To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

List of lynching victims in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Names added to this list must be linked to an article about the case. Otherwise they will be deleted. Consider writing an article, if there is none.

All names added here must also be entered in Template:Lynching in the United States.

This is a sortable table. Click on the heading you want it sorted by. Complex sorts are possible. For example, to produce a list sorted by state, and then alphabetically by county/parish within the state, and if there is more than one in a county, by last name — click first on the Name tabh, then County/Parish tab, then State. One clicks first on the narrowest sort (by last names within a county), then by more general (counties/parishes), and finally the most general (states).


Name Age Ethnicity City County or Parish State Year Accusation Comment
Gilmer, Bill African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1879 Shot attorney Thomas J. Wood Shot. Gilmer was accused of shooting Wood who had whipped Gilmer for using offensive language near his wife.[1][2]
Thompson, Shedrick (also spelled "Shamrock) 39 African-American rural Fauquier Virginia 1932 Assault and rape.
Lang, Ed African-American Rice Navarro Texas 1916 "Attacking a young woman." Taken from a sheriff's posse and hung.[3]
James, John Henry adult African-American Charlottesville (near) Albemarle Virginia 1898 Rape
Wright, Charles
Young, Arthur[4]
one other
African-American Perry Taylor Florida 1922 Murder of white teacher Wright was taken from sheriff by a large mob, tortured into confession, and burned at the stake. Arthur Young was later taken from the jail and he and another man were shot and hanged. Several African American community buildings and homes were burned in the Perry race riot.
Scott, Henry Negro Bartow Polk Florida 1920, May 8 He asked a white woman to wait until he had prepared another woman's train berth Shot[5]
Moore's Ford lynchings (George W. and Mae Murray Dorsey; Roger and Dorothy Malcom) adults African-American Walton Georgia 1946 Stabbing of a white man (Roger Malcom) Huge investigation. 2003 and 2016 books on this investigation. No one charged.
Hamilton, Eugene African-American Jasper Georgia 1919 Convicted by all-white jury of attempting to shoot a white farmer; case before Georgia Court of Appeals. Mob of 60 stopped car of sheriff who was driving him for protection to nearest large city, Macon. Driven to a bridge in Jasper County and shot to death. Governor was "livid".[6]:233–234
Booker, Paul African-American Macon (near) Bibb Georgia 1919, November 3 Attacking a white woman. Mob of 400 found him, refused to turn him over to sheriff's deputies. Soaked in gasoline, set on fire; shot while he burned.[6]:241
Jameson, Jordan African-American Magnolia Columbia Arkansas 1919, November 11 Killing a sheriff. Burned to death in the public square.[6]:241
Watt, W.W. White Newport News N/A Virginia 1900 Assault Shot[7]
Walters, Lemuel African-American Longview Gregg Texas 1919 Making "indecent advances" to a white woman.
Holden, George African-American Monroe (near) Ouachita Louisiana 1919 Mob stopped a train, dragged him off, and shot him.[6]:18
Wilkins, Willie African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Friend of man believed to have killed lawman. [6]:8
Ruffin, John African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Son of man believed to have killed lawman. [6]:7–8
Ruffin, Henry African-American Jenkins Georgia 1919 Son of man believed to have killed lawman. [6]:7–8
Woods, Eliza "Colored" Jackson Madison Tennessee 1886 Supposedly poisoning her employer. Taken from the county jail, stripped naked, hung up in the courthouse yard and her body riddled with bullets and left exposed to view.[8]
Gause, Anderson African-American Henning Lauderdale Tennessee 1900 Aided escapees [7]
Conorly, Huie 16 African-American Bogalusa Washington Louisiana 1884 Attempted rape [9]
Pete, Dago African-American Tutwiler Tallahatchie Mississippi 1900 Assaulted colored woman Killed by negro mob[7]
Nelson, Laura African-American Okemah Okfuskee Oklahoma 1911 Shooting a sheriff. Gang-raped and lynched together with her son, 14, after trying to protect him during a meat-pilfering investigation.[10]
Fambro, William African-American Griffin Spalding Georgia 1903 Insulted white home [11]
Banks, Isadore African-American Marion Crittenden Arkansas 1954 Being prosperous [12]
Unknown male African-American Marion Crittenden Arkansas 1930s Teaching the black children of Marked Tree, Arkansas to read Burned, sign posted "run niggers run!".[13]
Champion, Tony
Kelly, Michael
African-American,
White (Irish)
Gainesville Alachua Florida 1891 Murder Taken together from jail by mob and hanged.[14]
Ford, Andrew African-American Gainesville Alachua Florida 1891 Beating a man, aiding Harmon Murray Taken from jail by mob and hanged.[14]
Hinson, Henry African-American Micanopy Alachua Florida 1892 Murder Hanged.[14]
Unknown boy African-American Waldo Alachua Florida 1892 Suspicion of burglary and incendiarism Hanged.[14]
Willis, Charles African-American Rochelle Alachua Florida 1894 "Desperado" Shot and burned in bed.[14]
Rawls, William African-American Newnansville Alachua Florida 1895 Murder Hanged and shot.[14]
Daniels, Alfred African-American Gainesville Alachua Florida 1896 Suspicion of arson (barn burning) (no evidence) Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[14]
Price, Manny,
Scruggs, Robert
African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1902 Murder,
suspected accomplice
Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[14]
Clark, Jumbo African-American High Springs Alachua Florida 1904 Assault of 14 year old white girl Taken by mob on way to jail, hanged and shot.[14]
Long, Jack White Newberry Alachua Florida 1908 Murder Hanged.[14]
White, Henry African-American Campville Alachua Florida 1913 Found under white woman's bed Hanged, noose broke, shot.[14]
Newberry Six lynchings (Baskins, Rev. Josh J.,
Dennis, Bert,
Dennis, James,
Dennis, Mary,
McHenry, Andrew, and
Young, Stella)
adults African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1916 Helping a man who had shot and killed a constable James Dennis was shot. The others were hanged. Mary Dennis had two children and was pregnant. Stella Young had four children.[14][15]
Wilson, Abraham African-American Newberry Alachua Florida 1923 Cattle stealing Serving 6 month sentence when taken from jail and hanged.[14][16]
Buddington, George 55 African-American Waldo Alachua Florida 1926 Attempted to collect debt from a white woman at gunpoint Mob broke lock on jail, took Buddington out of town and shot him to death.[14][17]
Martin, Albert 23 African-American Port Huron St. Clair Michigan 1889 Assault and rape A mob broke into his jail cell with sledge hammers, dragged him from the jail with a noose around his neck, beat and shot him to death, then hanged his corpse from a bridge.[18][19]
Pyszko, Marian 54 Polish Jew Detroit Wayne Michigan 1975 He was white and was in the wrong place at the wrong time. Killed by negro youths who wanted a white victim.
Puryear, Richard African-American Stroudsburg Monroe Pennsylvania 1894 Murder Lynched by a mob after escaping from jail.[18][20]
Campbell, John Native-American Mankato Blue Earth, Nicollet, and Le Sueur Minnesota 1865 Murder Lynched by a mob after an extrajudicial "trial".[18][21]
Taylor, John 17 African-American Mason Ingham Michigan 1866 attempted murder of his employer's wife following a wage dispute John was a former slave, and had been a teenage soldier for the Union. A mob dragged him from a jail, tortured him and hanged him from a tree, and mutilated and decapitated his body; no one was prosecuted. In 2018 a local park was named the "John Taylor Memorial Park" after him.[18][22]
Green, Ernest, and Charlie Lang 14, 15 African-American Shubuta ("hanging bridge") Clarke Mississippi 1942 Attempted rape. [23]:101
Johnson, Ed Adult African-American Chattanooga Hamilton Tennessee 1906 Rape of white woman Sheriff and two others sentenced to 6 months in jail, three others with 3 months, for abetting the lynching. Only criminal case ever with direct involvement of the U.S. Supreme Court; see United States v. Shipp
Clark, Andrew and Major; Alma and Maggie House 16, 20, 16, 20 African-American Shubuta ("hanging bridge") Clarke Mississippi 1918 Alleged murder of dentist Dentist had affairs with both sisters, who were pregnant, likely with his child; the brothers had romantic interest in the girls. After the lynching the babies were seen squirming in their mothers bellies.[24]
Porter, Nevlin African-American Starkville Oktibbeha Mississippi 1897 Arson [25]
Spencer, Johnson African-American Starkville Oktibbeha Mississippi 1897 Arson [26]
Clark, James African-American Eau Gallie Brevard Florida 1926 Rape of a white girl No attempt to verify crime nor identify murderers:Last known lynching in Brevard County[27][28]
Harrington, Levi African-American Kansas City Jackson Missouri 1882 Killing a police officer Newspapers reported he was innocent, but no one was held accountable for the lynching.[29][30][31][32]
Mingo Jack 66 African-American Eatontown Monmouth New Jersey 1886 Rape of a white woman All suspects acquitted.[33][34]
Williams, Elbert African-American Brownsville Haywood Tennessee 1940 Registering to vote and starting an NAACP chapter. Last lynching in Tennessee.[35]
Brown, Will 41 African-American Omaha Douglas Nebraska 1919 Rape Part of the Omaha race riot of 1919
Outlaw, Wyatt African-American Graham Alamance North Carolina 1870 Prominent local figure (no crime alleged) 63 indictments, but the North Carolina Legislature, to end their cases, repealed the law they were charged with violating.[36]
Stephens, John W. 35 White Yancyville Caswell North Carolina 1870 State senator who worked to help freedmen Ku Klux Klan; no one charged.
McChristian, Perry White Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Murder of white peddler [37]
Williams, Felix White Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Murder of white peddler [37]
James, Bartley African-American Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Suspicion of murder of white peddler [37]
Campbell, John African-American Grenada Grenada Mississippi 1885 Suspicion of murder of white peddler [37]
Williams, Eugene African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1919 Racial unrest A white officer refused to arrest the murderer, and instead arrested a black man who complained about it.[38]
Robinson, Robert African-American Chicago Cook Illinois 1919 He was black, and they wanted to kill a black Robinson was an Army Reserve veteran.[39]
Ashley, Bob African-American Dublin Laurens Georgia 1919 Hoped to shoot someone else A group of men thought another man might be inside Ashley's house, so they shot into the house, mortally wounding Ashley.[40]
Wright, Cleo African-American Sikeston Scott Missouri 1942 Home invasion, attempted murder, attempted rape, resisting arrest Around 100 black people left Sikeston and never returned.[41]
Walters, Lemuel African-American Longview Gregg Texas 1919 Consensual sex with white woman The report of the affair and the subsequent coverup led to the Longview riots.[42]
Richards, Benny African-American Warrenton Warren Georgia 1919 Accused of murdering his ex-wife and shooting 5 others 300 men lynched Richards, a farmer.[43][44]
Clay, Lloyd African-American Vicksburg Warren Mississippi 1919 False rape accusation 1000 men broke through three steel doors to abduct Clay from jail before hanging, shooting, and burning him.[45]
Prince, Henry African-American Hawkinsville Pulaski Georgia 1919 [46]
Waters, Jim African-American Johnson Georgia 1919 Rape accusation Investigation closed in one hour with no witnesses interviewed.[47]
Livingston, Frank African-American El Dorado Union Arkansas 1919 False murder accusation One of many returning WW I veterans lynched in 1919.[48]
Miller, William African-American Brighton Jefferson Alabama 1908 Labor activist Jefferson County had the highest number of lynchings in Alabama (29).[49]
Washington, Berry 72 African-American Milan Dodge and Telfair Georgia 1919 Defended black girls from white home invaders. Many black homes burned to discourage citizens from coming forward[50]
Chaney, James 21 African-American Philadelphia Neshoba Mississippi 1964 Civil rights worker A federal jury in 1967 convicted the sheriff and six others of conspiracy to violate civil rights; they received minor punishment. A state jury in 2005 found the Ku Klux Klan organizer, Edgar Ray Killen, guilty of three counts of manslaughter; he died in prison. National outrage contributed to passage of Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Jordan, James adult African-American Waverly Sussex Virginia 1925 Married woman "attacked" in her home. The case and two others helped lead to the Virginia Anti-Lynching Law of 1928, the first state law against lynching.[51][52]
Armwood, George 23 African-American Princess Anne Somerset Maryland 1933 Attempted assault and rape Grand jury declined to indict any of the lynchers identified by State Police. Last lynching in Maryland.
Randolph, Sydney adult African-American Gaithersburg Montgomery Maryland 1896 Killing a white girl Taken from the jail by a mob.[53]
Taylor, George African-American Rolesville Wake North Carolina 1918 Rape of a white woman No charges were filed.[54] There is a Web site on this lynching.[55]
Carter, James African-American Amherst Amherst Virginia 1902 Unknown [56]
Divers, Emmett adult African-American Mexico Audrain Missouri 1893 Murder of a white woman "Horrible fury of the mob...500 horsemen." Hung from bridge until dead, taken down and hung a second time from a telegraph pole at the fairground, "at the request of the murdered woman's husband". Body and cabin burned.[57]
Estes, Siles African-American Hodgenville LaRue Kentucky 1901 "Forcing...a 15 year old boy...to commit a crime." [58]
Lundy, Dick adult African-American Edgefield Edgefield South Carolina 1891 Murder of son of sheriff Coroner's jury: "by persons unknown"
Steers, Jennie adult African-American rural area near Shreveport Caddo Louisiana 1903 Poisoning daughter of a planter [59]:70
Great Hanging at Gainesville (number > 16) adult men White Gainesville Cooke Texas 1862 Lynching, plus "legal" executions, of Union supporters by Confederate supporters Many lynched before trial was concluded. Prosecution of perpetrators "half-hearted"; only one convicted.[60][61]
Peterson, John adult African-American Denmark Bamberg (at the time, Barnwell County) South Carolina 1893 Attack on a white girl
Morris, Frank adult African-American Ferriday Concordia Louisiana 1964 "Flirting" with white females [62]:152
Byrd Jr., James 49 African-American Jasper Jasper Texas 1998 None (white supremacists) Dragged to death behind a car, until his head hit a culvert. Perpetrators convicted, one executed, one on death row, one to life imprisonment.
Young, Albert (or Arthur) 21 African-American Perry Taylor Florida 1922 Murder of a white schoolteacher Tortured, then burned alive
Reeb, James (Unitarian minister) 38 White Selma Dallas Alabama 1965 Northerner coming to help blacks; ate in "nigger" restaurant. Denied treatment in Selma for severe blow to head; condition deteriorated on the two-hour trip to a hospital that would treat him (in Birmingham, Alabama); died two days later. Four indicted; three acquitted by all-white juries, fourth fled to Mississippi and never faced trial. Huge national outcry. The Federal Voting Rights Act was passed within four months as a direct result of his lynching and the violent attacks on the Selma to Montgomery marchers.
McClelland, Brandon 23–24 African-American Paris Lamar Texas 2008 None (white supremacists) Dragged to death behind car. Prosecutor dropped charges, "lack of evidence".
Reed, Joseph African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1875 Killing a police officer Taken out of his jail cell by an unmasked mob and hanged on a suspension bridge.[63]
Baker, Frazier B. 41 African-American Lake City Florence South Carollna 1898 Appointed Postmaster

Grand jury did not indict. Since it was a Federal crime (attack on a postmaster) there were 13 Federal indictments; no one convicted

Scott, James T. (Janitor at University of Missouri) African-American Columbia Boone Missouri 1923 Raping the white daughter of a professor. Before he could stand trial, a mob broke him out of jail and hanged him. The daughter would later identify a different man as her rapist. Jury found perpetrator innocent in 11 minutes. Memorial plaque erected 2016.[64][65]
Smith, Joseph (founder of Mormonism) and brother Hyram Smith 38,
44
White Carthage Hancock Illinois 1844 Technically, treason against state of Illinois, but lynching was for religious views, especially plural marriage/polygamy. In jail awaiting trial. Five men were tried and acquitted.
McIntosh, Francis Adult African-American St. Louis N/A (independent city) Missouri 1836 Complicated, but culminating in death of one constable/deputy sheriff and wounding another Burned alive. Lynching had broad local support. Reported on by abolitionist editor Elijah Lovejoy, who was soon lynched himself.
White, George Adult African-American Wilmington New Castle Delaware 1903 Assaulting teenage girl and leaving her to die Taken from county workhouse and burned alive. No one was prosecuted.
Walker, Zachariah 20-24 African-American Coatesville Chester Pennsylvania 1911 Killing of a police officer, possibly in self-defense Taken from hospital room and burned alive. Fifteen men and teenage boys were indicted, but all were acquitted at trials.[66]
Moss, Tom Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[67]
McDowell, Calvin Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[67]
Clayton, Elias, Elmer Jackson, and Isaac McGhie 20-23 African-American Duluth St. Louis Minnesota 1920 Rape of a teenage girl Taken from jail by mob, given mock trials, beaten and hanged from light-post. No one was prosecuted.
Stewart, Will Adult African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1892 Complaint from competing white grocery store owner. So-called Curve Riot (not a riot). Reported on by Ida B. Wells, whose newspaper was destroyed and had to leave the state.[67]
Holmes, John, and Thomas Thurmond 29
27
White San Jose Santa Clara California 1933 Kidnapping and murder of department store heir Brooke Hart An estimated 10,000 people witnessed the lynching. California Governor James Rolph called the act "a fine lesson for the whole nation."[68]
Lovejoy, Elijah 35 White Alton Madison Illinois 1837 Abolitionist newspaper editor and publisher Had moved to Alton to escape violence in St. Louis. Four successive printing presses destroyed. "Not guilty" verdict; jury foreman member of mob.[69]
Miller, Amos 23 African-American Franklin Williamson Tennessee 1888 Assaulting a white woman Taken from the courthouse during his trial and lynched on the balcony railings.[70]
Taylor, Jim African-American Franklin Williamson Tennessee 1891 Shooting a policeman Taken from his jail cell by a mob and lynched on Murfreesboro Road.[71]
Higginbotham, Elwood 28 African-American Oxford Lafayette Mississippi 1935 Killed in self-defense a white man that attacked him after he complained about the white man's cattle running over his field. Killed when jury did not bring back guilty verdict promptly. Widow and extended family immediately left Mississippi.[72]
Thomas, Wade African-American Jonesboro Craighead Arkansas 1920 Killing a policeman Taken from jail by a mom, hung, then riddled with bullets.[73]
Patton, Nelse African-American Oxford Lafayette Mississippi 1908 Killing a white woman Prominent attorney and former U.S. Senator William V. Sullivan, in his own words, "led the mob...and I'm proud of it".[74][75][76]
Jones, David  African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1872 Murdering Henry Murray. Taken out of his prison cell and lynched by a mob on the public square.[77][78]
Grizzard, Ephraim African-American Nashville Davidson Tennessee 1892 Assaulting two white girls in Goodlettsville. Taken out of his prison cell and lynched on a bridge in Downtown Nashville in front of 10,000 onlookers. Later taken back to Goodlettsville.[79]
Smith, Samuel 15 African-American Nolensville Williamson Tennessee 1924 Stealing spark plugs in a garage. Taken out of his hospital room in Nashville and lynched by a mob of masked men where he was first caught.[80]
11 Italian Americans Italian-American New Orleans Orleans Louisiana 1891 Killing of police chief 3 had been acquitted; 3 had a mistrial; 5 never tried. Lynching organized by local leaders, including future mayor Walter C. Flower and future governor John M. Parker. Grand jury brought no charges.
Albano, Angelo and Castenge Ficarotta Italian Tampa Hillsborough County Florida 1910 Complicity in a shooting
Villarosa, Federico Italian Vicksburg Warren County Mississippi 1886 Assault of a white girl
Saladino, Lorenzo; Arena, Salvatore; Giuseppe Venturella 33-36, 27, 48 Italian Hahnville St. Charles Parish Louisiana 1896 Murder Saladino was accused of murdering a wealthy merchant. Arena and Venturella happened to have been in the same prison, accused of a different murder. All rounded up together and lynched to "teach the lawless Italians a salutary lesson." After the lynching, another person confessed to the murder for which Arena and Venturella had been lynched.
DiFatta brothers (Francesco, Carlo, and Giuseppe);
Cerami, Giovanni;
Rosario Fiducia
Italian Tallulah Madison Parish Louisiana 1899 Shooting a doctor Sicilian immigrant grocery store owners, the DiFatta brothers, quarreled with a local doctor. The doctor fired his pistol at brother Carlo and was immediately shot and injured by brother Giuseppe. Sicilian immigrants Cerami and Fiducia were not involved in the dispute and had simply been nearby when the lynching occurred; they were rounded up and lynched alongside the DiFatta brothers because they were Italian.
Lewis, Sanford African-American Fort Smith Sebastian Arkansas 1912 Shooting a constable Five policemen fined $100 each for "nonfeasance of office". Entire police force fired. Mayor voted out. Man charged with lynching acquitted.[81]
Phifer, Miles (or Relius) African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Assault of a white woman Was wearing military uniform[82]
Temple, Will African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Killing a police officer [82]
Crosky, Robert African-American Montgomery Montgomery Alabama 1919 Assault of a white woman [82]
Heath, John 28 White Bisbee Cochise Arizona Territory 1884 Accessory to robbery Mob unsatisfied with lenient sentence
Williams, Matthew 23 African-American Salisbury Wicomico Maryland 1931 Killing his employer Taken forcibly from hospital. No indictment despite numerous witnesses.[83]:9–10
Walker, David, his wife and four children African-American Hickman Fulton Kentucky 1908 Using inappropriate language with a white woman [84]
Grant, George African-American Darien McIntosh Georgia 1930 Sheriff: "I don't know who killed the nigger and I don't give a damn."[83]:10
Gunn, Raymond African-American Maryville Nodaway Missouri 1931 Burned to death. National Guard stood by and watched.[83]:10
Lowry, Henry ("a negro sharecropper") African-American Nodena Mississippi Arkansas 1921 Asked for his wages Burned to death; crowd of 500[83]:3
Hose, Sam about 24 African-American Noonan Coweta Georgia 1899 Killed his white employer in self-defense. Accusations of rape added to incite lynching. Body parts for sale in a store. Widely publicized and privately investigated.
Hartfield, John African-American Ellisville Jones Mississippi 1919 Assaulting a young white woman "The biggest newspaper in the state, Jackson Daily News, carried headlines announcing the exact time and place of the coming orgy.[85] Ten thousand people answered the paper's invitation and they were addressed by the District Attorney, T. W. Wilson, while the lynching was going on."[83]:9
Richardson, Bunk African-American Gadsden Etowah Alabama 1906 Sentenced to death without being charged with any crime; Governor commuted it to life imprisonment. Mob seized him from the jail.
Heflin, Lee White Fauquier Virginia 1892 Convicted murderer Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.[86]
Wise, Mrs. African-American Frankfort (Frankford?) Virginia (West Virginia?) 1931 Objected to her daughter being taken out for "rides" with white Klansmen. [83]:8
Tillis, Dave African-American Crockett Houston Texas 1932 "Demanded an accounting from his landlord. Charged with 'entering the bedroom of a white woman'". [83]:4–5
Hughes, George African-American Sherman Grayson Texas 1930 Pled guilty to criminal assault. Courthouse stormed (during trial), burned down with Hughes locked in vault, fire hoses cut. Body then dragged behind car and hung, and fire lit under it. Followed by riot and destruction of black businesses. Two persons received two-year sentences for violence.[87]
Shorter, William 17 African-American Winchester N/A (independent city) Virginia 1893 Assault on a white woman [86]
Dye, Joseph White Fauquier Virginia 1892 Convicted murderer Seized from police when they were trying to move him to a safer location.[86]
Anderson, Orion African-American Leesburg Loudoun Virginia 1889 Hung from a derrick[86]
Bromley, H. Heathsville Northumberland Virginia 1955 [86]
Thompson, Allie African-American Culpeper Culpeper Virginia 1918 Assault [86]
Craven, Charles African-American Leesburg Loudoun Virginia 1902 Assault [86]
Thompson, Benjamin 20 African-American Alexandria N/A (independent city) Virginia 1899 Hung from a lamppost at Cameron and Lee Sts., site of several lynchings.[86]
Parker, John African-American Conway Faulkner Arkansas 1931 Stealing some peaches [83]:4
McCoy, Joseph 20 African-American Alexandria N/A (independent city) Virginia 1897 Assault on a young girl [86]
Fletcher, Magruder African-American Tasley Accomack Virginia 1889 [86]
Adam African-American Tampa Hillsborough Florida 1859 A white man was murdered; "in keeping with local custom, a slave man was selected to be killed in retribution". State Supreme Court overturned conviction. Mob broke into jail where he was awaiting a new trial and hung him. Defended by Ossian Hart.[88]:269
Abram Smith[89] 19 African-American Marion Grant Indiana 1930 Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape No charges filed.
Joe Coe ("A married man with two children") African-American Omaha Douglas Nebraska 1891 Assault on a white girl of 5 The Governor and the Sheriff tried unsuccessfully to quiet the crowd in front of the Courthouse. Pieces of the lynching rope were sold as souvenirs. Despite 16 wounds to his body and three broken vertebrae, Coroner said he died of "fright". Grand jury declined to indict.
Till, Emmett  14 African-American Money LeFlore Mississippi 1955 Flirting with white woman Beaten and mutilated before shooting him in the head and sinking his body in the Tallahatchie River. Perpetrators acquitted by all-white jury, then openly admitted they did it. Historical markers shot and defaced 2006-2018.[90]
Anthony Crawford[91] 51 African-American Abbeville Abbeville South Carolina 1916 Offensive language Coroner's jury: "persons unknown"
Charles Wright[89][verification needed] 21 African-American Rosewood Levy Florida 1930 Homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape No charges filed.
Claude Neal African-American Greenwood Jackson Florida 1934 Rape and murder of 19 year old white female Lynchers said he "didn't deserve a trial". Castrated, forced to consume his genitals, stabbed, burned with hot irons, toes and fingers removed, hung, body tied behind automobile. Followed by Marianna riots. Important case in helping to bring lynching to an end.
Dick Rowland (attempted lynching) 19 African-American Tulsa Tulsa Oklahoma 1921 Sexual assault on white girl Conflict between would-be lynchers and defenders led to the Tulsa Race Riot.
Ell Persons about 50 African-American Memphis Shelby Tennessee 1917 Raping and killing a white girl No charges filed.
Fred Rochelle 16 African-American Bartow Polk Florida 1901 Murder and rape of a white woman Doused with kerosene and burned. Special train from Lakeland to see the "barbecue".
Henry Smith 17 African-American Paris Lamar Texas 1893 Kidnapping and murder of white girl; Smith confessed under duress. Tortured, burned with hot irons, doused in oil and set on fire; his remains were sold as souvenirs.
McIlherron, Jim [92] African-American Estill Springs Franklin Tennessee 1918 Killing two whites Tortured, then burned alive. Spectators came from as far as 50 miles away. Postcards sold. "No information sufficient to indict."
Jesse Washington[93] 17 African-American Waco McLennan Texas 1916 Murder; Washington confessed and a jury found him guilty. Dragged behind car, castrated, fingers cut off, ear cut off, burned alive. Professionally photographed; pictures sold as postcards. Lynching of "political value" to Sheriff and to the Judge who presided over his trial. "On the way to the scene of the burning, people on every hand took a hand in showing their feelings in the matter by striking the Negro with anything obtainable, some struck him with shovels, bricks, clubs and others stabbed him and cut him until when he was strung up his body was a solid color of red."[93]:5
Carter, John[94] African-American Little Rock Pulaski Arkansas 1927 Attacking a white woman and her mother No charges filed; "mob" responsible.
July Perry[95] 52 African-American Ocoee Orange Florida 1920 Sign on body: "This is what we do to niggers that vote." Prosperous Negro farmer. See Ocoee massacre.
Leo Frank 31 Jewish Marietta Cobb Georgia 1915 Killing a 13 year old girl No charges filed; posthumously pardoned.
Mary Turner[96] 18 African-American Bridge joining Brooks County and Lowndes County, Georgia Georgia 1918 Publicly opposed and threatened legal action against whites who had murdered her husband, unfairly accused (according to her) of killing an abusive landowner. "Hung her upside down from a tree, doused her in gasoline and motor oil and set her on fire. Turner was still alive when a member of the mob split her abdomen open with a knife and her unborn child fell on the ground. The baby was stomped and crushed as it fell to the ground. Turner's body was riddled with hundreds of bullets."
Hayes Turner 25 African-American Morven[97] Brooks Georgia 1918 Accused of helping kill an abusive landowner. Wife Mary killed next day for defending him.
Reuben Stacey (also found as Rubin Stacy) 37 African-American Fort Lauderdale Broward Florida 1935 Assault with a knife Law enforcement officer; grand jury refused to indict.
Carter, Sam African-American Rosewood Levy Florida 1923 Assault, rape, and robbery of a white woman See Rosewood massacre. Tortured. Shot before being hung. See Rosewood massacre.
Pitts, Slab African-American Toyah Reeves Texas 1906 Living with a white woman Dragged to death before being hung.
Shipp, Thomas[98][99][89] 18 African-American Marion Grant Indiana 1930 Accessory to homicide during holdup of white man; rumors of rape No charges filed.
Willie Earle 24 African-American Greenville Greenville South Carolina 1947 Killing of taxi driver 31 suspects charged; all acquitted.
Willie James Howard[100] 15 African-American Live Oak Suwannee Florida 1944 Sending Christmas card with "a note expressing his affection" to a white girl. Forced to jump to his death in the Suwanee River. Grand jury refused to indict.
Ah Wing, Dr. Chee Long "Gene" Tong, Chang Wan, Leong Quai, Ah Long, Wan Foo, Day Kee, Ah Waa, Ho Hing, Lo Hey, Ah Won, Wing Chee, Wong Chin Chinese Los Angeles Los Angeles California 1871 None Killed in retaliation for the homicide of a rancher.

See: Chinese massacre of 1871

Parker, Mack Charles 22 or 23 African-American Bridge over Pearl River between Mississippi and Louisiana Pearl River Mississippi 1959 Rape and kidnapping of a white woman; charges possibly fabricated. No one indicted.
Donald, Michael 19 African-American Mobile Mobile Alabama 1981 None (Klan looked to kill a black man because killer of white policeman got mistrial). Henry Hay executed in the electric chair. James Knowles and an accomplice sentenced to life in prison. Civil suit against United Klans of America caused their bankruptcy.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/1
    Views:
    6 187 780
  • ✪ The Top 5 Issues Facing Black Americans

Transcription

What are the five biggest issues facing blacks in America? Here’s my list. Problem #5. The Victim Mentality Nothing holds someone back more than seeing himself as a victim. Why? Because a victim is not responsible for his situation. Everything is someone else’s fault. And the victim sees little chance of improving his life. How can he get ahead if someone is holding him back? All this makes the victim unhappy, frustrated and angry. This is how too many blacks see themselves – as victims. So much so that their victim status becomes their primary identity and their ruling ideology. I call it victimology. Unfortunately, many black churches preach this “victimology,” many black parents pass it on to their children, inner-city schools teach it to their students and the black media reinforce it. Meanwhile, the NAACP and other black grievance groups fundraise on it. Problem #4. Lack of Diversity Blacks repeatedly demand an “honest dialogue or debate about race.” But how can there ever be an honest dialogue about race between blacks and whites when there is virtually no honest dialogue between blacks and blacks? It’s hypocritical. And if a black doesn’t think, “whites are ultimately responsible for black people’s problems,” they’re labeled a “sell-out,” ”Uncle Tom,” or “race-traitor.” As long as this type of groupthink exists, race-reverends of the Al Sharpton, Jesse Jackson type will continue to be celebrated while independent black thinkers such as Professors Thomas Sowell and Walter Williams will be shunned. The honest race dialogue and debate -- that first has to happen -- is not between blacks and whites but between blacks and blacks. We demand diversity from others, but need to practice it ourselves where it really matters -- in thought, opinion, and even political affiliation. Problem #3. Urban Terrorism As just about everyone knows, but too few talk about publicly, in majority black cities, violent black on black crime is rampant. A Department of Justice study from 1980-2008 revealed that blacks accounted for almost half of the nation’s homicide victims (47.4%) and more than half of the offenders (52.4%) all while only being 13% of America’s population. The Tuskegee Institute conducted a study of all known lynchings of blacks that occurred between 1882-1968. During this 86-year span, which is essentially the post-Civil War era up to the Civil Rights era, 3,446 Blacks where reportedly lynched. Presently, black-on-black murder eclipses the number of blacks lynched over the course of 80 years roughly every six months. Unbelievably, the culpability for this disproportionate amount of mayhem actually lies with a menacing 2-3% minority within the black populace. I call them urban terrorists. And since they’re literally spawned from problem #2, the black community protects them. Problem #2. Proliferation of Baby Mamas The disintegration of the nuclear family has led to an astronomical increase of single-mother households. According to the Moynihan Report, in 1965, nearly 25 percent of black children were born to unwed mothers. The report’s author Daniel Patrick Moynihan said this was a disaster in the making. He was, of course, vilified by so-called black leaders and their progressive allies. But he was right. Today the out of wedlock birth rate is nearly 75 percent. and even higher in some urban areas. To be clear, Baby Daddies share this responsibility with Baby Mamas. Yet, while Baby Daddies are blamed and rarely shown compassion, Baby Mamas are rarely blamed and receive both compassion and support. This lopsided dynamic and the previously listed pathologies stem directly from the number one problem facing the black community... Problem #1. Unquestioning Allegiance to so-called Progressive Policies Unwavering loyalty to progressive, liberal policies is the primary reason these dire conditions persist. It both makes them possible and perpetuates them. It’s no coincidence that progressivism is the common thread that binds predominately black cities where single-parent homes, failing schools, rampant poverty and crime predominate. Look at cities like Detroit, Philadelphia and Baltimore. They’ve been run by progressive Democrats for decades. If their liberal policies were at all effective, these cities should have become models of economic growth and prosperity. Instead, they’re models of dysfunction. By fostering and exploiting the victim mentality, discouraging self-examination, subsidizing baby-mamas, and making excuses for black thugs, so-called progressive policies don’t alleviate the problems that afflict the black community, they aggravate those problems. You may have noticed that racism did not make the list. Why not? It’s simple: There will be no solution to the problems afflicting black America until more blacks recognize that the issues plaguing our community are ultimately self-inflicted. Does racism exist? Sure. But there are other problems far more serious. And waiting until there are no more racists will mean waiting, and making excuses, forever. I’m Taleeb Starkes for Prager University.

References

  1. ^ "The Criminal Calendar". The Saturday Evening Press (Menasha, Wisconsin). May 1, 1879.
  2. ^ "Assassination in Starkville". Clarion-Ledger. March 26, 1879. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  3. ^ {{ |title=Negro Lynched near Rice, |newspaper=Tampa Tribune |date=August 20, 1916 |page=2 |url=https://www.newspapers.com/clip/28457156/the_tampa_tribune/}}
  4. ^ Ginzburg, Ralph (1988). 100 Years of Lynchings. Black Classic Press. ISBN 9780933121188.
  5. ^ "Woman's Impatience Revealed as Cause of Porter's Death". New York Negro World. May 29, 1920. The woman sent a telegram to the next station stating that Scott had insulted her. When the train stopped, Scott was removed by a deputy sheriff. From there the story followed the usual lynching pattern. A mob "over-powered" the sheriff and killed the Negro. The coroner’s jury returned the usual verdict, "Death at the hands of parties unknown."
  6. ^ a b c d e f g McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer. The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt. ISBN 9780805089066.
  7. ^ a b c "Lynchings". Grenada Sentinel. 5 January 1901. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  8. ^ "Ida B. Wells and the Lynching of Black Women". The New York Times. April 28, 2018. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  9. ^ "The Lynching in Washington Parish". Times-Picayune. February 27, 1884. p. 7.
  10. ^ "Lynching memorial shows women were victims, too". The Conversation. April 27, 2018. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  11. ^ "Lynchings" (PDF). St. Tammany Farmer (Covington, Louisiana). February 13, 1904. p. 6. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  12. ^ "Isadore Banks (Murder of)". Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  13. ^ Schwarz, Ted (13 August 2008). "I'll Get My Rest When the Lord Is Done With Me Here". Retrieved 10 January 2019.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Dan, Nicole (September 27, 2017). "At Least 21 Lynched In Alachua County, Historical Commission Confirms". WUFT News. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
  15. ^ People, National Association for the Advancement of Colored (1919). Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889-1918. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. p. 24.
  16. ^ The Crisis. The Crisis Publishing Company, Inc. October 1923. p. 260.
  17. ^ "George.Buddington.1926". The Cincinnati Enquirer. p. 10. Retrieved 2019-01-09.
  18. ^ a b c d "Map of White Supremacy mob violence". Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  19. ^ Liz Shepard (April 30, 2018). "Port Huron's past included on lynching memorial". The Times Herald. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  20. ^ "Lynching of a Negro Murderer". Harrisburg Daily Independent. March 15, 1894. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  21. ^ "This Day in History". Mankato Magazine. April 25, 2012. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  22. ^ Judy Putnam (April 27, 2018). "Putnam: Delhi Township rethinks park called Deadman's Hill, named after 1866 lynching". Lansing State Journal. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
  23. ^ Ward, Jason Morgan (2016). Hanging bridge : racial violence and America's civil rights century. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199376568.
  24. ^ Mitchell, Jerry (1 May 2016). ""Hanging Bridge" signing May 2 at Lemuria". Clarion Ledger. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  25. ^ "Starkville". Carolina Watchman. 8 May 1879. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  26. ^ "Two Taught Ropes" (PDF). Memphis Daily Appeal. 6 May 1879. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  27. ^ Scruggs, David C (15 January 1989). "Scales Of Justice Hung From Tree With 1 Strong Limb". Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  28. ^ "Florida Frontiers "The Lynching of James Clark"". Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  29. ^ "Kansas City to Dedicate Historical Marker for Lynching". Missouri Catholic Conference. November 30, 2018.
  30. ^ Max, Elyse (November 13, 2018). "Support Truth and Reconciliation: Marker Dedication Ceremony for Kansas City Lynching Victim Levi Harrington". Missourians for alternatives to the death penalty.
  31. ^ "Community leaders gather to remember local lynching victim". Missouri Times. April 2, 2018.
  32. ^ Johnson, Michelle Tyrene (Nov 30, 2018). "Kansas City Erects First Memorial To Remember A Victim Of Lynching". KCUR.
  33. ^ "George Kearney". New York Herald. 19 July 1998.
  34. ^ Spahr, Rob (24 September 2012). "Lynching of former slave memorialized as 'low point' in Eatontown history". Retrieved 24 December 2017.
  35. ^ Bennett, Kathy (2017). "Lynching". Tennessee Encyclopedia. University of Tennessee Press.
  36. ^ Gaddis, Elijah; Kotch, Seth. "A Red Record. Revealing lynching sites in North Carolina and South Carolina". University of North Carolina.
  37. ^ a b c d "Southern Gleanings". Magnolia Gazette. 17 July 1885. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  38. ^ McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 129. ISBN 9780805089066.
  39. ^ McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 125. ISBN 9780805089066.
  40. ^ McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 94–95. ISBN 9780805089066.
  41. ^ Teachout, Terry (May 30, 1999). "Close to Home". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
  42. ^ McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. pp. 81–95. ISBN 9780805089066.
  43. ^ "Negro Kills One; Shoots Up Five, Fighting Posse". Atlanta Constitution. 2 May 1919.
  44. ^ McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 51. ISBN 9780805089066.
  45. ^ "Mob uses Rope, to Lynch Negro". Atlanta Constitution. 15 May 1919.
  46. ^ McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 52. ISBN 9780805089066.
  47. ^ McWhirter, Cameron (2011). Red Summer The Summer of 1919 and the Awakening of Black America. Henry Holt and Company. p. 52. ISBN 9780805089066.
  48. ^ "Frank Livingston (Lynching of)". Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  49. ^ Equal Justice Initiative (2015). "Lynching In America / The Lynching of William Miller". Historical Marker Database. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
  50. ^ Voogd, Jan (2008). Race Riots and Resistance: the Red Summer of 1919. Peter Lang Publishing Group. ISBN 9781433100673.
  51. ^ Green, Frank (March 2, 2014). "Memories of 1925 lynching linger in Waverly". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  52. ^ "Lynching in Waverly, Virginia, Is Revisited". Equal Justice Initiative. March 7, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  53. ^ "Lynched a Suspected Negro". New York Times. July 5, 1896. p. 24.
  54. ^ Hui, T. Keung (October 29, 2018). "A black man was lynched near Rolesville in 1918. Now Wake students are honoring him".
  55. ^ Wake County Drum Majors for Social Justice. "The 1918 Lynching of George Taylor".
  56. ^ Editorial Board (March 5, 2014). "Confronting Virginia's Racial History". News & Advance.
  57. ^ "NEGRO LYNCHED / Murder of a White Woman in Missouri Swung from a Bridge". Evening Argus (Owosso, Michigan). August 16, 1895. p. 4.
  58. ^ "Negro Lynched in Kentucky". Lewiston Daily Sun. November 1, 1901.
  59. ^ Pfeifer, Michael James (2004). Rough Justice: Lynching and American Society, 1874-1947. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 9780252029172.
  60. ^ McCaslin, Richard B. "Great Hamging at Gainesville". Handbook of Texas Online, Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 2014-05-30.
  61. ^ Smallwood, James (December 1976). "Disaffection in Confederate Texas: The Great Hanging at Gainesville". Civil War History. 22 (4). pp. 349–360.
  62. ^ Newton, M. (2005). The FBI and the KKK: A Critical History. p. 151. ISBN 9781476605104. Retrieved January 6, 2016.
  63. ^ "A Fearful Outrage. A Negro Murderer Lynched by a Few Citizens in Nashville--A Mob Looking On and Endorsing the Deed. The State Disgraced by a Supine Set of Officers--An Unmitigated Outrage Against Law and Decency. A Crime for Which the Perpetrators Out to be Made to Pay with Their Lives--The Whole State Demands It". Memphis Daily Appeal. May 3, 1875. p. 1. Retrieved June 5, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
  64. ^ Marion, Ann (September 30, 2016). "New plaque memorializes 1923 lynching victim James T. Scott". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  65. ^ Howe, Barton Grover (May 8, 2003). "Legacy of a lynching". Columbia Missourian. Retrieved May 25, 2018.
  66. ^ Eric S. Smith, "Zachariah Walker's lynching haunts the city", Daily Local News (Chester County), 13 August 2011, accessed 5 January 2016
  67. ^ a b c Ball, Nathaniel C. (September 30, 2015). "Memphis and the Lynching at the Curve". The Benjamin L. Hooks Institute fo Social Changr, University of Memphis. Retrieved May 15, 2018.
  68. ^ McPhate, Mike (November 29, 2017). "When a San Jose mob stormed a jail and lynched two men". The California Sun. Retrieved September 25, 2018.
  69. ^ Tebbe, Jen (November 7, 2017). "Elijah Lovejoy: An American Martyr". Missouri Historical Society.
  70. ^ Berger, Paul (December 20, 2014). "Midnight in Tennessee - The Untold Story of the First Jewish Lynching in America". Haaretz. Retrieved May 15, 2018. In 1888, Amos Miller, a black man accused of raping a white woman, was dragged from court in Franklin and hung from the courthouse railings.
  71. ^ "Judge Lynch Presided. Would-Be Murderer Strung Up at Franklin. His Most Atrocious Assault on an Officer Avenged. The Body Dangling by the Roadside on the Outskirts. He Also Shot a Circus Man, Who Was Brought to Nashville for Treatment--A Deserved Fate". The Daily American. Nashville, Tennessee. April 30, 1891. Retrieved May 14, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
  72. ^ Gregory, Vanessa (April 25, 2018). "A Lynching's Long Shadow". New York Times Magazine.
  73. ^ "Negro Is Lynched by Arkansas Mob". Ellensburg Daily Record. December 27, 1929.
  74. ^ "Leader of Mob an Ex-U.S. Senator". Fredericksburg Daily Star. September 11, 1908.
  75. ^ "Ex-Senator Sullivan Will Stand Consequences for Directing Shooting". New York Times. September 10, 1908. Retrieved May 7, 2018.
  76. ^ Sassoubre, Ticien Marie. "Avoiding Adjudication in William Faulkner's Go Down, Moses and Intruder in the Dust". Criticism. 49 (2): 183–214. doi:10.1353/crt.0.0016.
  77. ^ "A Night of Excitement. David Jones, the Murderer of Murray, Taken from the Jail by a Mob. Murderer Offers Resistance, and is Shot Twice. Afterwards Taken to the Public Square and Hanged in Front of the Station House. The Hanging Witnesses by Immense Crowd of Excited Citizens. Efforts of the Mayor to Restore Quiet. Gov. Brown Makes an Appeal in Behalf of Law and Order". Nashville Union and American. March 26, 2018. p. 4. Retrieved May 3, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
  78. ^ "The Nashville Lynching Case". The Chicago Tribune. March 28, 1872. p. 3. Retrieved May 3, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
  79. ^ "Finally Successful. An Attempt to Lynch Negroes At Nashville, Tenn., Successfully Resisted. The Government Takes Charge of the Jail Forces--One of the Lynchers Killed. Another Attempt Proves Successful, and the Negro Is Hanged. Crimes". The Courier. Waterloo, Iowa. May 2, 1892. p. 2. Retrieved April 27, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
  80. ^ "Mob Lynches Negro Boy Who Shot Grocer. Body of Masked Men Take Him From Hospital. Samuel Smith, 15, Left Hanging Near Home of Ike Eastwood, Whom He Wounded Friday Night". Nashville Tennesssean. December 16, 1924. pp. 1, 5. Retrieved May 2, 2018 – via Newspapers.com. (Registration required (help)).
  81. ^ Boulden, Ben. "The Lynching of Sanford Lewis". Fort Smith Historical Society. Retrieved April 28, 2018.
  82. ^ a b c Lyman, Brian (April 20, 2018). "'There will be lynchings': How the Advertiser failed victims of racial terror". Montgomery Advertiser.
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h Haywood, Harry; Howard, Milton (1932). Lynching (PDF). Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  84. ^ Associated Press (April 23, 2018). "New Lynching Memorial Evokes Terror of Victims".
  85. ^ "3,000 Will Burn Negro — John Hartfield Will Be Lynched by Ellisville Mob at 5 o'clock This Afternoon — Negro Jerky and Sullen as Burning Hour Nears". New Orleans States (reprinted from Jackspn Daily News). June 26, 1919.
  86. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Thomas-Lester, Avis (July 7, 2005). "From the archives: State Lives With a Legacy of Terror as Nation Pays Tribute to Victims' Descendants". Washington Post. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  87. ^ Thompson, Nolan (2010). "Sherman Riot of 1930". Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved May 28, 2018.
  88. ^ Allman, T. D. (2013). Finding Florida. The True History of the Sunshine State. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 9780802120762.
  89. ^ a b c Leroux, Charles (February 14, 1993). "Lynching Black Man, Now 78, Relates Narrow Escape, Tells How Two Companions Were Lynched In Indiana In 1930". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  90. ^ Haag, Matthew (August 6, 2018). "Emmett Till Sign Is Hit With Bullets Again, 35 Days After Being Replaced". New York Times.
  91. ^ "Anthony Crawford, a Negro of Wealth, Lynched Saturday". Abbeville Press and Banner. Abbeville, South Carolina. 1917-10-25. p. 1. Retrieved 2015-12-21.
  92. ^ White, Walter F. (May 1918). "The Burning of James McIlherron. An N.A.A.C.P. Investigation" (PDF). The Crisis. pp. 16–20. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  93. ^ a b "The Waco Horror (supplement to The Crisis)". The Crisis. July 1916. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
  94. ^ Harp, Stephanie. "John Carter: A Scapegoat for Anger". America's Black Holocaust Museum.
  95. ^ Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Florida. "The Ocoee Riot". Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  96. ^ NAACP. "History of Lynchings". Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  97. ^ "Hazel B "Hayes" Turner". Find A Grave. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  98. ^ Nolin, Robert (July 17, 2010). "Mob lynched black man in Fort Lauderdale 75 years ago". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  99. ^ Brooks, Bryan (July 17, 1988). "The Day They Lynched Reuben Stacey". Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  100. ^ Wethersbee, Tonya J. (August 29, 2015). "Before Emmett Till's Death, Willie James Howard, 15, Was Murdered in Fla". The Root. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
This page was last edited on 22 March 2019, at 14:28
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.