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List of language regulators

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism and prestige, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also be descriptive, however, while maintaining (but not imposing) a standard spelling. Many language academies are private institutions, although some are governmental bodies in different states, or enjoy some form of government-sanctioned status in one or more countries. There may also be multiple language academies attempting to regulate the same language, sometimes based in different countries and sometimes influenced by political factors.

Many world languages have one or more language academies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (e.g. Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English. They have a degree of standardization that allows them to function as standard languages (e.g. standard French). The English language has never had a formal regulator anywhere.

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Hi, I'm Craig, and this is Crash Course Government & Politics, and today, we're gonna talk about bureaucracies, just as soon as I finish filling out these forms. Do I really have to initial here, here, and here on all three copies, Stan? Regulations say so? All right. I'm just kidding. I don't really have to fill out forms in triplicate in order to make an episode of Crash Course, but this kind of stuff is one of the main reasons that people don't like bureaucracies. Americans tend to associate them with incomprehensible rules and time-wasting procedures and probably most annoying - actual bureaucrats. But bureaucracies are a lot like our extended families, in that we largely don't understand, or at least don't appreciate, the important role that bureaucracies play in our lives, mainly because of all the forms, and because my cousin who always ate all the cookies from the jar at Grandma's house. So what exactly IS a bureaucracy? I don't like to do this, because I'm arrogant and lazy, but sometimes it's helpful to go to a dictionary when you need to find out what a word means. So here's a serviceable, political science-y definition: "A bureaucracy is a complex structure of offices, tasks, rules, and principles of organization that are employed by all large scale institutions to coordinate the work of their personnel." Two points to emphasize here: First, bureaucracies are made up of experts who usually know more about the topic at hand than you do and who are able to divide up complex tasks so that they can get done. Second, all large scale institutions use bureaucracies, so the distinction between big business and big government is, in at least this respect, bogus, or what I like to call a false dichotomy. Is that too pretentious to say "false dichotomy," Stan? I don't care, I'm saying it. False dichotomy! So if people hate bureaucracies so much and compare them unfavorably with Google and Amazon, why do we have them? Well, the main reason is that bureaucracies are efficient. They make it easier for governments to accomplish tasks quickly and to basically operate at all. In the US, federal bureaucrats fulfill a number of specific important functions. One, bureaucrats implement the laws that Congress writes. Have you ever read a law? They're pretty complicated. It's a good idea to have experts who can interpret them and put them into action. Two, bureaucrats also make and enforce their own rules. But this isn't as action hero-ish as it sounds. And three, they settle disputes through a process called administrative adjudication, which makes them kind of like courts. Now, since I know that all of you have been paying extremely close attention to these episodes, you know that at least two of those functions are problematic in ways that go beyond making rules that seem Byzantine or stupid or both - Byzantupid. The big concern here is the separation of powers, which you remember is the idea that power is divided between three branches of government. Technically the federal bureaucracy is part of the executive branch, but it's so big that it dwarfs the other two branches and can easily overpower them, much like I overpower this eagle. "That's right eagle. I make my own rules, like a bureaucracy." But an even more troubling, to some people, aspect of bureaucracies is what they actually do. So let's go to the Thought Bubble. Bureaucracies don't just enforce the rules; they make new ones called regulations. In doing this, they're acting like a legislature, especially since the rules have the force of law and people can be punished for breaking them. For example, if you say "Sh%t Sticks" on TV, the FCC can fine you, just like the local law enforcement would if you broke a state law against speeding. And don't say "Sh%t Sticks" to the cop. But according to the Constitution, Congress is supposed to make the laws, so if you're a constitutional formalist, this is going to give you fits. On the other hand, the rule making process allows for a degree of popular participation that goes way beyond what happens in Congress. In 2014, Congress called for the mandatory notice and comment period on new FCC rules on the issue of net neutrality. Any person can read the proposed rules which are not easy to understand and offer a public comment, including suggestions for new rules using the internet. The bureaucracy is required to read the comments and they could be incorporated into the final rules that are published in the federal register. So in a way, federal rule-making is more democratic than congressional law-making, but it's still not in the constitution. Administrative adjudication raises similar separation of powers issues, but they're less problematic because the constitution gives congress the right to establish courts other than the Supreme Court and it doesn't say that these can't be administrative tribunals that are part of bureaucratic agencies. Many low level bureaucratic positions are filled through competitive exam-based civil service procedures which are supposed to ensure a level of expertise and take politics out of the staffing process. But many upper level bureaucratic leaders especially cabinet secretaries and also ambassadors are very political. For one thing, they're appointed by politicians who may be repaying favors or trying to pack the agencies with like-minded favorites. For another, bureaucrats engaged in bargaining and protect their own interests, the very thing that politicians do all the time. Thanks Thought Bubble. So the first reason we keep bureaucracies is because bureaucracies are useful. They do get things done even though it might not be as quickly as we'd like. And some of these things are things we want done, like inspecting our meat so we don't get E. coli or Salmonella or Mad Cow Disease. One response to this that we'll talk about later is to get rid of public bureaucracies and contract their tasks out to private companies. There's something to be said to this. After all, in a lot of ways UPS does a better job of getting packages to us than the postal service does. And I also have a lot more fun at the private bowling alley than the public one. There's no such thing as a public bowling alley. If there is, I'm going. Might be free. But the main argument for privatization seems to be cost. And that one might not always be true. It seems unlikely that a private corporation would spring up to inspect meat. And although we can rely on pricing to signal that our chicken wings are salmonella free, I don't think it's a good idea. So in addition to being useful and filling roles that the private sector might not fill, one of the reasons we have so many bureaucracies is because Congress keeps making them and delegating power to them. If we didn't have bureaucracy, Congressmen and their staff would be taking on all the oversight and enforcement of their own laws. In addition to creating its own separation of powers problem, this might be kind of chaotic, considering that potentially the entire House of Representatives could be replaced every two years. One advantage of bureaucracies is a certain amount of stability in the built-up expertise that comes with it. Probably the main reason why we don't change bureaucracies though is that doing so is really difficult. Once Congress makes a bureaucracy it's usually permanent for a number of practical and political reasons. We'll get into those reasons next time. So I'm going to wrap this up with a little bit of a reminder about Federalism, based on a largely unwarranted assertion. I bet that if you ask most Americans to give an example of a bureaucracy they will say the DMV. Most people will tell you a DMV horror story of the time they had to wait in line for four hours just to renew their license and when they got to the counter a clerk told them that they didn't have the right forms and they needed to post a money order, and not a credit card or a check or even cash and that anyway they had to go on break and I had to come back in fifteen minutes and all I wanted was my license-- AAAAAAH the DMV! And I sympathize with this predicament but I feel the need to remind anyone who has had this experience at the DMV, that it's a state bureaucracy, not the federal bureaucracy. Most of the bureaucrats you meet in your daily life: teachers, policeman, tax assessors are officials of your state government, not the federal government, like Bureaucrat Jimmy. Which is pretty much what the Framers intended. So it's a good idea to be thoughtful about which government we're going to transfer our anger towards and to rage against the correct machine. That's what federalism's all about. Thanks for watching. I'll see you next week. Crash Course: Government & Politics is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course: U.S. Government comes from Voqal. Voqal supports nonprofits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more about their mission and initiatives at Crash Course was made with the help of these soulless bureaucrats. Thanks for watching.


Natural languages

Language Territory Regulator(s)
Amis  Republic of China (Taiwan) Council of Indigenous Peoples
Afrikaans  South Africa Die Taalkommissie
Akan  Ghana Akan Orthography Committee (AOC)
Albanian  Albania
Academy of Sciences of Albania, Tirana
 Arab League Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية)
Arabic Language International Council
 Algeria Supreme Council of the Arabic language in Algeria
 Egypt Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo
 Iraq Iraqi Academy of Sciences
 Jordan Jordan Academy of Arabic
 Libya Academy of the Arabic Language in Jamahiriya
 Morocco Academy of the Arabic Language in Morocco
 Saudi Arabia Academy of the Arabic Language in Riyadh
 Somalia Academy of the Arabic Language in Mogadishu
 Sudan Academy of the Arabic Language in Khartum
 Syria Academy of the Arabic Language in Damascus
 Tunisia Beit Al-Hikma Foundation
Academy of the Arabic Language in Israel (مجمع اللغة العربية)
Aragonese  Aragon Academia de l'Aragonés, Aragon, Spain
Armenian  Armenia Armenian National Academy of Sciences (Հայաստան)
Assamese India Assam Asam Sahitya Sabha (অসম সাহিত্য সভা)
Asturian  Asturias Academy of the Asturian Language (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)
Azerbaijani  Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Basque Basque Country (autonomous community) Basque Country
Navarre Navarre
France French Basque Country
Euskaltzaindia, often translated as Royal Academy of the Basque language
Belarusian  Belarus The Jakub Kolas and Janka Kupala Institute of Language and Literature[2] at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Bengali (Bangla)  Bangladesh Bangla Academy (বাংলা একাডেমি)
India West Bengal Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি)
Berber  Morocco Royal Institute of Amazight Culture
 Algeria Haut-Conseil à l'amazighité
Algerian Academy of Amazigh Language
Central Bikol  Philippines Academia Bicolana defunct
Bosnian  Bosnia and Herzegovina
University of Sarajevo
Bulgarian  Bulgaria Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Burmese  Myanmar Myanmar Language Commission
Cantonese  Hong Kong Official Language Division Civil Service Bureau Government of Hong Kong
 Macau Departamento dos Assuntos Linguísticos Public Administration and Civil Service Bureau(zh)Government of Macau
Castilian  Spain
 El Salvador
 Costa Rica
 Dominican Republic
 Puerto Rico
 United States
 Equatorial Guinea
Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (constituted by the Real Academia Española plus 22 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world and an Israel-based committee for Judaeo-Spanish.)
Catalan  Catalonia Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)
 Valencian Community Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (for the Valencian standard)
Cebuano  Philippines Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters (Akademyang Bisaya)
Cherokee  Cherokee Nation Council of the Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ)
Standard Chinese  People's Republic of China State Language Work Committee (国家语言文字工作委员会)
 Republic of China (Taiwan) National Languages Committee (國語推行委員會)
 Singapore Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会)
 Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)
Cornish  Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)
Croatian  Croatia Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Czech  Czech Republic Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) (Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky))
Danish  Denmark Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)
Dalecarlian Sweden Dalarna County Ulum Dalska
Dari  Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Divehi  Maldives Dhivehi Academy
Dutch  Netherlands
Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)
Dzongkha  Bhutan Dzongkha Development Commission (རྫོང་ཁ་གོང་འཕེལ་ལྷན་ཚོགས)
Estonian  Estonia Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)
Faroese  Faroe Islands Faroese Language Council (Málráðið)
Filipino  Philippines Commission on the Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino)
Finnish  Finland Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
French  France Académie française (French Academy)
 Belgium Académie royale de langue et de littérature françaises de Belgique (Royal Academy of French Language and Literature of Belgium)
 Quebec Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Office of the French Language)
Galician  Galicia Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega)
German  Germany
 South Tyrol
Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)
Greenlandic  Greenland The Greenland Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik)
Greek  Greece
Center for the Greek language (Κέντρον Ελληνικής Γλώσσας)
Guarani  Paraguay Guarani Language Academy (Guarani Ñe’ ẽ Rerekuapavẽ)
Hakka  Republic of China (Taiwan) Hakka Affairs Council (客家委員會)
Haitian Creole  Haiti Akademi Kreyòl Ayisyen (Haitian Creole Academy)
Hebrew  Israel Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית)
Hindi  India Central Hindi Directorate (regulates use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India)
Hmar  India Hmar Literature Society (Manipur, India)[citation needed]
Hungarian  Hungary Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)
Icelandic  Iceland Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies
Igbo  Nigeria Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture
Indonesian  Indonesia Language Development and Fostering Agency (Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa)
Irish  Ireland
 Northern Ireland
Foras na Gaeilge
Italian  Italy
 San Marino
  Vatican City
Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran)
Japanese  Japan No official centralized regulation, but de facto regulations by Agency for Cultural Affairs (文化庁) at the Ministry of Education of Japan (文部科学省)
Kannada India Karnataka Various academies and Government of Karnataka
Kashubian  Poland Commission of the Kashubian Language [1]
Kazakh  Kazakhstan Ministry of Culture of Kazakhstan
Khmer  Cambodia Royal Academy of Cambodia (រាជបណ្ឌិត្យសភាកម្ពុជា)
Korean  South Korea National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원/國立國語院)
 North Korea The Language Research Institute, Academy of Social Science (사회과학원 어학연구소/社會科學院 語學研究所)
 People's Republic of China China Korean Language Regulatory Commission (중국조선어규범위원회/中国朝鲜语规范委员会)
Kven  Norway Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt
Kyrgyz  Kyrgyzstan National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия)
Latin  Holy See Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (ecclesiastical Latin)[3]
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)
Latvian  Latvia Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)
Lithuanian  Lithuania Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija)
Lusoga  Uganda Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)
Malay  Malaysia Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (The Institute of Language and Literature)
 Brunei Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka Brunei (Language and Literature Bureau)
Malayalam India Kerala Kerala Sahitya Akademi (കേരള സാഹിത്യ പരിശീലന സ്ഥാപനം) and Government of Kerala
Maltese  Malta National Council for the Maltese Language (
Manx  Isle of Man Coonceil ny Gaelgey
Māori  New Zealand Māori Language Commission
Mirandese  Portugal Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)
Mixtec  Mexico Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)
Khalkha Mongolian  Mongolia Council of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.[4]
Chakhar Mongolian  People's Republic of China Council for Language and Literature Work
Nepali    Nepal Language Academy of Nepal
Norwegian (Riksmål/Bokmål)  Norway Norwegian Academy
Norwegian Bokmål
Norwegian Nynorsk
 Norway Norwegian Language Council
Occitan  Occitania
Lo Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language) [2]
Institut d'Estudis Aranesi (Aranese)[5]
Conselh de la Lenga Occitana
Pashto  Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
 Pakistan Pashto Academy
Persian  Iran
Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی)
Paiwan  Republic of China (Taiwan) Council of Indigenous Peoples
Polish  Poland Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego), of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Portuguese  Portugal Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras
 Brazil Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Literary Academy)
 Galicia Galician Academy of the Portuguese Language (Academia Galega da Lingua Portuguesa)
Quechua  Peru High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)
Romanian  Romania Institutul de Lingvisticǎ al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)
 Moldova Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei
Russian  Russian Empire Russian Academy (1783–1841)
 Russia Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1944)
Scots  Scotland The Scots Language Centre supports the Scots language.[6] Scottish Language Dictionaries record and analyse the language as it is spoken and written throughout Scotland and Ulster today.[7]
Secwepemctsín  Canada Stk'wemiple7s re Secwepemctsin, are the group of people supported by the Secwepemc Cultural Education Society who develop new words.
Serbian and Montenegrin  Serbia
Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Sindhi  Pakistan Sindhi Language Authority [3]
Sinhala  Sri Lanka Hela Havula (හෙළ හවුල)
Slovak  Slovakia Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied)
Slovene  Slovenia Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Somali  Djibouti
Regional Somali Language Academy
Sorbian  Germany
 Czech Republic
Serbski institut [4]
Swahili  Tanzania Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa
 Kenya Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa
Swedish  Sweden Swedish Language Council (semi-official)
Swedish Academy
 Finland Swedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Svenska språkbyrån)
Tamil India Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Tamil University and Official Language Commission of Government of Tamil Nadu
 Sri Lanka Department of Official Languages, Sri Lanka
Taiwanese Hokkien  Republic of China (Taiwan) Ministry of Education (Taiwan)
Tatar  Tatarstan Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan [5]
Telugu India Andhra Pradesh and Telangana Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh
Tetum  Timor-Leste National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor
Thai  Thailand Royal Society of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสภา)
Tibetan  India Committee for the Standardisation of the Tibetan Language
Turkish  Turkey
 Northern Cyprus
Turkish Language Association
Ukrainian  Ukraine NASU Institute of Ukrainian Language
Urdu  Pakistan National Language Authority, Pakistan
 India National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, India
Urhobo  Nigeria Urhobo Studies Association
Võro  Estonia Võro Institute
Waray  Philippines Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct
Welsh  Wales Welsh Language Commissioner (Meri Huws)
— The Welsh Government
(previously the Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)(Principally, however, the role of the Welsh Language Commissioner is that of language planning and policy regulator and enforcer. The role also includes corpus planning.)
West Frisian  Friesland Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy)
Wolof  Senegal Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)
Yiddish  United States
YIVO [6]
Yoruba  Nigeria Yoruba Academy

Auxiliary languages


Apart from the Akademio de Esperanto, most auxiliary languages, also known as constructed languages (Conlangs) have no true linguistic regulators, language academies.[8]

Esperanto and Ido have been constructed (or planned) by a person or small group, before being adopted and further developed by communities of users through natural language evolution.

Bodies such as the Akademio de Esperanto look at questions of usage in the light of the original goals and principles of the language.

See also : International auxiliary languages

Language Regulator(s)
Esperanto Akademio de Esperanto
Ido Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido
Lojban Logical Language Group
Volapük Kadäm Volapüka

Other constructed languages

Language Regulator(s)
Klingon Marc Okrand
Talossan Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ


The auxiliary language Interlingua has no regulating body, as its vocabulary, grammar, and orthography are viewed as a product of ongoing social forces. In theory, Interlingua therefore evolves independent from any human regulator. Interlingua's vocabulary is verified and recorded by dynamically applying certain general principles to an existing set of natural languages and their etymologies. The International Auxiliary Language Association ceased to exist in 1954, and according to the secretary of Union Mundial de Interlingua "Interlingua doesn't need its Academy".[8]

See also


  1. ^ Thomas, George (1991) Linguistic purism p.108, quotation:

    Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets such as Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks -- as with so many academies to follow -- was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian

  2. ^ "Organizations Attached to the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts". National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Retrieved 8 June 2012. Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian – the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages – Belarusian dictionaries; ...
  3. ^ "Pontificia Academia Latinitatis" (in Latin). 2012-11-10. Retrieved 2013-08-19.
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