To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

List of natural history museums

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of natural history museums, also known as museums of natural history, i.e. museums whose exhibits focus on the subject of natural history, including such topics as animals, plants, ecosystems, geology, paleontology, and climatology.

Some museums feature natural-history collections in addition to other collections, such as ones related to history, art and science. In addition, nature centers often include natural-history exhibits.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    3 440 563
    82 358
    205 027
    69 424
    1 096
  • Why Is Blue So Rare In Nature?
  • 25 Magnificent Museums You Have To Visit In Your Lifetime
  • A film about Carl Linnaeus | Natural History Museum
  • The Real Exhibits Behind the Night At the Museum Movies
  • A Glance at the UI's Museum of Natural History

Transcription

[PBS Bumper] [OPEN] There are no blue tigers. No blue bats, no blue squirrels, or blue dogs. Even blue whales aren’t that blue. Animals come in pretty much every color, but blue seems to be the rarest. What’s cool, though, is when we do find a blue animal, they’re awesome looking. Nature doesn’t do halfway with blue. To understand why this is, we’re gonna journey through evolution, chemistry, and some very cool physics. But, first we’re gonna need to understand why animals are any color at all, and to do that, we need to go look at some butterflies… because butterflies are awesome… and if you don’t think so, you’re wrong This is Bob Robbins. He’s curator of Lepidoptera at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington D.C. Butterflies ARE awesome. Make no mistake about it. They’re a group of moths that evolved to be active during the day, and if you’re active during the day, you have an advantage: You can use light to communicate. You probably realize this, but out of all insects, butterflies display the brightest and most detailed patterns. And there’s a good reason for that: The colors in butterfly wings deliver messages, like “I’m toxic”, or “I’m a male and this is my territory”, but not all butterfly colors are created equal. If we zoom way in on a butterfly wing, we see the colors come from tiny scales. It’s actually how moths and butterflies get their scientific name. Oranges, reds, yellows browns…those scales all contain pigments, organic molecules that absorb every color except what we see. Black scales absorb all colors. Animals, from butterflies to birds to you and me, don’t make these pigments from scratch, they’re made from ingredients in our diet. You might know this thanks to flamingos: They’re born gray, but turn pink thanks to pigments called carotenoids in crustaceans they eat. So when it comes to these colors: You are what you eat. But not so for blue. Blue is *different* If you move the camera, you can see that the color changes as you move the camera. It does. It’s like a hologram thing. This is because there’s no blue pigment in these butterflies Wait… so they’re blue, but they’re not really blue? That’s correct! Yes. You’re lying to me butterflies! These are Blue Morpho butterflies, maybe the prettiest butterflies of all. I mean… they did make it the butterfly emoji. The blue color isn’t from a pigment. The blue comes from the shape of the wing scale itself, and when I learned how this works, it kinda blew my mind. If we zoom way in on a blue wing scale, we see these little ridges. If we slice across the scale, and look closer, we see those ridges are shaped like tiny Christmas trees. The arrangement of the branches is what gives Morpho wings their blue color. When light comes in, some bounces off the top surface. But some light passes into the layer and reflects off the bottom surface. For most colors of light, waves reflecting from the top and bottom will be out of phase, they’ll be canceled out, and that light is removed. But blue light has just the right wavelength: the reflected light waves are in sync, and that color makes it to our eye. This hall of mirrors only lets blue light escape. There’s even a pigment at the base that absorbs stray red and green light to make the blue even more pure. That’s how we get this awesome iridescent blue. The microscopic structure of the wing itself. All of this happens because of the way light bends when it moves from air into another material. So if we fill all those tiny gaps with something other than air, like alcohol, the blue disappears. Technically, this “changes the index of refraction”, but in plain English that means blue light is no longer bent the right way. The microscopic light filter is broken. Until the alcohol evaporates. And the color returns. But these butterflies live in the rainforest. You think they’d lose their color any time they got wet, right? Well watch this. These wing scales are made of a material that’s naturally water-resistant. What about this blue jay feather? If we look through it, the color completely disappears. No blue pigment. Each feather bristle contains light-scattering microscopic beads, spaced so everything but blue light is canceled out. Unlike the highly-ordered structures we find in butterfly wings, these feather structures are more messy, like a foam, so instead of changing as we move, the color’s more even from every direction. Peacock tail feathers? Again it’s the shape of the feather, not pigment. But the light reflecting structures here are more ordered, like a crystal, so it’s brighter from certain angles. There’s even a monkey–WHOA let’s keep this PG!!–even that color is made by the adding and subtracting of light waves thanks to structures in the skin… not pigment. And yes, even your blue eyes, are colored by structures, not pigments. Outside of the ocean, almost exclusively, the bluest living things make their colors with microscopic structures, and each one’s a little different. No vertebrate, not a single bird or mammal or reptile that we know of, makes a blue pigment on its body. In fact, there’s only one known butterfly that has cracked the code for making a true blue pigment. Blue as a pigment in nature is incredibly rare. But there’s one exception so far that we know about, and these are over here called the olivewings. They have evolved a blue pigment. They’re not very common and we don’t know much about them, and I don’t know of any other blue pigment. That’s a really special butterfly. Why is almost all of nature’s blue made from structures and not pigments like everything else? I’ve asked this question to several scientists that study color, and here’s their best theory so far: At some point way back in time, birds and butterflies evolved the ability to see blue light. But they hadn’t yet evolved a way to paint their bodies that color. But if they could, it’d be like going from early Beatles to Sgt. Pepper’s Beatles. it meant new opportunities for communicating and survival. Creating some blue pigment–out of the blue–would have required inventing new chemistry, and there was no way to just add that recipe to their genes. It was much easier for evolution to change the shape of their bodies, ever so slightly, at the most microscopic level, and create blue using physics instead. They solved a biology problem with engineering. What I love about this is these colors have fascinated curious people for hundreds of years. After looking at peacock feathers through one of the first microscopes back in the 1600’s Robert Hooke wrote: “these colours are onely fantastical ones” Even Isaac Newton noticed there was something unusual about these blues, and scientists have been studying it ever since. Not only because the science is interesting, but because it’s beautiful. Thanks for watching, and stay curious.

Contents

Africa

Algeria

Angola

Botswana

Canary Islands

(belongs politically to Spain)

  • Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Tenerife (Museum of Nature and Man), Tenerife

Egypt

Ethiopia

  • Zoological Natural History Museum

Kenya

Libya

Mozambique

  • Museu de História Natural de Moçambique, Maputo

Namibia

  • National Earth Science Museum in the Geological Survey, Windhoek

Rwanda

  • National Herbarium of Rwanda at IRST[1]

South Africa

Sudan

  • Sudan Natural History Museum (University of Khartoum, Faculty of science, Department of Zoology)

Tanzania

Tunisia

  • Musée océanographique de Salammbô, Carthage

Uganda

  • Makerere University Zoology Museum
  • Makerere University Herbarium
  • Uganda Museum (Natural History Section)[2]
  • Kawanda Invertebrate Museum and Herbarium
  • Institute of Tropical forest Conservation Herbarium[3]

Zimbabwe

Asia

China

India

Iran

Iraq

  • Iraq Natural History Museum, Baghdad

Israel

Japan

Jordan

Kyrgyzstan

  • Geological Museum and Mineralogical Museum, Bishkek

Malaysia

Mongolia

Oman

  • Natural History Museum of Muscat, Muscat

Pakistan

Philippines

Qatar

Singapore

South Korea

Taiwan

Thailand

United Arab Emirates

  • Sharjah Natural History Museum, Sharjah

Uzbekistan

Vietnam

  • Vietnam National Museum of Nature, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi

Central America

Belize

  • Chaa Creek Natural History Museum, San Ignacio

Costa Rica

  • El Museo de Ciencias Naturales La Salle(The La Salle Natural Sciences Museum)
  • El Museo de Insectos de la Universidad de Costa Rica (MIUCR) (The Museum of Insects at the University of Costa Rica)
  • Museo de Zoologia - Escuela de Biologia, University of Costa Rica
  • Museo Nacional de Costa Rica(National Museum of Costa Rica), San José

Dominican Republic

Grenada

  • Museo de Ciencias

Guatemala

  • Museo Nacional de Historia Natural "Jorge A. Ibarra"
  • Museo de Historia Natural de la Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala
  • Museo de Paleontologia y Arqueologia Ing. Roberto Woolfolk Saravia, Estanzuela Zacapa

Honduras

Nicaragua

  • Museo Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad Centroamericana, Managua
  • Museo de Ometepe, Rivas
  • Museo del Departamento de Malacología UCA, Managua
  • Museo entomológico, León
  • Museo Gemológico de la Concha y el Caracol, Managua
  • Museo Paleontológico “El Hato”, Managua
  • Museos de Geología UNAN, Managua
  • Museum Ecológico de Trópico Seco, Diriamba
  • National Museum, Managua
  • Sitio Paleontológico El Bosque, Estelí

Panama

Europe

Albania

  • Natural Science Museum, Tirana

Armenia

Austria

Azerbaijan

Belarus

Belgium

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bulgaria

Croatia

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

University of Tartu Natural History Museum
University of Tartu Natural History Museum

Finland

France

Georgia

Germany

Greece

Greenland

  • Greenland National Museum and Archives, Nuuk

Hungary

Iceland

  • Natural History Museum of Kopavogur, Kopavogur

Ireland

Italy

Latvia

  • Natural History Museum of Latvia[12]

Liechtenstein

Lithuania

Luxembourg

Macedonia

  • Macedonian Museum of Natural History, Skopje

Malta

Moldova

  • National Museum of Ethnography and Natural History, Chișinău

Monaco

Montenegro

  • Natural History Museum of Montenegro, Podgorica

The Netherlands

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Russia

Serbia

Slovenia

Slovakia

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Turkey

Ukraine

United Kingdom

England

Scotland

Wales

Northern Ireland

North America

Bermuda

  • Bermuda Underwater Exploration Institute, Hamilton

Canada

Alberta

British Columbia

Manitoba

New Brunswick

Newfoundland

Nova Scotia

Ontario

Quebec

Saskatchewan

Yukon

Mexico


United States

Oceania

Australia

Indonesia

New Zealand

South America

Argentina

Bolivia

  • Museo de Anatomía de la Universidad de San Francisco Xavier
  • Museo de Historia Natural, La Paz
  • Museo de History Natural Noel Kempff Mercado, Santa Cruz

Brazil

  • Museu Geológico Valdemar Lefèvre, São Paulo, SP
  • Museu de História Natural de Taubaté, Taubaté
  • Museu de Historia Natural Capão da Imbuia Wood, Curitiba
  • Museu de Rochas, Minerais e Minérios - USP, São Paulo, SP

Chile

Colombia

Ecuador

Guyana

Paraguay

Peru

Trinidad and Tobago

Uruguay

  • Museo del Mar, La Barra del Maldonado
  • Museos Nacionales de Historia Natural y Antropología, Montevideo

Venezuela

  • Museo de Biología de la Universidad Central de Venezuela (MBUCV),[16][17][18] Caracas
  • Museo de Ciencias Naturales, Caracas
  • Museo de Ciencias Naturales de Guanare
  • Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Caracas
  • Museo de la Estación Biológica de Rancho Grande.[19][20]
  • Museo del Instituto de Zoología Agrícola 'Francisco Fernández, Aragua
  • Museo Marino, Boca de Río
  • Museo Oceanologico Hermano Benigno Roman de la Fundación La Salle, Punta de Piedras, Isla Margarita
  • Museo Paleontológico de Urumaco, Urumaco
  • Museum Entomológico, Colección de Insectos de Interés Agrícola y su combate Insect Collection Interest Agricultural

See also

References

  1. ^ http://horizon2020projects.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/H11-Botanic_HP10442-pro_RPT_H10.pdf
  2. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uganda_Museum
  3. ^ http://itfc.must.ac.ug/herbarium
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
  5. ^ http://www.mus-nh.city.osaka.jp/english/
  6. ^ "Natural History Museum". jmm.gov.my. Department of Museums Malaysia. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  7. ^ "National Museum of Natural Science:::Welcome:::". Nmns.edu.tw. 2009-11-30. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  8. ^ "Naturhistorisk Museum". NaturhistoriskMuseum.dk. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  9. ^ "Naturama - Home". Naturama.dk. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  10. ^ "Homepage". Naturkunde-Museum Bamberg. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  11. ^ "Natural History Museum of Meteora & Mushroom Museum". Natural History Museum of Meteora & Mushroom Museum. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  12. ^ "Natural History Museum of Latvia". Dabasmuzejs.gov.lv. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  13. ^ Ariño, Arturo H. (November 2005). "MUSEUM OF ZOOLOGY - Natural History Collections". University of Navarra. Retrieved 6 July 2017.
  14. ^ "NY Times description". Travel.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-04-19.[permanent dead link]
  15. ^ http://museumindonesia.com/museum/42/1/Museum_Zoologi_Bogor_Bogor
  16. ^ Pérez Hernández, Roger. Museo de Biología de la Universidad Central de Venezuela (MBUCV) International Symposium & First World Congress on Preservation and conservation of Natural History Collections. 2:17-23
  17. ^ "Museo de Biología UCV (MBUCV)". Izt.ciens.ucv.ve. Archived from the original on 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  18. ^ "Museo De Biología De La Universidad Central De Venezuela". Izt.ciens.ucv.ve. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  19. ^ Bisbal E, Francisco J. 1990: Museo de la Estación Biológica de Rancho Grande. Museo de la Estación Biológica de Rancho Grande.
  20. ^ Sánchez H., Javier. y Bisbal E. Francisco. 2012: Museo de la Estación Biológica de Rancho Grande. Memoria de La Fundación La Salle de Ciencias Naturales.158:5-28.

External links

This page was last edited on 7 October 2018, at 03:25
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.