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List of lost films

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lon Chaney appeared in numerous films that are now lost. This still is from The Miracle Man (1919), a mostly lost film.
At one time a popular player at Fox, all of Valeska Suratt's Fox films are lost.

For this list of lost films, a lost film is defined as one of which no part of a print is known to have survived. For films in which any portion of the footage remains (including trailers), see List of incomplete or partially lost films.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • 14 Films That May Be Lost Forever | sourcebrew
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  • The Lost Films Iceberg
  • Top 20 Lost Horror Movies
  • Lost Films of Silent Era Hollywood


Reasons for loss

Films may go missing for a number of reasons. One major contributing factor is the common use of nitrate film until the early 1950s. This type of film is highly flammable, and there have been several devastating fires, such as the Universal Pictures fire in 1924, the Warner Bros./First National fire in 1933, the British and Dominions Imperial Studios fire in 1936, the 1937 Fox vault fire and the 1965 MGM vault fire.[1]

Black-and-white film prints judged to be otherwise worthless were sometimes incinerated to salvage the meager scrap value of the silver image particles in their emulsions.[2] Films have disappeared when production companies went bankrupt.[2] Occasionally, a studio would remake a film and destroy the earlier version.[2] Silent films in particular were once seen as having no further commercial value and were simply junked to clear out expensive storage space.[3]

Statistics on lost films

Martin Scorsese's Film Foundation claimed in 2017 that "half of all American films made before 1950 and over 90% of films made before 1929 are lost forever".[4] Deutsche Kinemathek estimates that 80–90% of silent films are gone;[5] the film archive's own list contains over 3,500 lost films.

A study by the Library of Congress of 2014 stated that 75% of all silent films are lost.[6] While others dispute whether the percentage is quite that high,[7] it is impractical to enumerate any but the more notable and those that can be sourced.

For example, roughly 200 out of over 500 Méliès' films and 350 out of over 1,000 of Alice Guy's films survive. Of approximately the 1,100 films made in India between 1912 and 1931, only 29 of them are known to have survived.[8]

Notable lost films

Amongst the films commonly mourned among critics and film historians are early films by noted directors and films of unique cultural importance. The Mountain Eagle was the second film to be directed by Alfred Hitchcock in 1926; the silent melodrama has been described by the British Film Institute as their "most wanted" lost film.[9] London After Midnight, starring Lon Chaney and directed by Tod Browning in 1927, was a silent-era mystery-thriller pseudo-vampire film that is now considered to be the 'holy grail' of lost films by collectors.[10] Hollywood, a silent comedy film directed by James Cruze, featured over 30 cameo appearances from major stars of the day, including Roscoe "Fatty" Arbuckle, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Astor and Pola Negri, but no footage exists.[11]

Silent films


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1895 Young Griffo vs. Battling Charles Barnett Otway Latham Young Griffo, Charles Barnett First American film shown to a paying audience [12]
1896 Arrivée d'un train gare de Vincennes Georges Méliès A French short documentary [13]
L'Arroseur (a.k.a. Watering the Flowers) Georges Méliès A short comedy [14]
Barque sortant du port de Trouville Georges Méliès [15]
Bateau-mouche sur la Seine Georges Méliès [16]
Bébé et fillettes Georges Méliès A short documentary [17]
Les Blanchisseuses Georges Méliès A short documentary [18]
Bois de Boulogne (Porte de Madrid) Georges Méliès A short documentary [19]
Bois de Boulogne (Touring Club) Georges Méliès A short documentary [20]
Boulevard des Italiens Georges Méliès A short documentary [21]
Campement de bohémiens (The Bohemian Encampment) Georges Méliès A short documentary [22]
Les chevaux de bois Georges Méliès [23]
Le chiffonnier Georges Méliès


Couronnement de la rosière Georges Méliès [25]
Déchargement de bateaux Georges Méliès [26]
Jardinier brûlant des herbes Georges Méliès [27]
Jetée et Plage de Trouville (first and second parts) Georges Méliès [28][29]
Jour de marché à Trouville Georges Méliès [30]
Gestoorde hengelaar M.H. Laddé Lion Solser, Piet Hesse The first Dutch fictional film [31]
La Fée aux Choux Alice Guy Blache The first narrative film directed by a woman [32]
Spelende kinderen M.H. Laddé [33]
Zwemplaats voor Jongelingen te Amsterdam M.H. Laddé [34]
1898 Ten Years in Manitoba James Freer Documentary film. First film known to have been directed by a Canadian. [35]


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1900 Solser en Hesse M.H. Laddé Lion Solser, Piet Hesse The first film with this title, featuring the Dutch comedians Lion Solser and Piet Hesse [36]
1902 The Adventures of the Cabman Kazimierz Prószyński The first Polish fiction film [37]
1903 Hiawatha, the Messiah of the Ojibway Joe Rosenthal Believed to be the first Canadian fiction film [38]
1906 Solser en Hesse M.H. Laddé Lion Solser, Piet Hesse The second film with this title, featuring the Dutch comedians Lion Solser and Piet Hesse [39]
1907 Salaviinanpolttajat Louis Sparre,
Teuvo Puro
Teppo Raikas,
Teuvo Puro,
Jussi Snellman,
Eero Kilpi,
Axel Rautio
The first Finnish fiction film. Some sources also consider it to be the first Russian fiction film, as Finland was a part of the Russian Empire until 1917. [40]
1908 A Christmas Carol Tom Ricketts The first American film adaptation of Charles Dickens' famous 1843 novella of the same name. [41]
1908 The Fairylogue and Radio-Plays Francis Boggs, Otis Turner L. Frank Baum, Romola Remus First adaptation of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and several of its sequels. Shown only in roadshow engagements as part of a live theater presentation, the print decomposed and was discarded.[citation needed] [42]
1908 La Tosca André Calmettes Sarah Bernhardt, Pierre Berton, Félicia Mallet The second film starring Bernhardt, the best known stage actress of the 1880s–1900s. Based on the play by Victorien Sardou that was adapted into an opera by Giacomo Puccini. [44]



Sound films

From 1929 on, films are "all-talking" unless otherwise specified.


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1928 Alias Jimmy Valentine Jack Conway William Haines, Lionel Barrymore This part-talkie was MGM's first film with synchronized dialogue sequences. It was also released as a silent film, which is similarly lost. [45]
4 Devils F.W. Murnau Janet Gaynor Fox Studios' print was reportedly borrowed by actress Mary Duncan, who played a supporting role in the film, but its whereabouts are now unknown. [46][47]
Heart Trouble Harry Langdon Harry Langdon Langdon's last silent feature received little promotion in the United States, with fewer than 100 prints struck. There were reported showings in Australia in 1931. [48][49]
The Home Towners Bryan Foy Doris Kenyon, Richard Bennett Warner Bros.' third all-talking feature [50]
The Melody of Love Arch Heath Walter Pidgeon, Mildred Harris Universal's first sound feature [50]
On Trial Archie Mayo Pauline Frederick, Lois Wilson, Bert Lytell Warner Bros.' fourth all-talking feature [50]
Tenderloin Michael Curtiz Dolores Costello, Conrad Nagel Second feature film to have synchronized dialogue sequences, part-talkie [50]
Women They Talk About Lloyd Bacon Irene Rich A part-talkie released by Warner Bros. [50]
1929 The Argyle Case Howard Bretherton Thomas Meighan, H. B. Warner, Lila Lee, Gladys Brockwell Silent veteran Brockwell died in a traffic accident shortly after making this film. [51]
The Aviator Roy Del Ruth Edward Everett Horton, Patsy Ruth Miller [52]
The Awful Truth Marshall Neilan Ina Claire [53]
College Love Nat Ross George J. Lewis, Eddie Phillips [50]
Dark Streets Frank Lloyd Jack Mulhall, Lila Lee Jack Mulhall's character is the first attempt at dual role double exposure photography in a talking film. [54]
Evidence John G. Adolfi Pauline Frederick, Conway Tearle [55]
Fancy Baggage John G. Adolfi Audrey Ferris, Myrna Loy A part-talkie from Warner Bros.
Footlights and Fools William A. Seiter Colleen Moore Part-Technicolor. [50]
The Forward Pass Edward F. Cline Douglas Fairbanks Jr., Loretta Young [50]
Fox Movietone Follies of 1929 David Butler John Breeden, Lola Lane Multicolor sequences [56]
Frozen Justice Allan Dwan Lenore Ulric [57]
The Gamblers Michael Curtiz H. B. Warner, Lois Wilson
Hearts in Exile Michael Curtiz Dolores Costello, Grant Withers
Honky Tonk Lloyd Bacon Sophie Tucker, Lila Lee This was Tucker's film debut. The complete soundtrack survives. [50]
The Hottentot Roy Del Ruth Edward Everett Horton, Patsy Ruth Miller
Is Everybody Happy? Archie Mayo Ted Lewis, Ann Pennington [50]
Jealousy Jean de Limur Jeanne Eagels, Fredric March [58]
Love, Live and Laugh William K. Howard George Jessel, Lila Lee [50]
The Love Racket William A. Seiter Dorothy Mackaill, Sidney Blackmer
Lucky in Love Kenneth S. Webb Morton Downey, Betty Lawford All-talking [50]
Madonna of Avenue A Michael Curtiz Dolores Costello, Grant Withers [59]
Melody Lane Robert F. Hill Eddie Leonard, Josephine Dunn Universal's first fully talking musical [50]
The Painted Angel Millard Webb Billie Dove, Edmund Lowe [50]
Paris Clarence G. Badger Irene Bordoni, Jack Buchanan Technicolor sequences. [50]
Queen of the Night Clubs Bryan Foy Texas Guinan, Lila Lee [50]
Red Hot Rhythm Leo McCarey Alan Hale, Kathryn Crawford Multicolor sequences. [50]
The Sacred Flame Archie Mayo Pauline Frederick, Conrad Nagel [60]
Skin Deep Ray Enright Monte Blue, Betty Compson
Smiling Irish Eyes William A. Seiter Colleen Moore Part-Technicolor. [50]
A Song of Kentucky Lewis Seiler Lois Moran, Joseph Wagstaff [50]
South Sea Rose Allan Dwan Lenore Ulric, Charles Bickford [61]
Speakeasy Benjamin Stoloff Paul Page, Lola Lane [62]
Stark Mad Lloyd Bacon Louise Fazenda, H. B. Warner Released in both silent and all-talking version; both are lost. However Vitaphone disc soundtracks of both the trailer and excerpts of the film were spotted in UCLA's Archive in October 2023 by Ray Langstone. [63]
The Time, the Place and the Girl Howard Bretherton Grant Withers, Betty Compson
The Burning of the Red Lotus Temple Zhang Shichuan Hu Die The film ran for 27 hours total. [64]


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1930 An Elastic Affair Alfred Hitchcock Short film made by Hitchcock for an awards ceremony at the London Palladium in January 1930 [65]
The Big Party John G. Blystone Sue Carol, Dixie Lee [50]
Cock o' the Walk Walter Lang Joseph Schildkraut, Myrna Loy
Noli Me Tángere Jose Nepumuceno The 1930 version of Noli Me Tángere was directed by Jose Nepumucenom based on the novel written by Dr. Jose Rizal with a synchronized soundtrack.
Cameo Kirby Irving Cummings J. Harold Murray, Norma Terris [50]
The Cave of the Silken Web II Dan Duyu Yin Mingzhu Silent. Chinese film. Original title: 续盘丝洞 (Xù pán xī dong). Sequel to the 1927 The Cave of the Silken Web (which itself had been thought to have been lost, but was rediscovered in 2013)
College Lovers John G. Adolfi Marion Nixon, Jack Whiting Musical comedy. Six Vitaphone discs containing elements of the soundtrack are held at UCLA and were discovered in October 2023. [50]
Fellers Austin Fay, Arthur Higgins Arthur Tauchert, Les Coney An Australian comedy [66]
Kismet John Francis Dillon Otis Skinner, Loretta Young A lavish costume drama in the early widescreen process known as Vitascope. The complete soundtrack exists on Vitaphone discs. [67]
Let's Go Places Frank R. Strayer Frank Richardson, Dixie Lee [50]
Lord Richard in the Pantry Walter Forde Richard Cooper, Dorothy Seacombe Included on the British Film Institute's "75 Most Wanted" list of lost British feature films [68]
One Mad Kiss Marcel Silver José Mojica, Antonio Moreno [50]
Song of the Flame Alan Crosland Bernice Claire, Noah Beery All-Technicolor musical drama, the first color film featuring widescreen, and Academy Award nominee for Best Sound. Sound discs for five of the nine reels exist. [50]
1931 Alam Ara Ardeshir Irani Master Vithal, Zubeida, Jilloo, Sushila, Prithviraj Kapoor The first Indian sound film [69]
Deadlock George King Stewart Rome, Marjorie Hume, Warwick Ward On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list [70]
Hobson's Choice Thomas Bentley James Harcourt, Viola Lyel, Frank Pettingell On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list of lost films [71]
Kalidas H. M. Reddy T. P. Rajalakshmi, P. G. Venkatesan, L. V. Prasad First sound film in Telugu cinema, Tamil cinema, as well as in South Indian cinema [72][73]
Peludópolis Quirino Cristiani Argentine production; the world's first animated feature film with sound, using a primitive sound-on-disc system [74]
The Bells Harcourt Templeman Donald Calthrop, Jane Welsh, Edward Sinclair, O.B. Clarence, Wilfred Shine, Ralph Truman, Anita Sharp-Bolster The film was originally released with a film score written by Gustav Holst, the only film score by Holst. [75]
Two Crowded Hours Michael Powell John Longden, Jane Welsh, Jerry Verno Powell's directorial debut [76]
1932 Charlie Chan's Chance John G. Blystone Warner Oland Sixth film of the Charlie Chan series and third with Warner Oland [77]
Men of Tomorrow Zoltan Korda, Leontine Sagan Maurice Braddell, Joan Gardner Robert Donat's film debut; on the BFI 75 Most Wanted list of lost films [78]
The Night of Decision Dimitri Buchowetzki Conrad Veidt, Olga Chekhova, Peter Voß
The Missing Rembrandt Leslie S. Hiscott Arthur Wontner Second film in the Sherlock Holmes series [79][80]
Speed Demon D. Ross Lederman William Collier Jr.
The Wiser Sex Berthold Viertel Claudette Colbert, Melvyn Douglas
1933 Chikara to Onna no Yo no Naka Kenzō Masaoka First sound anime [81]
Ang Aswang George Mauser Celia Xerxes Burgos, Luis Ayesa, Arturo Sawanson The first ever Filipino talkie film and an early example of horror genre movies based on Philippine mythology, featuring a creature called Aswang or a Ghoul. The film opened to acclaim at the Lyric on January 1, 1933, then at the Tivoli on January 4. Unfortunately, according to some observers, the sound was sometimes out of sync and inaudible. [82]
The Big Brain George Archainbaud George E. Stone
Phillips Holmes
Fay Wray
Convention City Archie Mayo Joan Blondell
Dick Powell
Adolphe Menjou
Mary Astor
A pre-Code film produced by First NationalWarner Bros. [50]
Hotel Variety Raymond Cannon Hal Skelly
Olive Borden
Charlotte Walker
Night in the City Fei Mu Ruan Lingyu
Jin Yan
Fei Mu's debut
Racetrack (film) James Cruze Leo Carrillo
Junior Coughlan
Kay Hammond
Two Minutes Silence Paulette McDonagh Frank Bradley, Campbell Copelin, Marie Lorraine Australia's first anti-war movie [66]
Wasei Kingu Kongu Torajiro Saito Isamu Yamaguchi Japanese short film based on King Kong [83]
1934 Jail Birds of Paradise Al Boasberg Dorothy Appleby, Moe Howard, Curly Howard The only lost Three Stooges film [84]
Murder at Monte Carlo Ralph Ince Errol Flynn Flynn's debut film in the UK [85]
Ragazzo Ivo Perilli Costantino Frasca, Isa Pola, Osvaldo Valenti Screening was banned by Fascist authorities before the premiere, and the film was subsequently stored at the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografia. During the Germans' retreat in 1944, the center was looted and set on fire. [86][87]
The Scarab Murder Case Michael Hankinson Wilfrid Hyde-White A Philo Vance film [88]
1935 The Magic Shoes Claude Flemming Peter Finch Completed, but never released [66]
Obeah! F. Herrick Herrick Jean Brooks, Phillips Lord Released in February 1935 [89]
1936 The Oregon Trail Scott Pembroke John Wayne Stills were found in 2013 [90]
The Adventures of Pinocchio Raoul Verdini, Umberto Spano Unfinished film intended to be the first animated feature film from Italy. Only the original script and a couple of still frames survive. [91]
1937 Terang Boelan Albert Balink Rd. Mochtar, Roekiah Romance film from the Dutch East Indies; the colony's biggest commercial success [92]
1938 The King Kong That Appeared in Edo Sōya Kumagai Eizaburo Matsumoto Likely lost during World War II [93]
Niemnem Wanda Jakubowska and Karol Szolowski The Nazi regime liked the artistic value of the movie, but could not allow the screening of a picture so firmly rooted in Polish history. It was dubbed and re-edited, changing it to pro-German propaganda. Stefan Dekierowski informed the Polish underground, and the remaining three copies (out of five total) were hidden in winter 1939; the movie is believed to be lost.
1939 The Good Old Days Roy William Neill Max Miller, Hal Walters, Kathleen Gibson On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list of lost films [94]
Secreto de confesión Lost during the bombing of Manila during World War II


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1940 Harta Berdarah R Hu, Rd Ariffien Zonder, Soelastri Indonesian action film. Screened until at least July 1944 [95]
Kedok Ketawa Jo An Djan Fatimah, Basoeki Resobowo, Oedjang Union Films' first production. Screened until at least August 1944 [96]
1941 Asmara Moerni Rd Ariffien Adnan Kapau Gani, Djoewariah, S. Joesoef Indonesian romance film. Screened until at least November 1945 [96]
Bajar dengan Djiwa R Hu A Bakar, Djoewariah, O Parma, Oedjang, RS Fatimah, Soelastri, Zonder Indonesian drama film. Screened until at least October 1943 [96]
Soeara Berbisa R Hu Raden Soekarno, Ratna Djoewita, Oedjang, Soehaena Screened until at least February 1949, longer than any other Union Films production, and the only Union picture known to have been shown post-World War II [96]
Wanita dan Satria Rd Ariffien Djoewariah, Ratna Djoewita, Hidajat, Z. Algadrie, Moesa [96]
Mega Mendoeng Boen Kim Nam Raden Soekarno, Oedjang, Boen Sofiati, Soehaena Union Films' final production before the studio closed ahead of the impending Japanese occupation [96]
1943 Squadron Leader X Lance Comfort Eric Portman, Ann Dvorak On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list of lost films [97]
1944 Red Sky at Morning Hartney Arthur Peter Finch, John Alden [66]
1945 Flight from Folly Herbert Mason Patricia Kirkwood, Hugh Sinclair Screen debut of stage star Kirkwood. On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list of lost films [98]
1945 We Accuse Joseph H. Zarovich Everett Sloane, narr. One of the first feature-length American Holocaust documentaries released after Liberation, with narration scripted by John Bright, screenwriter for The Public Enemy (1931) and She Done Him Wrong (1933) [99]
1948 The Betrayal Oscar Micheaux The director's final production [100]


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1960 Linda Don Sharp Carol White, Alan Rothwell On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list of lost films [101]
1962 Bulgasari Kim Myeong-je Choi Moo-ryong, Um Aing-ran Believed to be the first South Korean monster film, as well as the first to use special effects. The film is one of the most sought-after lost films in the kaiju genre. [102][103][104]
1962 The Weird Ones Pat Boyette [105]
1963 Andy Warhol Films: Jack Smith Filming Normal Love Andy Warhol Jack Smith This home movie, which may have been Warhol's first film, was seized by the New York City police in March 1964 and has since disappeared. [106]
Farewell Performance Robert Tronson David Kernan,
Frederick Jaeger,
Delphi Lawrence
On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list of lost films [107]
1966 Gogola Balwant Dave An Indian Hindi-language monster film.[108] Following in the vein of such Japanese kaiju films as those in the Godzilla series, the plot of Gogola concerns a giant creature that emerges from the sea to terrorize Mumbai.[109] Posters, lobby cards featuring promotional stills, and its soundtrack have survived. [108]
1967 Batman Fights Dracula Leody M. Diaz Jing Abalos, Dante Rivero A Filipino parody made without the permission of DC Comics, which owns the copyright for the character of Batman [110]
1969 Boys Arthur J. Bressan Jr. One of Bressan's first films, this gay adult production is identified as a lost film by the co-hosts of the podcast Ask Any Buddy. [111][112]


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1972 Lash of Lust George Sheaffer Gary Kent, Bambi Allen, Rene Bond, George Buck Flower Filmed in 1969 on the Spahn Ranch while the Manson Family was in residence and shortly before the commission of the Tate-LaBianca Murders. [113]
Midnight Geisha Boy Dick Martin Mark Richards, Ken Hill, Sammy Bond, Garth Lennox, Ray Revel All copies of this gay-themed adult film were confiscated in a raid of Jaguar Productions' office by the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Apart from a trailer, no known film elements have survived. [114]
Nobody Ordered Love Robert Hartford-Davis Ingrid Pitt, Tony Selby All known prints believed destroyed upon the director's death at his request. On the BFI 75 Most Wanted list of lost films [115]
1973 Prem Parbat Ved Rahi Satish Kaul, Hema Malini According to the film's director, the print of the film has long since degraded to the point of being unusable. [116]
Romusha Herman Nagara Rofi'ie Prabancana, A. Hamid Arief This film about Japanese war crimes in occupied Indonesia was destroyed just before its release by the period regime, following a protest from the Japanese embassy. [117]
1974 Every Nigger Is a Star Calvin Lockhart Calvin Lockhart, Alfred Fagon Lost film about a man's journey to return to his home of Jamaica, where he meets famous reggae bands of the time, including Inner Circle. However, the soundtrack has survived, and has gained mainstream attention due to the title track being sampled on rapper Kendrick Lamar's album To Pimp a Butterfly and for being featured in the 2016 film Moonlight. [118]
Him Ed D. Louie Tava Gay pornographic film about a man who develops an erotic fixation with the life of Jesus Christ. Has been erroneously described as a hoax. [119]
1975 Levi & Leather Mother Goose Also known as Levi's N' Leather. A fetish-themed gay pornographic film that premiered over Thanksgiving weekend of 1975 in San Francisco, on a double bill with the Roger Earl film Born to Raise Hell. The podcast Ask Any Buddy notes that it is a lost film. [120]
1977 Kissa Kursi Ka Amrit Nahata Shabana Azmi, Utpal Dutt The plot revolved around a corrupt and evil politician Gangaram or Gangu, played by Manohar Singh, trying to woo personified public, depicted as mute and helpless looking (Shabana Azmi.) The film was a satire on the politics of Indira Gandhi and her son Sanjay Gandhi and was banned by the Indian Government during the Emergency period and all prints were confiscated. Subsequently, all the prints and the master-print of the film at Censor Board office were picked up, later brought to Maruti factory in Gurgaon, where they were burned [121]
1979 Njattadi Bharath Gopi Bharat Murali, K.N. Sreenivasan, Sunil, Girija and Kalamandalam Devaki The film is based on the life of the protagonist Unni, who is moved by Naxalite ideas. It was banned by the censor board because of the portrayal of Naxal ideas. The film was screened only twice and its print is now lost. [122]


Year Film Director Cast Notes Ref
1982 Milagro sa Porta Vaga Florencio Orbeta Julie Vega Religious epic film about Our Lady of Porta Vaga, a venerated Marian icon in the Philippines. No known print of the film was found aside from a lone still. [123]
1983 Roy del espacio Hector López Carmona, Rafael Ángel Gil and Ulises Pérez Aguirre José Chorena, Guillermo Coria, Juan Domingo Méndez Animated Mexican sci-fi film. After its initial release, it was never re-released on home media and remains inaccessible aside from a number of stills. [124]
1983-1985 P.P. The Planetary Pal Paul Sammon Steve Bailey, Nanci Hunter, and Sally Marsh Feature length parody film of E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, was fully filmed and completed but never released. [125] [126]


  1. ^ "Vault and Nitrate Fires – A History". Archived from the original on June 15, 2009. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
  2. ^ a b c Jo Botting. "Lost Then Found". British Film Institute ( Retrieved February 21, 2013.
  3. ^ Robert A. Harris, public hearing statement to the National Film Preservation Board of the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., February 1993.
  4. ^ "Group's rescue of old films preserves glimpse into past". The Film Foundation/The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved August 31, 2018.
  5. ^ "Why". Deutsche Kinemathek. Retrieved March 25, 2013.
  6. ^ Ohlheiser, Abby (December 4, 2013). "Most of America's Silent Films Are Lost Forever". The Wire. Archived from the original on November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
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