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List of individuals executed by the United States military

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of individuals executed by the United States military.

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10 World Leaders Murdered By The US Government Since the 1940’s, the CIA has allegedly succeeded in killing a significant number of leaders around the world, either by pulling the trigger themselves, or by using local military to do the dirty work for them. 10. OSAMA BIN LADEN Founder and head of the Islamist group Al-Qaeda, Osama Bin Laden was the key figure behind the September 11 attacks on the United States, which killed nearly 3,000 people and injured a further 6,000. From 2001 to 2011, he was a major target of the War on Terror, and the FBI placed a $25 million bounty on him in their search for him. For almost ten years, Bin Laden remained in hiding, recruiting enthusiastic young jihadis to his cause and plotting new attacks. Meanwhile, the CIA and other intelligence agencies frantically searched in vain for his hiding place. Finally, in August 2010, they traced Bin Laden to a compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan. For months, CIA agents spied on the house and used drones to photograph it from the sky. On May 2, 2011, a team of Navy SEALs burst into the compound, found Bin Laden and shot him in the chest, killing him instantly. US forces then took Laden's body to Afghanistan for positive identification, then buried it at sea, in accordance with Islamic law. In a televised address to the nation that night, Obama claimed “Justice has been done.” 9. CHE GUEVARA Of all the pop culture images that surround us, it is ironically Che Guevara's face - a man who gave up his life for communism - that often stares at us, emblazoned on t-shirts, posters, iPhone cases and tattoos. Guevara was an Argentinean-born, Cuban revolutionary leader who in the late 1950’s, played a key role in Fidel Castro’s seizure of power from Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista and later served as the minister of industry. In 1965, Guevara resigned from his government post to take the ideas of Cuba’s revolution to other parts of the world. He disappeared from Cuba and eventually resurfaced in Bolivia. A year later, he tried to encourage the Bolivian people to rebel against their government, but had little success. With only a small guerrilla force to support his efforts, he was captured and killed by the Bolivian army, with help from US Green Beret and CIA operatives. In the 1960s, leftist guerrilla movements were threatening the balance of power in the Cold War. So Che wasn’t in America’s good books. Guevara couldn’t care less though, as he believed the United States was responsible for most of the economic and social problems in the Third World, and wanted to start “two, three or many Vietnams” in Latin America to ultimately bring the US to its knees. In 1997 his remains were discovered, exhumed and returned to Cuba, where he was reburied. 8. DAG HAMMARSKJÖLD What caused the 1961 plane crash that killed former UN secretary and Swedish diplomat General Dag Hammarskjöld? Some say it was the result of a pilot error, others suspect it was foul play. More than half a century on, the cause of the plane crash remains unknown. However, in July 2016, the United Nations published a much-anticipated inquiry into the crash that revealed new information about what happened. In the report, UN investigators said that they had found ""significant new information"" supporting a theory that Hammarskjöld's plane was downed by ""aerial attack or other interference."" Those who believe this theory think the plane was deliberately shot down to prevent a meeting with Hammarskjold and Moise Tshombe, the president of the Congolese breakaway province of Katanga. Their meeting was an attempt to negotiate an urgent ceasefire and end its civil war. The USA however, had a vested interest to stop the peace deal: Congo’s mineral wealth, with its soil abundant in deposits of copper, gold, diamonds, and oil. Hammarskjöld was convinced that western interests and mercenaries in Katanga were preventing a settlement. It is believed that the NSA might be in possession of crucial radio intercepts taken from pilots who were in the area at the time the Albertina came down. As of May 2017, the NSA hasn’t released any information. 7. GENERAL RAFAEL TRUJILLO For over 30 years, brutal dictator General Rafael Trujillo ruled over the Dominican Republic with an iron fist. It is estimated that he was responsible for the deaths of more than 50,000 people. Trujillo’s tyrannical rule came to an end on 30 May 1961, when he was shot and killed after his blue 1957 Chevrolet Bel Air was ambushed on a road outside the Dominican capital. The ambush was the result of an assassination plot carried out by a number of men, including General Juan Tomás Díaz, Antonia de la Maza, Amado García Guerrero and General Antonio Imbert Barrera. An internal CIA memo states that there was ‘quite extensive Agency involvement with the plotters’. The weapons of the assassins included three M1 carbines that had been supplied with the approval of the CIA. Within days of the assassination, Trujillo's son Ramfis took charge and almost everyone involved in the conspiracy and members of their extended families were rounded up and killed. 6. ABU AL-KHAYR AL MASRI Reports surfaced on 26 February 2017 that al-Masri, the second in command to Al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, was killed in a US drone strike on his car in Northern Syria. Masri had been part of the global jihadi organisation for three decades and was a son-in-law of its founder, Osama bin Laden. He had a pivotal role in the terrorist group, responsible for co-ordinating al-Qaida’s work with other terrorist organizations. Most notably, he was implicated in the 1998 bombings of two US embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in which more than 200 people, mostly civilians, died. Following the lethal drone strike, there was no immediate official confirmation of his death from either the United States or al-Qaeda. However, two journalists from The Guardian and a US intelligence official later reported that jihadist leaders confirmed that al-Masri was in fact killed in the drone strike. His death was a major blow for the terrorist group and marked its biggest loss to its leadership since the killing of Osama bin Laden in 2011. 5. NGO DINH DIEM The assassination of Ngô Đình Diệm, the president of South Vietnam, was the result of a successful CIA-backed coup led by General Dương Văn Minh in November 1963. Diem and his adviser, his younger brother Ngô Đình Nhu, were executed in the back of an armoured personnel carrier by Army Republic of Vietnam officers on the journey back to military headquarters at Tân Sơn Nhứt Air Base. Diem’s death caused celebration among many people in South Vietnam as his governance style had become increasingly dictatorial over time. But it also lead to political chaos in the nation. In an attempt to stabilize the South Vietnamese government and beat back communist rebels, the United States became more heavily involved in Vietnam. But did the US have any prior knowledge of the coup that overthrew Diem? Most likely. Despite publicly disclaiming any participation in the planning of the coup, it was later revealed that American officials met with the generals who organized the plot and allegedly gave them encouragement to go through with their plans. 4. PATRICE LUMUMBA Patrice Lumumba was Congo’s first legally elected Prime Minister and the hero of Congolese independence from Belgium. However, shortly after the African country gained independence in 1960, things went downhill for poor Lumumba. A mutiny broke out in the army and in a fateful move to suppress Belgian-supported rebels who wanted to break up the country, he turned to the Soviet Union for support. Bad idea. In the midst of the Cold War, this set off panic in London and Washington as people feared the Soviets would get a foothold in Africa. President Eisenhower was outraged. He turned to his CIA director and told him the time was up for Lumumba. So the CIA starting planning his demise. After an aborted assassination attempt against Lumumba involving a poisoned handkerchief, the CIA alerted Congolese troops of his location. In January 1961, Lumumba was dead, killed by a firing squad. It wasn’t until 2014, that the United States recognised the CIA's active involvement in his death. 3. IMAD MUGHNIYAH It’s the evening of February 12, 2008. Hezbollah master terrorist Imad Mughniyeh is strolling home after dinner on a quiet street in Damascus. Not far from his location is a group of CIA spotters in the Syrian capital tracking him. Just as he came close to a parked SUV, a bomb planted in a spare tire on the back of the vehicle exploded, sending a burst of shrapnel towards him. He was killed instantly. The device was triggered remotely from Tel Aviv by agents with Mossad, the Israeli foreign intelligence service, who were in communication with the operatives on the ground in Damascus. According to a former US intelligence official, the United States helped build the bomb and tested it at a CIA facility in North Carolina to ensure the potential blast area was contained and would not result in collateral damage. But why would the US and Israeli intelligence agencies work together? They both had motive. Mughniyeh had been implicated in some of Hezbollah’s most deadly terrorist attacks, including those against the U.S. Embassy in Beirut and the Israeli Embassy in Argentina. 2. SALVADOR ALLENDE President Nixon made it clear in 1970 that a CIA assassination of the new left-wing Chilean president would not be unwelcome. Nixon viewed left-wing Allende as a threat to democracy in Chile and Latin America, so for three years his administration worked with the CIA to instigate a coup against him. In 1973, with the help of the CIA, Chile’s armed forces staged a coup d’état against Allende’s government. Fearing for his life, Allende retreated with his supporters to La Moneda, the fortress-like presidential palace in Santiago, which was bombed by air force jets. Despite surviving the aerial attack, Allende allegedly fatally shot himself as troops stormed the burning palace. Ironically, the democratically elected Allende was succeeded by the brutal dictator General Augusto Pinochet, who during the period of his rule, allegedly murdered around 3,000 people and sent up to 80,000 people to concentration camps. Salvador Allende wasn’t the only victim of the CIA-led coup following the 1970 Chilean election, the commander-in-chief of the Chilean Army, René Schneider was also assassinated during a botched kidnapping attempt. In the days after the Chilean election, a plot to kidnap Schneider was developed. You see, ""neutralizing"" Schneider was vital for a military coup, as he would never support it. So the CIA supplied a group of Chilean officers led by General Camilo Valenzuela with ""sterile"" weapons for the operation, which was to be blamed on Allende supporters. After two failed attempts to assassinate Schneider, the coup-plotters set out to kidnap the commander. His official car was ambushed at a street intersection in the capital city of Santiago. Schneider drew a gun to defend himself, and was shot point-blank several times. Military courts in Chile found that Schneider's death was caused by two military groups, one led by General Roberto Urbano Viaux and the other by the CIA’s man Valenzuela. The lawsuit also asserted that the CIA had aided both groups. On September 10, 2001 Schneider's family filed a suit against Henry Kissinger, the National Security Advisor under President Nixon, accusing him of collaborating with Viaux in arranging for Schneider's murder. The U.S. government claimed it did not intend for Schneider to be murdered, only kidnapped, and eventually the lawsuit was dismissed in the federal district court.

Contents

Executions by the Army during World War II and postwar

The United States Army carried out 141[1] executions over a three-year period from 1942 to 1945 and a further six executions were conducted during the postwar period, for a known total of 147.[2]

Of these 141 wartime executions, 70 were carried out in the European Theatre, 27 in the Mediterranean Theatre, 21 in the Southwest Pacific Area, 19 in the continental United States, two in Hawaii, one in Guadalcanal and one in India; of the six postwar executions, one took place in Hawaii, one in Japan, two in France and two in the Philippines. An execution was also carried out by the United States Air Force in Japan in 1950.

All executions carried out by the Army from 1942 to 1948 were performed under the authority of the Articles of War of June 4, 1920, an Act of Congress which governed military justice between 1920 and 1951.

This list includes members of the United States Army Air Forces, which was a part of the Army until September 18, 1947 when it became independent. Executions by the United States Air Force after 1947 are listed separately.

With the exception of Eddie Slovik, who was shot for desertion, all of these soldiers were executed for murder and/or rape. Several of the soldiers listed as convicted and executed for murder and/or rape had also been convicted of other charges, including those of a military nature such as desertion and mutiny, plus lesser crimes that would not have been considered capital unless combined with more serious offenses which carried the death penalty.

Sources for list in References section.

Executed person Date of execution Location Method
James Rowe 6 November 1942 Fort Huachuca, Arizona Hanging
Edward J. Leonski 9 November 1942 Pentridge Prison, Melbourne, Australia, Southwest Pacific Area Hanging
Jerry Sykes 19 January 1943 Fort Huachuca, Arizona Hanging
David Cobb 12 March 1943 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater Hanging
George S. Knapp 19 March 1943 Bastrop, Texas Hanging
Francis A. Line 26 March 1943 Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Arizona Hanging
Harold A. Smith 25 June 1943 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater Hanging
James E. Kendrick 17 July 1943 Oran, Algeria, North African Theater of Operations ** Hanging
Levi Brandon 26 July 1943 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Hanging
Walter J. Bohn 6 August 1943 Camp Claiborne, Louisiana, United States Hanging
Willie A. Pittman 30 August 1943 Sicily, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Harvey Stroud 30 August 1943 Sicily, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Armstead White 30 August 1943 Sicily, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
David White 30 August 1943 Sicily, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Charles H. Smith 6 September 1943 Algiers, North African Theater of Operations ** Hanging
Lee A. Davis 14 December 1943 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
Edwin P. Jones 5 January 1944 Oran, Algeria, North African Theater of Operations Hanging
John H. Waters 10 February 1944 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
J.C. Leatherberry 16 March 1944 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
Charles A. Spears 18 April 1944 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Wiley Harris, Jr. 26 May 1944 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
Alex F. Miranda 30 May 1944 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater **E Firing squad
Robert L. Donnelly 31 May 1944 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Eliga Brinson 11 August 1944 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
Willie Smith 11 August 1944 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
Clarence Whitfield 14 August 1944 Normandy, France, European Theater ** Hanging
Ray Watson 29 August 1944 Italy. Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
James W. Peoples 2 September 1944 Oro Bay, New Guinea, Southwest Pacific Area Hanging
Harry Bever 26 September 1944 Fort Sill, Oklahoma Hanging
Arthur T. Brown 2 October 1944 Oro Bay, New Guinea, Southwest Pacific Area Hanging
Andrew Gibson 2 October 1944 Oro Bay, New Guinea, Southwest Pacific Area Hanging
Leroy E. Greene 2 October 1944 Oro Bay, New Guinea, Southwest Pacific Area Hanging
Charles A. Horne 2 October 1944 Oro Bay, New Guinea, Southwest Pacific Area Hanging
Eugene A. Washington, Jr. 2 October 1944 Oro Bay, New Guinea, Southwest Pacific Area Hanging
Lloyd L. White, Jr. 2 October 1944 Oro Bay, New Guinea, Southwest Pacific Area Hanging
Madison Thomas 12 October 1944 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
James B. Sanders 25 October 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
Ray W. Anderson 25 October 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
Paul Kluxdal 31 October 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
Willie Wimberly, Jr. 9 November 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
Joseph Watson 9 November 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
Aveline Fernandez 15 November 1944 Oro Bay, New Guinea, Southwest Pacific Area Hanging
Curtis L. Maxey 16 November 1944 Aversa, Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Richard Scott 18 November 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
William D. Pennyfather 18 November 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
Theron McGann 20 November 1944 European Theater Hanging
Arthur E. Davis 22 November 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
Charles H. Jordan 22 November 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
James E. Hendricks 24 November 1944 Normandy, France, European Theater ** Hanging
Benjamin Pygate 28 November 1944 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Firing squad
Oscar N. Newman 29 November 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
Leo Valentine, Sr. 29 November 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
Charles Williams 18 December 1944 United States Hanging
William E. Davis 27 December 1944 European Theater ** Hanging
Waiter J. Baldwin 17 January 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Sylvester Davis 5 January 1945 Randolph Air Force Base, Texas Hanging
Augustine Guerra 8 January 1945 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
Ernest L. Clark 8 January 1945 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
John D. Cooper 9 January 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
John R. O'Connor 15 January 1945 Fort Benning, Georgia Hanging
Arthur J. Farrell 19 January 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
James W. Twiggs 22 January 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Samuel Hawthorne 29 January 1945 Oro Bay, New Guinea, Southwest Pacific Area Hanging
Marvin Holden 30 January 1945 Lemur, Belgium ** Hanging
Elwood J. Spencer 30 January 1945 Lemur, Belgium ** Hanging
Eddie Slovik 31 January 1945 Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines, France, European Theater ** Firing squad
J.P. Wilson 2 February 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Robert L. Skinner 10 February 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Yancy Waiters 10 February 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
William Mack 15 February 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Otis B. Crews 21 February 1945 Mediterranean Theater ** Hanging
Williams C. Downes 28 February 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Amos Agee 3 March 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
John C. Smith 3 March 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Frank Watson 3 March 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Olins W. Williams 9 March 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Lee A. Burns 11 March 1945 Aversa, Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
General L. Grant 11 March 1945 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Herman Perry 15 March 1945 Ledo, Assam, India Hanging
Robert L. Pearson 17 March 1945 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
Cubia (Parson) Jones 17 March 1945 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
Henry Baker 18 March 1945 Philippines Hanging
John M. Mack 20 March 1945 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
John W. Taylor 20 March 1945 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Kinney Jones 20 March 1945 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Robert A. Pearson 20 March 1945 Guadalcanal Hanging
Abraham Smalls 27 March 1945 Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Tommie Davison 29 March 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
William Harrison, Jr. 7 April 1945 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
Curn Jones 10 April 1945 Fort Benning, Georgia Hanging
Benjamin F. Hopper 11 April 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Dan Boswell 16 April 1945 Camp Bowie, Texas Hanging
James L. Jones 19 April 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Mileert Bailey 19 April 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
John Williams 19 April 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
William T. Curry 20 April 1945 Oro Bay, New Guinea, Southwest Pacific Area Hanging
Shelton McGhee, Sr. 4 May 1945 Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
George E. Smith, Jr. 8 May 1945 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
George Green, Jr. 15 May 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Haze Heard 21 May 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
William McCarter 28 May 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Clete O. Norris 31 May 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Alvery R. Rollins 31 May 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Matthew Clay, Jr. 4 June 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Werner E. Schmiedel 11 June 1945 Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Ancieto Martinez 15 June 1945 Shepton Mallet, United Kingdom, European Theater ** Hanging
Victor Ortiz * 21 June 1945 European Theatre Hanging
Willie Johnson 26 June 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Fred A. McMurray 2 July 1945 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Louis Till 2 July 1945 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Charles H. Jefferies 5 July 1945 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
John T. Jones 5 July 1945 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Henry W. Nelson 5 July 1945 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Hanging
Tom E. Gordon 10 July 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Harold Crabtree 31 July 1945 Philippines Firing squad
Cornelius Thomas 1 August 1945 Schofield Barracks, Hawai'i Hanging
Jesse D. Boston 1 August 1945 Schofield Barracks, Hawai'i Firing squad
Robert Davidson 6 August 1945 Green Haven Correctional Facility, New York Firing squad
Ernest J. Harris 9 August 1945 Philippines Hanging
Lee R. Davis 14 August 1945 Fort Sill, Oklahoma Hanging
Herbert W. Reid 14 August 1945 Camp Beale, California Hanging
Clinton Stevenson 14 August 1945 Camp Beale, California Hanging
Ellis McCloud, Jr. 20 August 1945 Philippines Hanging
Robert Wray 20 August 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Edward J. Reichl 22 August 1945 United States Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Hanging
Harvey W. Nichols 28 August 1945 Philippines Hanging
Albert Williams 28 August 1945 Philippines Hanging
Bradley Walters, Jr. 31 August 1945 Philippines Hanging
Henry C. Philpot 10 September 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Fred Hurse 20 September 1945 United States Hanging
Clarence Gibson 24 September 1945 United States Firing squad
James C.Thomas 25 September 1945 Philippines Hanging
Charles M. Robinson 28 September 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Blake W. Mariano 10 October 1945 European Theater ** Hanging
Sidney Bennerman 15 October 1945 European Theater ** Firing squad
Woodrow Parker 15 October 1945 European Theater ** Firing squad
Ozell Louis 15 October 1945 Philippines Hanging
Charlie Ervin, Jr. 19 October 1945 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Firing squad
Mansfield Spinks 19 October 1945 Italy, Mediterranean Theatre of World War II ** Firing squad
Dan J. Lee 9 November 1945 Philippines Firing squad
Ellsworth Williams 5 January 1946 Germany, European Theater ** Hanging
Solomon Thompson 11 September 1946 European Theater Hanging
Garlon Mickles 22 April 1947 Schofield Barracks, Hawai'i Hanging
James Norman 25 April 1947 Philippines Hanging
William Abney 1 December 1947 Mandaluyong, Philippines Hanging
Manuel Martinez 23 April 1948 European Theater Hanging
Stratman Armistead 16 December 1948 Nakano, Japan, Far East Command Hanging

Plot E

The US Army executed 98 servicemen following General Courts Martial (GCM) for murder and/or rape in the European Theatre of Operations during the Second World War. The remains of these servicemen were originally buried near the site of their executions, which took place in countries as far apart as England, France, Belgium, Germany, Italy and Algeria. In 1949 the remains of these men and a few others were re-interred in Plot E, a private section specifically built to hold what the Graves Registration referred to as "the dishonorable dead", since (per standard practice) all had been dishonorably discharged from the US Army just prior to their executions.

Plot "E" is detached from the main four cemetery plots for the honored dead of World War I at the Oise-Aisne American Cemetery and Memorial.[3] It is located across the road, and deliberately hidden from view, inside a 100' x 50' oval-shaped clearing surrounded by hedges and hidden in thick forest. Officially, Plot E does not exist: it is not mentioned on the ABMC website or in any guide pamphlets or maps. The plot is accessible only through the back door of the superintendent's office.[4] Access is difficult and visitors are not encouraged, though the section is maintained by cemetery caretakers who periodically mow the lawn area and trim the hedges. One cemetery employee described Plot E as "a house of shame" and "a perfect anti-memorial".[5] Today Plot E contains nothing but 96 flat stone markers (arranged in four rows) and a single small granite cross. The white grave markers are the size of index cards and have nothing on them except sequential grave numbers engraved in black. Two bodies were later disinterred and allowed to be returned to United States for reburial.

No US flag is permitted to fly over the section, and the numbered graves lie with their backs turned to the main cemetery on the other side of the road.[6]

Three of the individuals buried in Plot E were not executed: Willie Hall, Joseph J. Mahoney and William N. Lucas, who all died while in military custody.

The only person interred who was not convicted of rape and/or murder was Eddie Slovik, who was executed for desertion on 31 January 1945. In 1987, President Ronald Reagan gave permission for Slovik's remains to be exhumed and returned to the United States for reburial.[7] The remains of Alex F. Miranda were exhumed and returned to the United States in 1990.

Executions of German POWs during World War II

In 1945, the United States Army executed fourteen German prisoners of war by hanging at the United States Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas.

These POWs, members of the German Armed services, had been convicted by general court-martial for the murders of fellow Germans believed by their fellow inmates to be collaborating as confidential informants with the United States military authorities.

While the murders had been committed in 1943 and 1944, the executions were delayed until after the end of hostilities in Europe due to fears of German retaliation against Allied POWs.

The hangings were carried out in a warehouse elevator shaft which had been converted into a temporary gallows, and the fourteen Germans were subsequently buried in the Fort Leavenworth Military Prison Cemetery.[8]

Executed person Age Date of Execution Name of victim
Walter Beyer 32 10 July 1945 Johannes Kunze
Hans Demme 23 10 July 1945 Johannes Kunze
Hans Schomer 27 10 July 1945 Johannes Kunze
Willie Scholz 22 10 July 1945 Johannes Kunze
Berthold Seidel 30 10 July 1945 Johannes Kunze
Erich Gauss 14 July 1945 Horst Günther
Rudolph Straub 14 July 1945 Horst Günther
Helmut Fischer 25 August 1945 Werner Drechsler
Fritz Franke 25 August 1945 Werner Drechsler
Günter Külsen 25 August 1945 Werner Drechsler
Heinrich Ludwig 25 August 1945 Werner Drechsler
Bernhard Reyak 25 August 1945 Werner Drechsler
Otto Stengel 25 August 1945 Werner Drechsler
Rolf Wizny 25 August 1945 Werner Drechsler

Executions by the United States Air Force

The United States Air Force executed three airmen by hanging between 1950 and 1954. The execution of Robert E. Keller was conducted under the authority of the 1920 Articles of War, and those of Burns and Dennis Jr. were carried out under a short-lived revised version of the Articles of War popularly known as the Elston Act of 1948.

Executed person Date of execution Location Crime
Robert E. Keller 11 March 1950 Nakano, Japan First degree murder
Robert W. Burns 28 January 1954 Guam First degree murder and first degree rape
Herman P. Dennis, Jr. 28 January 1954 Guam First degree murder and first degree rape

Executions under the Uniform Code of Military Justice

A total of ten military executions have been carried out by the United States Army under the provisions of the original Uniform Code of Military Justice of 5 May 1950. The first four of these executions, those of Bernard J. O'Brien, Chastine Beverly, Louis M. Suttles and James L. Riggins, were carried out by military officials at the Kansas State Penitentiary near Lansing, Kansas. The remaining six executions took place in the boiler room of the United States Disciplinary Barracks, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Hanging and not shooting was the method employed in these ten executions.

Executed person Date of sentencing Date of execution Crime
Bernard J. O'Brien 19 June 1952 31 July 1954 First Degree Murder
Chastine Beverly 10 October 1951 1 March 1955 Robbery, First Degree Murder
Louis M. Suttles 10 October 1951 1 March 1955 Robbery, First Degree Murder
James L. Riggins 10 October 1951 1 March 1955 Robbery, First Degree Murder
Thomas J. Edwards 1 April 1953 14 February 1957 First Degree Murder
Winfred D. Moore 19 August 1953 14 February 1957 First Degree Murder, Assault with intent to commit Robbery
Ernest L. Ranson 5 June 1953 3 April 1957 Lifting weapon against superior officer, First Degree murder, First Degree Rape, Robbery, 2 counts of Assault with dangerous weapon
Abraham Thomas 15 April 1954 23 July 1958 Four counts First Degree Murder
John E. Day, Jr. 1 October 1951 23 September 1959 First Degree Murder, Aggravated Assault with attempt to do bodily harm with dangerous weapon, Assault
John A. Bennett 8 February 1955 13 April 1961 First Degree Child Rape, First Degree Attempted Murder

Individuals currently awaiting execution under the UCMJ

Five individuals are currently awaiting execution under the UCMJ. All executions, if carried out, will be by lethal injection.

Sentenced person Date of sentencing Crime
Ronald A. Gray 12 April 1988 Two specifications of both Rape (U.C.M.J. Article 120) and Premeditated Murder (U.C.M.J. Article 118(1))
Hasan Karim Akbar 28 April 2005 Two specifications of Premeditated Murder (U.C.M.J. Article 118(1))
Timothy B. Hennis 15 April 2010 Three specifications of Premeditated Murder (U.C.M.J. Article 118(1)), one specification of Rape (U.C.M.J. Article 120)
Nidal Malik Hasan 28 August 2013 Thirteen specifications of Premeditated Murder (U.C.M.J. Article 118(1))

Executions by the United States Navy

The United States Navy has executed seventeen sailors and Marines for various offenses; the most famous of these were three crew members of the USS Somers who were hanged for conspiracy to mutiny.

As of 2020, no member of the Navy has been executed since October 23, 1849, when brothers John and Peter Black were simultaneously hanged at yardarm for leading a mutiny on board the schooner Ewing.[9]

The United States Navy executed fourteen Japanese military personnel by hanging for war crimes on Guam after the Second World War.

References

  1. ^ https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/investigations.pdf
  2. ^ US Army deserter Karl Hultén was executed 8 March 1945 for a 1944 murder of an English Cab driver; however he was tried and executed under English Law-not the US Military Justice Cleft chin murder
  3. ^ American Battle Monuments Commission: Oise-Aisne American Cemetery Official Website, As of June 22, 2009
  4. ^ "Bing Maps – Driving Directions, Traffic and Road Conditions". Binged.it. 2015-03-04. Retrieved 2015-04-24.
  5. ^ Kaplan, Alice. The Interpreter. Free Press: New York, 2005. 172–3.
  6. ^ Huie, William Bradford.The Execution of Private Slovik. Westholme: Yardley, 1954. 4–7.
  7. ^ Huie, William Bradford. "The Execution of Private Slovik". Westholme Publishing, 2004. ISBN 1-59416-003-1
  8. ^ Fort Leavenworth Military Prison cemetery
  9. ^ Details of the mutiny

Sources

Information on listed military executions between 1942 and 1961 has been primarily derived from the following sources. Research on these executions continues.

  1. A handwritten list, Executed Death Cases Before 1951, discovered at The Pentagon in December 2003. The list is only partially legible and must therefore be used with some caution. The linked public version of this list is quite truncated, thereby omitting a great deal of useful information about these cases. The supplemental addendum, Death Sentence Ledger, tracks military capital cases between 1950 and 1967.
  2. Two tables of U.S. Soldiers executed during World War II's European Theater and Pacific Theater may be found on Before the Needle
  3. The U.S. Rosters of World War II Dead, 1939–1945 (payment required) contains the names of many American servicemen executed by military authority overseas. These individuals are generally identified in the Rosters as GP (or General Prisoners) and were interred under the category of Administrative Decision.
  4. The Nationwide Gravesite Locator contains the names of numerous executed soldiers, many of them listed as being General Prisoners.
  5. The U.S. Veterans Gravesites, ca.1775–2006 (payment required) contains the names of numerous executed soldiers, many of them listed as being General Prisoners.
  6. Historical archives of the Stars and Stripes Newspaper, WWII Europe and North Africa Editions, 1942–1958 (payment required) contain numerous contemporary references to military executions.
  7. Death Penalty Cases in WWII Military Courts: Lessons Learned from North Africa and Italy, a paper written by Professor J. Robert Lilly of the School of Law, Northern Kentucky University, and Associate Professor J. Michael Thomson of the Political Science Department Northern Kentucky University, and presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences March 10–13, 2004. Las Vegas, NV, contains statistical information on 97 executions carried out in the European Theatre and the Mediterranean Theatre of World War II. It does not appear to be available online at this time.
  8. Taken by Force, by J. Robert Lilly, (ISBN 0-230-50647-X) published by Palgrave Macmillan in August 2007, discusses crimes of sexual violence committed by American soldiers in the Second World War. It contains numerous references to military capital cases during this period.
  9. Official File, Court Martial Cases, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, contains information on sentence confirmation dates of soldiers executed for capital crimes within the continental United States between 1942 and 1945.
  10. Official File, Court Martial Cases, Harry Truman Museum and Library, contains information on sentence confirmation dates of soldiers and members of the Air Force executed between 1945 and 1954.
  11. History of the JAG Branch Office, U.S. Forces, European Theater, 18 July 1942 to 1 Nov. 1945: n.a., Vol. 1–2, prep. by the Branch Office of the JAG-ETO, n.p ., n.d. (1946?), contains a summary on 70 military executions carried out in the European theater between 1943 and 1945.
  12. Ted Darcy Casualty Database
  13. Subchapter X, "Punitive Articles" of the Uniform Code of Military Justice
This page was last edited on 10 January 2020, at 21:23
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