in England, granted by Henry VI.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    7 859 024
    317 028
    5 334 345
    5 182 809
    438 084
  • Countries Ranked by History ⚔ #history #shorts
  • Most popular mythical creatures from each country Part 1 #shorts #mythicalanimal #mythic #countries
  • Were You Attractive In Ancient Greece? | Ancient Greek Beauty Standards #shorts
  • Countries & Their Past 😢 | Part 4 #shorts #history
  • Which KAMON Crest Are We Allowed to Use Freely?

Transcription

See also

Notes

  1. ^ G. Demay affirms on the dating of the seal of his father Rotrou III in 1190 that the latter did not wear a coat of arms (DA No. 999) but Rotrou and Geoffroy having both participated in the 3e crusade, this shield of Geoffroy could be a break of the three chevrons of his father.
  2. ^ DL Galbreath underlines that the DA No. 2304 attributed to Jean de Meulan, hanging from a donation to the Essarts hospital in La-Queue-en-Brie comes from the same matrix as the DA {{#}}2834 and that his attribution must be corrected.
  3. ^ G. Demay affirms on the sole dating of the seal of his father Jacques Ist in 1186 that the latter did not wear a coat of arms. But the two Jacques having participated respectively in the 3th and 4th crusades, this shield could have been worn as early as 1188. This is also the point of view of the site earlyblazon.

External links

References

  1. ^ "significant pre-figuration of medieval heraldry" John Onians, Atlas of World Art (2004), p. 58.
  2. ^ Round Shield Designs (vikingage.org): "chequered" (11th c., Biblio. Mun. Avranches MS50), "flared cross" (c.1000-1050 Arras, BM MS 559 (435), vol. 1), "spirals" (c.1000-1050 Arras, BM MS 559 (435), vol. 1), "spirals with dots" (c.1000-1020 Bamberg MS A. II. 42 Bamberg Apocalypse).
  3. ^ "With the exception of several heraldic shields that appear in the Kaiserchronik [c. 1150–1170], such as the boar carried by the Romans—the oldest heraldic insignia in medieval German epic literature, according to Zips [Wappenwesen, 1966]—most of the precourtly and even courtly epics up to 1200 contain very few decorated shields at all. Several isolated coats of arms are mentioned in the German Rolandslied [c. 1115], König Rother [c. 1150], Veldecke's Eneas [c. 1170], and Hartmann's Erec [c. 1185]—mostly related to the protagonists." Haiko Wandhoff, "The Shield as a Poetic Screen: Early Blazon and the Visualization of Medieval German Literature" in: K. Starkey (ed.), Visual Culture and the German Middle Ages (2016), 53–72 (p. 57).
  4. ^ Ailes, Adrian, The Origins of The Royal Arms of England: Their Development to 1199, Reading Medieval Studies Monograph No. 1, Reading University, 1982, pp. 25-6
  5. ^ a b c Riquer, Martín de (1942) Manual de heráldica española. Barcelona: Apolo.
  6. ^ Ailes, pp. 46-47
  7. ^ Werner Hechberger, Staufer und Welfen 1125-1190: zur Verwendung von Theorien in der Geschichtswissenschaft (1996), 1996 p. 342; Xenja von Ertzdorff, Rudolf Schulz, Winfried Baumann, Die Romane von dem Ritter mit dem Löwen (1994), p. 174.
  8. ^ White, Geoffrey (1953). "Appendix J: The Warenne group of chequered shields". The Complete Peerage, or a history of the House of Lords and all its members from the earliest times, volume XII part 1 (2nd ed.). London: The St. Catherine Press. pp. appendix, 26–29.
  9. ^ Xenja von Ertzdorff, Rudolf Schulz, Winfried Baumann, Die Romane von dem Ritter mit dem Löwen (1994), p. 175, citing Schmidt-Phiseldeck, Die Siegel des herzoglichen Hauses Braunschweig und Lüneburg, nr. 1–4.
  10. ^ a b J. H. Round, "The Introduction of Armorial Bearings into England", The Archaeological Journal, volume 51, pp 43-48 [1]
  11. ^ Wagner, A. (1946). Heraldry in England
  12. ^ Demay, Germain (1875). Inventaire des sceaux de la Picardie: Recueillis dans les dépôts d'archives, musées et collections particulières des départements de la Somme, de l'Oise et de l'Aisne (in French). Paris: Imprimerie nationale. p. 41.
  13. ^ Mitis (1912). Studien zum älteren oesterreichischen Urkundenwesen (in German). Viena. p. 340.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  14. ^ Galbreath, D. L. (1942). Manuel du Blason (in French). Lausanne. p. 26.
  15. ^ Stenton (1930). Facsimiles of early charters from Northamptonshire collections: Northants' Record Society IV.
  16. ^ Holroyd, Graham (2000). "The Earliest Known Depiction of the Royal Arms of England?". Coat of Arms. 192.
  17. ^ Peter Koblank, Stauferwappen (2016).
  18. ^ Ailes, Adrian (1981). "The seal of John, Lord of Ireland and Count of Mortain". Coat of Arms. 117.
  19. ^ Cambrésis terre d'histoire
  20. ^ Bartholdy, Nils G. (1995). Denmark's Arms and Crown (in Danish). Copenhagen: Ministry of Culture. p. 16. ISBN 87-87361-20-5. Retrieved 26 May 2017.
  21. ^ Galbreath 1942, p. 34
  22. ^ a b c Faustino Menéndez Pidal, "Interpreting the Castle of Castile", Coats of Arms, 4th series, vol. 2 (no. 236) pp. 1-26.
  23. ^ Piekosiński, Franciszek (1889). Heraldyka polska wieków średnich. pp. 154–155.
  24. ^ "Names: Świerczek COA". gajl.wielcy.pl. Retrieved 2021-05-19.
  25. ^ "The thirteenth century also witnessed the adoption of armorial devices by some at least of the merchants. In 1263 the arms of the 'Four Provisors' of the Biccherna at Siena were painted on the cover of the tax-book for that year inaugurating that well known and valuable series. At Florence in the same year Raynuttio Ardengi, a merchant of that city, sealed with a shield Barry of eight set between the attires of a stag's head." John A Goodall, "Heraldry in Italy during the Middle Ages and Renaissance", Coat of Arms 37 (January 1959).
  26. ^ a b Franciszek Piekosiński, Pieczęcie polskie. p. 123
  27. ^ "Nazwiska". gajl.wielcy.pl. Retrieved 2021-05-23.
  28. ^ "Herbarz rodzin szlacheckich Królestwa Polskiego najwyżej zatwierdzony. Cz.1 - Wielkopolska Digital Library". www.wbc.poznan.pl. Retrieved 2021-05-23.
  29. ^ "Jeden z najstarszych herbów rycerskich.""Topór (Polska Encyklopedia Historyczno-Genealogiczna)". genealogia.okiem.pl. Retrieved 2021-03-21.
  30. ^ Alfred Znamierowski: Herbarz rodowy. Warsaw: Świat Książki, 2004, p. 171.
  31. ^ "We have seen that Pope Clement IV granted his own arms to the Guelfs of Florence, but the first Pope for whom there is contemporary evidence for th arms actually used by him is Boniface VIII after about 1295. A tablet recording the foundation of an oratory by Tommaso Andrei Bishop of Pistoia in 1296 has two small shields of his arms a Rose or cinquefoil between three roundels. After 1300 the evidence for the use of arms by ecclesiastics of all ranks becomes more frequent and there can be little doubt but that the late date of their adoption when compared with France or Germany is due to the conservative influence of the Roman Curia." John A Goodall, "Heraldry in Italy during the Middle Ages and Renaissance", Coat of Arms 37 (January 1959).
  32. ^ Briggs, C. (1970). Civic and Corporate Heraldry
  33. ^ "Brno (Erb - znak - Coat of arms - crest)". 7 April 2023.
  • Gerard J. Brault. Early Blazon. Heraldic terminology in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, with special reference to Arthurian literature. Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1972.
This page was last edited on 24 April 2024, at 05:54
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.