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List of heads of state of Mexico

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Head of State of Mexico is the person who controls the executive power in the country. Under the current constitution, this responsibility lies with the President of the United Mexican States, who is head of the supreme executive power of the Mexican Union.[1] Throughout its history, Mexico has had several forms of government. Under the federal constitutions, the title of President was the same as the current one. Under the Seven Laws (centralist), the chief executive was named President of the Republic. In addition, there have been two periods of monarchical rule, during which the executive was controlled by the Emperor of Mexico.

The chronology of the heads of state of Mexico is complicated due to the country's political instability during most of the nineteenth century and early decades of the twentieth century. With few exceptions, most of the Mexican presidents elected during this period did not complete their terms. Until the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas, each president had remained in office an average of fifteen months.[2]

This list also includes the self-appointed presidents during civil wars and the collegiate bodies that performed the Mexican Executive duties during periods of transition.

First Mexican Empire (1821–1823)

First Regency

After the end of the Mexican War of Independence, a Provisional Board of Governing consisting of thirty-four persons was set up. The Board decreed and signed the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire and appointed a regency composed of six people.

Regency Members[3] Took office Left office Notes
Iturbide, Miranda, 1860.png
Agustín de Iturbide 28 September 1821 11 April 1822
JuanODonoju.jpg
Juan O'Donojú 28 September 1821 8 October 1821 Died in office.
Antonio Pérez Martínez y Robles.jpg
Antonio Pérez Martínez 8 October 1821 11 April 1822
Manuel de la Bárcena.jpg
Manuel de la Barcéna 28 September 1821 11 April 1822
José Isidro Yañez.jpg
José Isidro Yañez 28 September 1821 11 April 1822
No image.svg
Manuel Velázquez de León 28 September 1821 11 April 1822

Second Regency

Regency Members Took office Left office Notes
Iturbide, Miranda, 1860.png
Agustín de Iturbide 11 April 1822 18 May 1822
José Isidro Yañez.jpg
José Isidro Yañez 11 April 1822 18 May 1822
No image.svg
Miguel Valentín 11 April 1822 18 May 1822
Manuel de Heras Soto.jpg
Manuel de Heras 11 April 1822 18 May 1822
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG
Nicolás Bravo 11 April 1822 18 May 1822

Agustín de Iturbide I

Emperor Coat of arms Reign start Reign ended Royal house Consort
Iturbide Emperador by Josephus Arias Huerta.jpg
Agustín I
(1783–1824)
Escudo de Armas de S.M.I. Agustín.svg
19 May 1822 19 March 1823 Iturbide
Emperatriz Ana Maria Huarte de Iturbide.png
Ana María
(1786–1861)

Provisional Government (1823–1824)

The Provisional Government of 1823–1824 was an organization that served as the Executive in the government of Mexico after the end of the Mexican Empire of Agustín I, in 1823.[4] The organization was responsible for convening the body that created the Federal Republic and existed from 1 April 1823 to 10 October 1824.[5]

Provisional Government Head of State[6][7][8] Took office Left office Notes
Escudo de la Primera República Federal de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos.svg
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG
Nicolás Bravo 31 March 1823 10 October 1824
Guadalupe Victoria Cruces y Campa.png
Guadalupe Victoria 31 March 1823 10 October 1824
Pedro Celestino Negrete.jpg
Pedro Celestino Negrete 31 March 1823 10 October 1824
Jose mariano michelena.jpg
José Mariano Michelena 1 April 1823 10 October 1824 Substitute member
Miguel dominguez.jpg
Miguel Domínguez 1 April 1823 10 October 1824 Substitute member
Vicente Guerrero (1865).png
Vicente Guerrero 1 April 1823 10 October 1824 Substitute member

First Federal Republic (1824–1835)

No. President Took office Left office Political party Vice President Notes
1
Guadalupe Victoria - 02.jpg
Guadalupe Victoria
(1786–1843)
10 October 1824 31 March 1829 Independent Nicolás Bravo First constitutionally elected President of Mexico, and the only President who completed his full term in almost 30 years of independent Mexico.[9]
2
Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña.png
Vicente Guerrero
(1782–1831)
1 April 1829 17 December 1829 Liberal Party Anastasio Bustamante He was appointed by Congress after the "resignation" of president-elect Manuel Gómez Pedraza.[10][11]
3
Jose Maria Bocanegra.PNG
José María Bocanegra
(1787–1862)
17 December 1829 23 December 1829 Popular York Rite Party
(part of the Liberal Party)
He was appointed Interim President by Congress when Guerrero left office to fight the rebellion of his Vice President.[12][13]
Pedro Velez.PNG
Pedro Vélez
(1787–1848)
23 December 1829 31 December 1829 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he was appointed by the Council of Government as head of the executive triumvirate along with Lucas Alamán and Luis Quintanar.[14]
4
Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png
Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
1 January 1830 13 August 1832 Conservative Party As Vice President he assumed the presidency after the coup against Guerrero.[15]
5
Melchor Muzquiz.png
Melchor Múzquiz
(1790–1844)
14 August 1832 24 December 1832 Popular York Rite Party
(part of the Liberal Party)
He was appointed Interim President by Congress when Bustamante left office to fight the rebellion of Santa Anna.[16][17][18]
6
Manuel Gómez Pedraza.png
Manuel Gómez Pedraza
(1789–1851)
24 December 1832 31 March 1833 Federalist York Rite Party
(part of the Liberal Party)
He assumed the presidency to conclude the term he would have begun in 1829, had he not "resigned" prior to inauguration, as the winner of the elections of 1828.[19][20]
7
Valentín Gómez Farías.png
Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
1 April 1833 16 May 1833 Liberal Party As Vice President he assumed the presidency in place of Santa Anna, along with whom he was elected in the elections of 1833.
[21][22][23]
8
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
16 May 1833 3 June 1833 Liberal Party Valentín Gómez Farías He assumed the presidency as the constitutionally elected president. He alternated in the presidency with Vice President Gómez Farías four more times until April 24, 1834.
[22][24][25][26]
Valentín Gómez Farías.png
Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
3 June 1833 18 June 1833 Liberal Party
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
18 June 1833 5 July 1833 Liberal Party Valentín Gómez Farías
Valentín Gómez Farías.png
Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
5 July 1833 27 October 1833 Liberal Party
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
27 October 1833 15 December 1833 Liberal Party Valentín Gómez Farías
Valentín Gómez Farías.png
Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
16 December 1833 24 April 1834 Liberal Party He promoted several liberal reforms that led to the discontent of conservatives and the church. Santa Anna took office again and he went into exile.[23][27]
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
24 April 1834 27 January 1835 Liberal Party He cancelled the liberal reforms. On January 27, the Sixth Constituent Congress dismissed Gomez Farias as Vice President.[23][27][28]
9
Miguel Barragan Oleo (480x600).png
Miguel Barragán
(1789–1836)
28 January 1835 27 February 1836 Liberal Party He was appointed Interim President by Congress when Santa Anna left office to fight the Rebellion of Zacatecas. On October 23, Congress enacted the Constitutional Basis, which voided the Constitution of 1824 and the federal system. He served both as the last president of the First Federal Republic and the first of the Centralist Republic.[29][30][31][32]

Centralist Republic (1835–1846)

No. President Took office Left office Political party Notes
9
Miguel Barragan Oleo (480x600).png
Miguel Barragán
(1789–1836)
28 January 1835 27 February 1836 Liberal Party He left office because of a serious illness. He died two days later.[29]
10
Jose Justo Corro.PNG
José Justo Corro
(1794–1864)
27 February 1836 19 April 1837 Conservative Party He was appointed Interim President by Congress to conclude the presidential term.
During his term, he enacted the Seven Laws and
Spain recognized the Independence of Mexico.
[33][34][35]
Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png
Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
19 April 1837 18 March 1839 Conservative Party He took office as constitutional elected president.
He was elected in the elections of 1837 for an eight years term.
[36][37]
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
18 March 1839 10 July 1839 He was appointed interim president by the Supreme Conservative Power when Bustamante left office to fight federalist rebellions.[24][38]
11
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG
Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
11 July 1839 19 July 1839 Conservative Party He was appointed substitute president when Santa Anna left office.[26][39][40]
Anastasio Bustamante Oleo (480x600).png
Anastasio Bustamante
(1780–1853)
19 July 1839 22 September 1841 Conservative Party He reassumed the presidency.[26][41]
12
Francisco Javier Echeverria.PNG
Francisco Javier Echeverría
(1797–1852)
22 September 1841 10 October 1841 Conservative Party He was appointed interim president when Bustamante left office to fight a rebellion headed by Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga, Santa Anna, and Gabriel Valencia.
He resigned after the triumph of the rebellion.
[42][43][44]
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
10 October 1841 26 October 1842 He was appointed provisional president by a Junta de Representantes de los Departamentos (Board of Representatives of the Departments).[45][46][47]
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG
Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
26 October 1842 4 March 1843 Conservative Party He was appointed substitute president by Santa Anna when he left office.[40][47]
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
4 March 1843 4 October 1843 He reassumed the presidency as provisional president.[48]
13
Valentin Canalizo Oleo (480x600).png
Valentín Canalizo
(1794–1850)
4 October 1843 4 June 1844 Conservative Party He was appointed interim president by Santa Anna when he left office.[49][50]
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
4 June 1844 12 September 1844 He reassumed the presidency after being elected constitutional president by Congress on 2 January 1844.[51][52]
14
Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png
José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
12 September 1844 21 September 1844 Liberal Party He was appointed substitute president by Congress to replace the interim president Valentin Canalizo.[52][53]
Valentin Canalizo Oleo (480x600).png
Valentín Canalizo
(1794–1850)
21 September 1844 6 December 1844 Conservative Party He assumed the presidency as interim president.[54]
Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png
José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
6 December 1844 30 December 1845 Liberal Party He was appointed interim, and after, constitutional president by Senate
after Canalizo was arrested for trying to dissolve the Congress.
[53][55][56]
15
Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga (480x600).png
Mariano Paredes
(1797–1849)
31 December 1845 28 July 1846 Conservative Party He assumed office via a coup against De Herrera.
On 12 June, he was appointed interim president.
[57][58]
Vice President[58]
Nicolás Bravo
Presidente Nicolas Bravo.PNG
Nicolás Bravo
(1786–1854)
28 July 1846 4 August 1846 Conservative Party He took office when Paredes left the presidency to fight the Americans in the Mexican–American War.
He was deposed by a federalist rebellion led by Jose Mariano Salas and Valentin Gomez Farias.
[59][60][61]
16
Jose Mariano Salas Oleo (480x600).png
José Mariano Salas
(1797–1867)
5 August 1846 23 December 1846 Conservative Party He assumed office as provisional president after the triumph of the federalist rebellion (Plan de la Ciudadela).
He put in force the Constitution of 1824 on 22 August.
[62][63][64]
He served both as last president of the Centralist Republic and first of the Second Federal Republic.

Second Federal Republic (1846–1863)

No. President Took office Left office Political party Notes
16
Jose Mariano Salas Oleo (480x600).png
José Mariano Salas
(1797–1867)
5 August 1846 23 December 1846 Conservative Party After he restored the federalism, he called elections.
Santa Anna won the election and was appointed interim president by Congress and Valentin Gomez Farias as vice president.
[62][65]
Valentín Gómez Farías.png
Valentín Gómez Farías
(1781–1858)
23 December 1846 21 March 1847 Liberal Party As vice president, he took office in place of Santa Anna, who was fighting the Americans in the Mexican–American War.[66]
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
21 March 1847 2 April 1847 Liberal Party He took office as elected interim president.[67]
Vice President
Valentín Gómez Farías
17
Pedro M. Anaya.PNG
Pedro María de Anaya
(1795–1854)
2 April 1847 20 May 1847 Liberal Party Santa Anna left office to fight in the Mexican–American War. Congress abolished the vice presidency and he was appointed as substitute president.[68][69][70]
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
20 May 1847 15 September 1847 Liberal Party He reassumed the presidency when De Anaya left office to fight in the Mexican–American War.[71][72]
18
Manuel de la Peña y Peña.PNG
Manuel de la Peña y Peña
(1789–1850)
16 September 1847 13 November 1847 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he assumed the presidency after Santa Anna's resignation.[73][74]
Pedro M. Anaya.PNG
Pedro María de Anaya
(1795–1854)
13 November 1847 8 January 1848 Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by Congress when De la Peña y Peña left office in order to negotiate peace with the United States.
Manuel de la Peña y Peña.PNG
Manuel de la Peña y Peña
(1789–1850)
8 January 1848 3 June 1848 Liberal Party He reassumed office as provisional president when De Anaya resigned
after refusing to give any land to the United States.
[75]
During his term, he signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Jose Joaquin de Herrera Oleo (480x600).png
José Joaquín de Herrera
(1792–1854)
3 June 1848 15 January 1851 Liberal Party He was the second president to finish his term and peacefully turned over the presidency to the winner of the elections of 1850, General Mariano Arista.[76]
19
Mariano Arista Oleo (480x600).png
Mariano Arista
(1802–1855)
15 January 1851 5 January 1853 Liberal Party He resigned when Congress refused to give him extraordinary powers to fight the rebellion of Plan del Hospicio, the goal of which was to bring to Santa Anna once again to the presidency.[77]
20
Juan Bautista Ceballos Oleo (480x600).png
Juan Bautista Ceballos
(1811–1859)
5 January 1853 7 February 1853 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he was proposed by President Arista as his successor and confirmed the same day as interim president by Congress.[78]
21
Manuel María Lombardini.PNG
Manuel María Lombardini
(1802–1853)
8 February 1853 20 April 1853 Conservative Party He was appointed provisional president by Congress when Ceballos resigned because of the rebellion of Plan del Hospicio.[79]
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1850 (480x600).png
Antonio López de Santa Anna
(1794–1876)
20 April 1853 9 August 1855 Liberal Party He swore as President but ruled as dictator.
He called himself "Su Alteza Serenisima" (Serene Highness).
[80][81]
From this period, the only lasting thing is the Mexican National Anthem.[82][83]
22
Martín Carrera.PNG
Martín Carrera
(1806–1871)
9 August 1855 12 September 1855 Conservative Party He was appointed interim president after the triumph of the Plan of Ayutla
but he took office until 15 August.
[83][84]
23
Rómulo Díaz de la Vega.PNG
Rómulo Díaz de la Vega
(1800–1877)
12 September 1855 4 October 1855 Conservative Party He served as de facto president after Carrera's resignation.[85][86]
24
Juan Alvarez.PNG
Juan Álvarez
(1790–1867)
4 October 1855 11 December 1855 Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by a council integrated with one representative of each state after the triumph of the Revolution of Ayutla.[87][88]
25
Ignacio Comonfort.PNG
Ignacio Comonfort
(1812–1863)
11 December 1855 17 December 1857 Liberal Party He was appointed interim president by Juan Alvarez when he resigned.
He assumed as constitutional president on 1 December 1857.
[89][90]

Reform War

President recognized by the Liberals

No. President Took office Left office Political party Notes
26
Benito Juarez Oleo (480x600).png
Benito Juárez
(1806–1872)
18 December 1857 18 July 1872 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he became interim president after the self-coup of Ignacio Comonfort against the Constitution of 1857. He was arrested and freed by Comonfort. He established a liberal constitutional government on 18 January 1858.
The struggle between the Liberal and Conservative forces is known as Reform War.
[91]

Presidents recognized by the Conservatives

No. President Took office Left office Political party Notes
25
Ignacio Comonfort.PNG
Ignacio Comonfort
(1812–1863)
17 December 1857 21 January 1858 Liberal Party After the declaration of Plan of Tacubaya, Congress declared that he was no longer president but he was recognized by conservatives as president with absolute powers.[92][93]
27
Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png
Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
11 January 1858 24 December 1858 Conservative Party After disowning Comonfort, Zuloaga was appointed president by the Conservative Party.[94]
28
Manuel Robles Pezuela Oleo (480x600).png
Manuel Robles Pezuela
(1817–1862)
24 December 1858 23 January 1859 Conservative Party He assumed the conservative presidency with the support of the Plan de Navidad.[95][96]
Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png
Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
24 January 1859 1 February 1859 Conservative Party He was restored to the presidency by counter-rebellion led by Miguel Miramón.[95][97]
29
Miguel Miramón Oleo (480x600).png
Miguel Miramón
(1831–1867)
2 February 1859 13 August 1860 Conservative Party He assumed the conservative presidency as substitute when Zuloaga left office.[98]
30
José Ignacio Pavón.PNG
José Ignacio Pavón
(1791–1866)
13 August 1860 15 August 1860 Conservative Party As president of the Supreme Court of the conservative government,
he took office for two days when Miramón left office.
[99]
Miguel Miramón Oleo (480x600).png
Miguel Miramón
(1831–1867)
15 August 1860 24 December 1860 Conservative Party He took office as interim president of the conservative government after he was elected
by a group of "Representatives of the States" who supported the conservatives.
He was defeated at the Battle of Calpulalpan, resigned the presidency and fled the country.
[100]
Félix María Zuloaga Oleo (480x600).png
Félix María Zuloaga
(1813–1898)
23 May 1861 28 December 1862 Conservative Party Despite having been defeated, the conservatives appointed Zuloaga as president until 28 December, when they recognized the Regency who was seeking to reestablish the Mexican Empire.[101]

Second Mexican Empire (1863–1867)

Regency

On 22 June 1863, a "Superior Governing Board" was established. On 11 July, the Board became the Regency of the Empire.[102][103]

Regent[3] Took office Left office Political party Notes
Gral. Juan Nepomuceno Almonte.png
Juan Nepomuceno Almonte 11 July 1863 10 April 1864 Conservative Party
Jose Mariano Salas Oleo (480x600).png
José Mariano Salas 11 July 1863 10 April 1864 Conservative Party
Pelagio Antonio de Labastida.png
Pelagio Antonio de Labastida 19 October 1863 10 April 1864 Conservative Party

Maximilian I

Emperor Coat of arms Reign start Reign ended Royal house Consort
Emperador Maximiliano I de Mexico.jpg
Maximilian I
(1832–1867)
Coat of Arms of the Second Mexican Empire.svg
10 April 1864 19 June 1867 Habsburg-Lorraine
Charlotte, Empress of Mexico.jpg
Carlota
(1840–1927)

Restored Republic (1867–1876)

No. President Took office Left office Political party Notes
26
Benito Juarez Oleo (480x600).png
Benito Juárez
(1806–1872)
18 December 1857 11 June 1861 Liberal Party The first term he was interim president during the Reform War.
The second term resulted from his being appointed constitutional president by Congress after the elections of 1861. His constitutional period began on 1 December.
The third term was an extension of the second, a consequence of the invasion.
The fourth and fifth terms followed the triumph of the Republic.
11 June 1861 30 November 1865
1 December 1865 30 November 1867
1 December 1867 30 November 1871
1 December 1871 18 July 1872
31
Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada Oleo (480x600).png
Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada
(1823–1889)
18 July 1872 30 November 1872 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he became interim president after the death of Juarez. He was the winner or the extraordinary election of 1872 and became constitutional president. He was overthrown by the Revolution of Tuxtepec and left office ten days before the end of his constitutional term.[104]
1 December 1872 20 November 1876
32
José María Iglesias Oleo (480x600).png
José María Iglesias
(1823–1891)
26 October 1876 28 November 1876 Liberal Party As president of the Supreme Court, he voided, on grounds of fraud, the reelection of Lerdo de Tejada after Congress had declared this reelection valid, and then declared himself interim president. When Lerdo de Tejada went to exile on 20 November, he became constitutional interim president.[105]

Porfiriato (1876–1911)

No. President Took office Left office Political party Notes
33
Porfirio Diaz en 1867.png
Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
28 November 1876 6 December 1876 Liberal Party He became provisional president when Iglesias went to exile.[106]
34
Juan Nepomuceno Méndez Oleo (480x600).png
Juan Nepomuceno Méndez
(1824–1894)
6 December 1876 17 February 1877 Liberal Party He was appointed substitute president by Díaz when he left office to fight the supporters of Lerdo de Tejada.[107]
Porfirio Diaz en 1867.png
Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
17 February 1877 30 November 1880 Liberal Party He reassumed the presidency. On May 2, he was appointed constitutional president by Congress.[108]
35
President Manuel Gonzalez.jpg
Manuel González Flores
(1833–1893)
1 December 1880 30 November 1884 Liberal Party He was the winner of the 1880 general election.[109]
Porfirio Diaz condecoraciones.tif Porfirio Díaz
(1830–1915)
1 December 1884 30 November 1888 National Porfirist Party
National Reelectionist Party
He was the winner of the general election in 1884, 1888, 1892, 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1910.
He resigned during his 7th term after the triumph of the Mexican Revolution.
[110]
1 December 1888 30 November 1892
1 December 1892 30 November 1896
1 December 1896 30 November 1900
1 December 1900 30 November 1904
1 December 1904 30 November 1910 Vice President
Ramón Corral
(since 1904)
1 December 1910 25 May 1911

Revolution (1911–1928)

Parties

  Anti-Reelectionist Party→Progressive Constitutionalist Party
  Independent

No. President Took office Left office Notes
36
Francisco León.jpg
Francisco León de la Barra
(1863–1939)
25 May 1911 5 November 1911 According to the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, he assumed office as interim president. Immediately called for elections.[111]
37 [112]
Presidente Francisco I. Madero.jpg
Francisco I. Madero
(1873–1913)
6 November 1911 19 February 1913 He was the winner of the 1911 general election.
He was overthrown by a coup known as the Ten Tragic Days organized by Victoriano Huerta, Félix Díaz and the U.S. ambassador Henry L. Wilson. He was murdered two days later along with the vice president Pino Suárez.
[113][114]
Vice President
José María Pino Suárez
38
Pedro Lascurain.jpg
Pedro Lascuráin
(1856–1952)
19 February 1913 As Secretary of Foreign Affairs, he assumed office as interim president according to the constitution. In about 45 minutes, he appointed Victoriano Huerta as Secretary of the Interior and then resigned the Presidency.[115]
39
V Huerta.jpg
Victoriano Huerta
(1850–1916)
19 February 1913 15 July 1914 He assumed office via a coup against Francisco I. Madero. He was defeated by the Constitutional Army led by Governor of Coahuila, Venustiano Carranza.[116][117]
40
Francisco Sebastián Carvajal.jpg
Francisco S. Carvajal
(1870–1932)
15 July 1914 13 August 1914 He assumed office as Interim President after the resignation of Huerta.
He resigned after the signing of the Treaties of Teoloyucan.
[118]

Presidents recognized by the Convention of Aguascalientes

No. President Took office Left office Notes
41
Eulalio Gutierrez sentado.png
Eulalio Gutiérrez
(1881–1939)
6 November 1914 16 January 1915 He was appointed provisional president.[119]
42
Roque González Garza.PNG
Roque González Garza
(1885–1962)
16 January 1915 10 June 1915 He was appointed provisional president after Gutierrez left Mexico City.[120]
43
Francisco Lagos Chazaro.png
Francisco Lagos Cházaro
(1878–1932)
10 June 1915 10 October 1915 He assumed office as provisional president when González Garza resigned.[121]

Restoration of democracy

Parties

  Liberal Constitutionalist Party
  Laborist Party

No. President Took office Left office Notes
44
Portrait of Venustiano Carranza.jpg
Venustiano Carranza
(1859–1920)
Head of the Executive Power
First Chief of the Constitutional Army
He served as Head of the Executive Power after the resignation of Carvajal.
He convoked a Constituent Convention which enacted the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States. He won the 1917 general election and took office as Constitutional President on 1 May 1917.
He was killed during the Rebellion of Agua Prieta.
[122]
13 August 1914 30 April 1917
President of Mexico
1 May 1917 21 May 1920
45
Adolfo de la Huerta.png
Adolfo de la Huerta
(1881–1955)
1 June 1920 30 November 1920 He was appointed provisional president by Congress.[123]
46
Portrait of Alvaro Obregón 1.png
Álvaro Obregón
(1880–1928)
1 December 1920 30 November 1924 He was the winner of the 1920 general election.[124]
47
Plutarco Elías Calles recorte.png
Plutarco Elías Calles
(1877–1945)
1 December 1924 30 November 1928 He was the winner of the 1924 general election.[125]

Maximato (1928–1934)

Party

  National Revolutionary Party

No. President Took office Left office Notes
48
Emilio Portes, portrait.jpg
Emilio Portes Gil
(1890–1978)
1 December 1928 4 February 1930 He was appointed interim president by Congress, after the assassination of the winner of the 1928 general election, president-elect Álvaro Obregón.[126]
49
Pascual Rubio, portrait.jpg
Pascual Ortiz Rubio
(1877–1963)
5 February 1930 4 September 1932 He was the winner of the 1929 general election.
He resigned due to the intervention of Calles in his government.
[127][128]
50
Abelardo L. Rodriguez, retrato.jpg
Abelardo L. Rodríguez
(1889–1967)
4 September 1932 30 November 1934 He was appointed substitute president by Congress to conclude the 1928–1934 term.[129]

Modern Mexico (1934–present)

After the constitutional reform of 1926, the presidential term in Mexico was extended to six years starting in 1928; with a formal ban on reelection. After the 1934 general election, all the presidents have completed their six-year terms.

Parties

  National Revolutionary Party→Party of the Mexican Revolution→Institutional Revolutionary Party
  National Action Party
  National Regeneration Movement

No. President Took office Left office Election
51
Lázaro Cárdenas, Retrato.png
Lázaro Cárdenas
(1895–1970)
1 December 1934 30 November 1940 1934
52
Manuel Ávila Camacho, Retrato.png
Manuel Ávila Camacho
(1896–1955)
1 December 1940 30 November 1946 1940
53
Retrato de Miguel Alemán Valdés.png
Miguel Alemán Valdés
(1900–1983)
1 December 1946 30 November 1952 1946
54
Adolfo Ruiz Cortines.png
Adolfo Ruiz Cortines
(1889–1973)
1 December 1952 30 November 1958 1952
55
Retrato de Adolfo López Mateos.png
Adolfo López Mateos
(1910–1969)
1 December 1958 30 November 1964 1958
56
Gustavo Diaz Ordaz cropped.jpg
Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
(1911–1979)
1 December 1964 30 November 1970 1964
57
Oscar Vega y Luis Echeverria Alvarez (cropped 2).jpg
Luis Echeverría
(born 1922)
1 December 1970 30 November 1976 1970
58
Jose Lopez Portillo new.jpg
José López Portillo y Pacheco
(1920–2004)
1 December 1976 30 November 1982 1976
(uncontested)
59
De la madrid1.jpg
Miguel de la Madrid
(1934–2012)
1 December 1982 30 November 1988 1982
60
Carlos Salinas de Gortari in 1989.jpeg
Carlos Salinas de Gortari
(born 1948)
1 December 1988 30 November 1994 1988
61
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon (Cropped).jpg
Ernesto Zedillo
(born 1951)
1 December 1994 30 November 2000 1994
62
Vicente Fox Official Photo 2000 (Cropped).jpg
Vicente Fox
(born 1942)
1 December 2000 30 November 2006 2000
63
Felipe Calderon H.jpg
Felipe Calderón
(born 1962)
1 December 2006 30 November 2012 2006
64
Enrique Pena Nieto.jpg
Enrique Peña Nieto
(born 1966)
1 December 2012 30 November 2018 2012
65
Reunión con el presidente electo y equipos de trabajo 6 (cropped).jpg
Andrés Manuel López Obrador
(born 1953)
1 December 2018 Incumbent
(Term ends on 30 November 2024)
2018

Living former presidents

As of June 2021, there are six living former presidents of Mexico. The most recent death of a former President was that of Miguel de la Madrid (1982–1988), on 1 April 2012.

Presidents who died in office

President Term of office Date of death Notes
Benito Juárez 1859–1864
1867–1872
18 July 1872 (age 66) He is the only President of Mexico who died of natural causes while in office.
Venustiano Carranza 1914–1920 21 May 1920 (age 60) He is the only President of Mexico to be assassinated in office.

Timeline

Andrés Manuel López ObradorEnrique Peña NietoFelipe CalderónVicente FoxErnesto ZedilloCarlos Salinas de GortariMiguel de la MadridJosé López PortilloLuis EcheverríaGustavo Díaz OrdazAdolfo López MateosAdolfo Ruiz CortinesMiguel Alemán ValdésManuel Ávila CamachoLázaro CárdenasAbelardo L. RodríguezPascual Ortiz RubioEmilio Portes GilPlutarco Elías CallesÁlvaro ObregónAdolfo de la HuertaVenustiano CarranzaLagos ChazaroGonzales GarzaEulalio GutiérrezFrancisco S. CarvajalVictoriano HuertaPedro LascuráinFrancisco I. MaderoFrancisco León de la BarraManuel González FloresJuan Nepomuceno MéndezPorfirio DíazJosé María IglesiasSebastián Lerdo de TejadaMaximilian I of MexicoPelagio Antonio de LabastidaJuan Nepomuceno AlmonteBenito JuárezIgnacio ComonfortJuan ÁlvarezRómulo Díaz de la VegaMartín CarreraManuel María LombardiniJuan Bautista CeballosMariano AristaManuel de la Peña y PeñaPedro María de AnayaJosé Mariano SalasMariano ParedesJosé Joaquín de HerreraValentín CanalizoFrancisco Javier EcheverríaJosé Justo CorroMiguel BarragánAntonio López de Santa AnnaValentín Gómez FaríasManuel Gómez PedrazaMelchor MúzquizAnastasio BustamantePedro VélezJosé Maria BocanegraVicente GuerreroMiguel DomínguezMariano MichelenaPedro Celestino NegreteGuadalupe VictoriaNicolás BravoManuel de HerasMiguel ValentínManuel Velázquez de LeónJosé Isidro YañezManuel de la BarcénaAntonio Pérez MartínezJuan O'DonojúAgustín de Iturbide

See also

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