To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

List of guitar tunings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A FuniChar D-616 guitar with a Drop D tuning. It has an unusual additional fretboard that extends onto the headstock. Most guitarists obtain a Drop D tuning by detuning the low E string a tone down.
A FuniChar D-616 guitar with a Drop D tuning. It has an unusual additional fretboard that extends onto the headstock. Most guitarists obtain a Drop D tuning by detuning the low E string a tone down.

This list of guitar tunings supplements the article guitar tunings. In particular, this list contains more examples of open and regular tunings, which are discussed in the article on guitar tunings. In addition, this list also notes dropped tunings.

Open

Major

Initial eight harmonics on C, namely (C,C,G,C,E,G,B♭,C) Play simultaneously (help·info)
Initial eight harmonics on C, namely (C,C,G,C,E,G,B,C) About this soundPlay simultaneously 

Major open-tunings give a major chord with the open strings.

Open A

E-A-C-E-A-E

Open B

B-F-B-F-B-D
  • Alternatively: F-B-D-F-B-D

Used by Nickelback on "Should've Listened", Devin Townsend in recent years, and Big Wreck on "Albatross".

Open C

C-G-C-G-C-E

This open C tuning is used by William Ackerman for his "Townsend Shuffle" and by John Fahey for his tribute to Mississippi John Hurt. This tuning is also commonly used by John Butler on his 12 string guitar.[1] This tuning is used on most work by Devin Townsend in his solo work as well as his work with Strapping Young Lad. When playing on a 7 string guitar, he would have a low G as the lowest string to complete the fifth. David Wilcox also recorded his most famous songs, "Eye of the Hurricane" and "Rusty Old American Dream", both from How Did You Find Me Here, in this tuning, as well as "New World", "Show the Way", "Hold It Up to the Light", and his cover of "It's the Same Old Song" from Big Horizon, and "Mango" from East Asheville Hardware.

C-E-G-C-E-G

The English guitar used a repetitive open-C tuning that approximated a major-thirds tuning.[2]

C-C-G-C-E-G[3]

This open-C tuning gives the initial harmonic series when a C-string is struck.[4] The C-C-G-C-E-G tuning uses the harmonic sequence (overtones) of the note C. When an open-note C-string is struck, its harmonic sequence begins with the notes (C,C,G,C,E,G,B♭,C).[3][4] This overtone-series tuning was modified by Mick Ralphs, who used a high C rather than the high G for "Can't Get Enough" on Bad Company. Ralphs said, "It needs the open C to have that ring," and "it never really sounds right in standard tuning".[5]

Open D

Open D tuning.
Open D tuning.
Open D tuning (listen)
D-A-D-F-A-D

Open-D tuning is used by Joni Mitchell for her "Big Yellow Taxi",[6] Nick Drake for "Place To Be", Alt-J for "Interlude 2", Boys Like Girls for "Thunder", David Wilcox for "Wildberry Pie", "Mighty Ocean", "Kindness", and "Never Enough", and by Soko for "No More Home, No More Love". Open-D tuning has been called Vestapol tuning.[7]

Richie Havens used Open D tuning to be able to play chords using only his thumb and one or two fingers. Wilco have several songs in Open D.

Kevin Cronin used Open D in "Time for me to fly", the 1978 REO Speedwagon hit song, with 4 top string variations for G and A.

  • Alternatively: D-A-D'-A'-D-D

This alternative Open D tuning (and its downtuned variations) is frequently used by Mark Tremonti guitarist for the bands Creed, Alter Bridge, and Tremonti. It was also used by Keith Richards on "Jumpin' Jack Flash" and the Stone Roses in "Love Spreads".[citation needed]

C-G-C-F-G-C

Same as Open-D but tuned a half-step down. Used by Alice In Chains on the songs "Over Now", "Nothin' Song", and "Shame in You", and by Guns N' Roses on the song "Jumpin' Jack Flash".

Open E

E-B-E-G#-B-E (use light gauge strings because three strings must be raised) Open E is used by: Brian Jones on "No Expectations", "I Wanna Be Your Man"; Keith Richards on "Salt of the Earth", "Prodigal Son", "Gimme Shelter", "Jigsaw Puzzle", "Jumpin' Jack Flash", "You Can't Always Get What You Want" and by Bob Dylan on his 1975 album Blood on the Tracks. The tuning is also used by Hoobastank on their first and second albums, and by Junior Campbell on The Marmalade recordings "Reflections of My Life" and "I See the Rain". Lastly, the Open E tuning is used by Johnny Marr of the Smiths on "The Headmaster Ritual".

Open F

F-A-C-F-C-F (requires light gauge strings)
  • Alternatively (without light gauge strings): C-F-C-F-A-C

C-F-C-F-A-C is the more common of the two. Used by

Elizabeth Cotten on her song "When I Get Home"
Led Zeppelin on "When the Levee Breaks" and "Bron-Yr-Aur Stomp" (studio)
  • F-Sharp Tuning: F-B-C-F-C-F
  • Alternative: C-F-C-F-A-C

F-F-C-F-A-C is also used by Dave Mason on "Only You Know and I Know"

Open G

Open G tuning (listen)
A seven-string guitar with the open-strings annotated with the notes.
The Russian guitar's tuning approximates a major-thirds tuning.
D-G-D-G-B-D (also known as Spanish Tuning or Chicago Tuning)

Open G was used in rock by Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin in the songs "Dancing Days", "That's The Way" and "Black Country Woman", Keith Richards of The Rolling Stones as well as in Mississippi blues by Son House, Charley Patton, and Robert Johnson, some songs by Alter Bridge (including down-tuned and minor variations on "In Loving Memory", "Watch Over You", "Wonderful Life", "Words Darker Than Their Wings", "Cradle to the Grave", and "Dying Light"), and in "Fearless" by Pink Floyd.[8] David Wilcox used this tuning on "The Nightshift Watchman".

G-G-D-G-B-D

Listing the initial six harmonics of the G note, this open-G tuning was used by Joni Mitchell for "Electricity", "For the Roses", and "Hunter (The Good Samaritan)".[9] It was also used by Mick Ralphs for "Hey Hey" on Bad Company's debut album.[5] and on the Meowtain song "Alleyway" Stone Gossard also used this tuning in the song "Daughter" by Pearl Jam.

  • Alternatively: G-B-D-G-B-D (slack-key guitar[10])
  • Alternatively: C-G-D-G-B-D (used by Big Wreck on multiple songs, most notably "Inhale" and "Mistake"--They downtune it a half step[11]--and by David Wilcox on "It's Almost Time", "Just a Vehicle", "Distant Water", "Golden Day", and his covers of "The Kid" and "Missing You").
  • Dobro Open G: G-B-D-G-B-D (occasionally adopted for ordinary guitar, but requires lighter fifth and sixth strings).
  • Russian-guitar Open G: The tuning of the Russian guitar
D-G-B-D-G-B-D
is an open G tuning, approximately in major thirds.[12][13]

Minor: Cross-note

The following open-tunings use a minor third, and give a minor chord with open strings. To avoid the relatively cumbersome designation "open D minor", "open C minor", such tunings are sometimes called "cross-note tunings". The term also expresses the fact that, compared to Major chord open tunings, by fretting the lowered string at the first fret, it is possible to produce a major chord very easily.[14]

Cross-note or open E-minor was used by Bukka White and Skip James.[15]

Cross-note tunings include (low to high):

Sitar A tuning (listen)
  • Alternative Cross A: E-A-E-A-E-A. «Sitar A» - an alternative low guitar system. Recalls the sound of Indian sitar.

Modal

D modal tuning.
D modal tuning.

In modal tunings, the strings are tuned to form a chord which is not definitively minor or major. These tunings may facilitate very easy chords and unique sounds when the open strings are used as drones. Often these tunings form a suspended chord on the open strings. A well known user of modal tunings is Sonic Youth.

  • Asus2: E-A-B-E-A-E
  • Asus4: E-A-D-E-A-E (used by Davey Graham in "Lord Mayo/Lord Inchiquin" on The Complete Guitarist)[19]
  • B modal: B-F-B-E-G-B (used by Neil Young on his 1962 Martin D-28)
  • B modal: B-E-B-E-B-E (used by Nick Drake in many of his songs, including "Man In A Shed" and "From The Morning")
  • Bsus4: B-F-B-E-F-B (DADGAD but 3 steps (1 1/2 note) lower, a main tuning of Sevendust, who have used it since Animosity)
  • Badd9: B-F-C-F-B-D, a minor variation is used by Alter Bridge on the song "This Side of Fate" tuned B-F#-C#-F#-B-D
  • Csus2: C-G-C-G-C-D (first five strings equivalent to Double-C tuning for the banjo, believed to have been used by David Wilcox on "Let Them In" from Home Again (for the First Time), though even he isn't entirely sure)
  • Csus4+9: C-G-C-F-C-D (used by Martin Simpson in "We Are All Heroes", and by David Wilcox on "Come Away to Sea" from The Nightshift Watchman with the high string raised to E)
  • Csus4: C-G-C-F-G-C (used by John Renbourn on "Bouree I & II")[20]
  • Low C: C-G-D-G-A-D (used by David Wilcox on "High Hill", "Covert War", "Chet Baker's Unsung Swan Song", "Break in the Cup", "Show Me the Key", "Silent Prayer", and "Leaving You")
  • Dsus2: D-A-D-E-A-D (used by David Wilcox on "How Did You Find Me Here")
  • Dsus4: D-A-D-G-A-D (devised by British guitarist Davey Graham[21] in the late 1950s, associated with French acoustic guitarist Pierre Bensusan,[22] and used by Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin for a number of songs including "Kashmir" and "Black Mountain Side"; also used by David Wilcox on multiple songs, occasionally tuning half a step down)
  • Esus2: E-B-E-F-B-E (used by My Bloody Valentine in "Only Shallow" and by John Mayer in "Something's Missing," "Wherever You Go," "Heart So Heavy," and "In Your Atmosphere").
  • Esus4: E-B-E-A-B-E
  • E7sus4: E-A-D-E-B-E (used by Ed Sheeran in "Tenerife Sea.")
  • Gsus2: D-G-D-G-A-D
  • Gsus4: D-G-D-G-C-D (first five strings equivalent to Sawmill tuning for the banjo)
    • Gsus4/4 / Orkney Tuning: C-G-D-G-C-D
  • EEEEBE a.k.a. "Bruce Palmer Modal Tuning," as named and used by Stephen Stills in "Suite: Judy Blue Eyes where Stills uses this tuning while the other guitar is in standard tuning.[23])
  • E modal: E-B-E-E-B-E

Extended chord

In extended chord tunings, the open strings form a seventh, ninth, or eleventh chord.

Regular tunings

An equilateral triangle's corners represent the equally spaced notes of a major-thirds tuning, here E-C-G♯. The triangle is circumscribed by the chromatic circle, which lists the 12 notes of the octave.
For every major-thirds tuning, the consecutive open-notes are separated by four semitones, and so three strings cover the twelve notes of the octave.

Major seconds

C-D-E-F-G-A or C-D-F-G-A-B

A compact tuning that fits within one octave and covers the chromatic scale between open strings and the first fret.

Minor thirds

C-D-F-A-C-D

In the minor-thirds tuning, every interval between successive strings is a minor third. In the minor-thirds tuning beginning with C, the open strings contain the notes (C, D, F) of the diminished C chord.[28]

Major thirds

Major-thirds tuning is a regular tuning in which the musical intervals between successive strings are each major thirds.[29][30][31] Unlike all-fourths and all-fifths tuning, major-thirds tuning repeats its octave after three strings, which again simplifies the learning of chords and improvisation.[32]

Neighboring the standard tuning is the major-thirds tuning that has the open strings

E-G-C-e-g-c'.[29][33]

A lower major-thirds tuning has the open strings

C-E-G-c-e-g,

which "contains two octaves of a C augmented chord".[30]

All fourths

Stanley Jordan plays guitar using all-fourths tuning.
Stanley Jordan plays guitar using all-fourths tuning.
E-A-d-g-c'-f'

This tuning is like that of the lowest four strings in standard tuning.[34][35] Jazz musician Stanley Jordan plays guitar in all-fourths tuning; he has stated that all-fourths tuning "simplifies the fingerboard, making it logical".[36]

Augmented fourths

C-F-c-f-c'-f' or B-F-b-f-b'-f'

Between the all-fifths and all-fourths tunings are augmented-fourth tunings, which are also called "diminished-fifths" or "tritone" tunings.[37]

All fifths: "Mandoguitar"

New standard tuning.
New standard tuning.
New Standard Tuning's open strings.
C-G-D-A-E'-B' or G'-D-A-E'-B-F'

All-fifths tuning is a tuning in intervals of perfect fifths like that of a mandolin, cello or violin; other names include "perfect fifths" and "fifths".[38] It has a wide range, thus it requires an appropriate range of string gauges. A high b' string is particularly thin and taut, which can be avoided by shifting the scale down by several steps or by a fifth.

New standard tuning

C-G-D-A-E'-g'

All-fifths tuning has been approximated by the New Standard Tuning (NST) of King Crimson's Robert Fripp. It has a wider range than standard tuning, and its perfect-fifth intervals facilitate quartal and quintal harmony.

Ostrich tuning

E-E-e-e-e'-e' or C-C-c-c-c'-c'

Ostrich tuning is a tuning where all strings are tuned to the same note over two or three octaves,[39] creating an intense, chorused drone and interesting fingering potential.

Used by Soundgarden (E-E-e-e-e'-e') on the song "Mind Riot", and by Lou Reed in the Velvet Underground.

Dropped

Drop D tuning.
Drop D tuning.

Drop tunings lower the sixth string, dropping the lowest E string of the standard tuning. Some drop tunings also lower the fifth string (A note in standard tuning). A drop one tuning lowers the pitch by one full step.

Some lower tunings may call for a baritone guitar to more easily maintain high string tension and a rich tone. Others can be achieved using a capo and/or a partial capo.

Examples

Shifted

These tunings are derived by systematic increases or decreases to standard tuning.

Lowered (Standard)

D tuning.
D tuning.

Derived from standard EADGBE, all the strings are tuned lower by the same interval, thus providing the same chord positions transposed to a lower key. Lower tunings are popular among rock and heavy metal bands. The reason for tuning down below standard pitch is usually either to accommodate a singer's vocal range or to get a deeper/heavier sound.[41]

Raised

From standard EADGBE, all the strings are tuned up by the same interval. String tension will be higher. Typically requires thinner gauge strings, particularly the first string which could be as thin as six thousandths of an inch (about the thickness of a single human hair). A capo is typically preferred over these tunings, as they do not increase neck strain, etc. The advantage of these tunings is that they allow an extended upper note range versus a capo used with standard tuning which limits the number of notes that can be played; in some cases, instruo B or E (such as saxophones, which were frequently encountered in early rock and roll music) are more easily played when the accompanying guitar plays chords in the higher tuning. If standard gauge strings are used, the result is often a "brighter" or "tighter" sound; this was a common practice for some bluegrass bands in the 1950s, notably Flatt & Scruggs.

  • F tuning - F-A-D-G-C-F / F-B-E-A-C-F
    Half a step up from standard tuning. Used in most of Johnny Cash's music, for "Love Buzz" on Nirvana's Bleach album - apparently by mistake (according to Come As You Are - Michael Azerrad), 3 Doors Down on "Here Without You" (a capo was probably used), Vektor, Soundgarden's "Black Hole Sun" (The low E string was tuned to Eb/D# for a drop Eb/D# tuning), Nickelback on their song "When We Stand Together", Burzum on his first 3 albums, Immortal on Pure Holocaust, John Fedowitz in his solo project "Ceremony", Joe Jackson on "Got the Time", and Social Distortion on "Ring of Fire".
  • F/G tuning - F-B-E-A-C-F / G-B-E-A-D-G
    One full step up from standard. Primary tuning for the band The Chameleons. Johnny Marr also used this tuning extensively with The Smiths; bassist Andy Rourke remained in standard, however, even when Marr was playing in F#. British singer-songwriter Dave Mason also plays in F#. Alex Lifeson of Rush used this tuning on the song "The Big Money". Tremonti uses a variation of this tuning where only the 6th string is raised to F# while the rest of the guitar stays in standard tuning, and then tuning down the whole guitar one and a half steps, on the song "Trust".
  • G tuning also known as Terz tuning (sometimes spelled "Tierce", "Third", or "Tertz", all of which are acceptable) - G-C-F-A-D-G / G-C-F-B-D-G
    One and one half steps up from standard.
  • G/A tuning - G-C-F-B-D-G / A-D-G-B-E-A
    Two full steps up from standard.
  • A tuning - A-D-G-C-E-A
    Two and one half steps up from standard. This is the standard tuning for the Lapstick travel guitar.
  • A/B - A-D-G-C-F-A / B-E-A-D-F-B
    Three full steps up from standard.

Double-dropped

Double drop D tuning.
Double drop D tuning.
Double drop D tuning (listen)

Similar to the dropped tunings, except that both the 1st and 6th strings are dropped one full step.

  • Double Drop D - D-A-D-G-B-D
    Standard tuning but with the 1st and 6th strings dropped one full step. Favored by Neil Young. Has also been used by Lamb of God on some of their earlier songs.
  • Double Drop C/Drop D - C-G-C-F-A-C / D-A-D-G-B-D/
    Same as [Double] Drop D, but every string is dropped one half step. Used by the acoustic rock band Days of the New. Also used by Our Lady Peace on the song "Starseed", as well as Los Angeles based Alternative band Failure, for the track "Sergeant Politeness". Also used by Tremonti on the song "Fall Again", as well as Myles Kennedy on the song "Cry a River" (Mark is tuned to Drop C#)
  • Double Drop C - C-G-C-F-A-C
    One full step down from Drop D. Used by Sevendust on the song "Seasons".
  • Double Drop B - B-F-B-E-G-B / B-G-B-E-A-B/
    One and one half steps down from Drop D. Used by Aaron Turner of Isis.
  • Double Drop A/Drop B - A-F-A-D-G-A / B-F-B-E-G-B
    Two full steps down from Drop D.
  • Double Drop A - A-E-A-D-F-A / A-E-A-D-G-A
    Two and one half steps down from Drop D.
  • Double Drop G/Drop A - G-D-G-C-F-G / A-E-A-D-F-A
    Three full steps down from Drop D.
  • Double Drop G - G-D-G-C-E-G
    Three and one half steps down from Drop D.
  • Double Drop F/Drop G - F-C-F-B-D-F / G-D-G-B-E-G
    Four full steps down from Drop D, or two full steps up from Drop D1.
  • Double Drop F - F-C-F-A-D-F / F-C-F-B-D-F
    Four and one half steps down from Drop D, or one and a half steps up from Drop D1.
  • Double Drop E - E-B-E-A-C-E / E-B-E-A-D-E
    Five full steps down from Drop D, or one full step up from Drop D1.
  • Double Drop D/Double Drop E - D-A-D-G-C-D / E-B-E-A-C-E
    Five and one half steps down from Drop D, or one half step up from Drop D1.
  • Double Drop D1 Tuning - D-A-D-G-B-D
    Six full steps (one octave) down from Double Drop D.

Miscellaneous

Dad-Gad

DADGAD tuning (listen)
D-A-d-g-a-d'

DADGAD was developed by Davey Graham in the early 1960s when he was travelling in Morocco, to more easily play along with Oud music. Among the first to use this tuning were the folk-blues guitarists of the '60s like Bert Jansch, John Renbourn, Martin Carthy, and John Martyn. It was many years later in the 1970s that it became established for accompanists of traditional music, predominantly Scottish and Irish. Due to this popularity it is sometimes referred to as "Celtic" tuning, although this is misleading given its origin and its primary early use in a quite different field of music. Often vocalized as "Dad-Gad", DADGAD it is now common in Celtic music. In rock music, has been used in Led Zeppelin's "Kashmir".[8] Pierre Bensusan is another noted exponent of this tuning. The post-metal group Russian Circles also employ this tuning, and also plays it tuned a half-step down: D-A-d-g-a-d'. Three down-tuned variations are used by the band Sevendust: A Drop C variation, or C-G-c-f-g-c'. (used on the song "Unraveling". Also uses a variation where the lowest string is dropped to G, used on some songs from Kill the Flaw and the song "Life Deceives You"), a Drop B variation, or B'-F-B-e-f-b, and a Drop A# variation, or A'-F-A-d-f-a. Neighboring tunings D-A-d-e-a-e' and C-G-c-d-g-a have been used by Martin Carthy. Also D-A-d-a-a-d', was used by Dave Wakeling on the English Beat's 1983 "Save It For Later".

Dad-Dad

DADDAD tuning (listen)
D-A-d-d-a-d'

Nicknamed - "Papa-Papa". DADDAD is common in folk music (Irish, Scottish), and for the execution of a rhythm guitar in "heavy" (alternative music) on 6th on the third string at the same time. To reach the tuning from DADGAD, Open D or Open D Minor, the G string is dropped to D so that the 3rd and 4th strings are tuned to the same pitch. DADDAD tuning is sometimes used on Dobro guitars for rock and blues. Notable users of this tuning include Billy McLaughlin and John Butler.

Cello/Standard guitar

C-G-d-a-b-e'

Essentially a cello tuning with the deeper four strings in fifths and the two highest strings in standard guitar tuning. Used on numerous Pavement songs (including Cut Your Hair and by Foo Fighters on the song "Weenie Beenie"

"Karnivool" tuning

B-F-b-g-b-e'

Hybrid tuning between drop B-tuning and E-standard. Used by the band Karnivool for many of their songs.

Mi-composé

E-A-d'-g-b-e'

Mi-composé is a tuning commonly used for rhythm guitar in African popular music forms such as soukous and makossa.[42] It is similar to the standard guitar tuning, except that the d string is raised an entire octave. This is accomplished by replacing the d string with an e' string and tuning it to d'.

"Iris" Tuning

B-D-D-D-d-d

Tuning used by Johnny Rzeznik of the Goo Goo Dolls on the song "Iris".

E-A-C#-F#-A-C# ("Sleeping Ute")

Tuning used by Grizzly Bear guitarist Daniel Rossen in "Sleeping Ute", the opening song of their album Shields. Creates an F#m7/E chord when strummed open.

José González tuning

D-A-D-G-B-E This is a tuning favored by the Swedish singer-songwriter José González. He uses this on such songs as "Crosses", "Heartbeats" and "Cycling Trivialities" (capo on second fret). It is similar to the standard guitar tuning, but the low E string is dropped to D and the G string is dropped a half step to F/G. Also used by artists such as M. Ward, Stephen Malkmus, and Day Wave.

Dadd9 tuning

D-A-D-F#-A-E. This tuning is used by Tonic in their song Soldier's Daughter with a capo on the 4th fret.

Mr.Tom tuning

D-F#-A-E-F#-A This tuning was made by songwriter/composer Mr.Tom (Rawding) during the creation of an original indie folk instrumental "When You Stand By Me" [1]. The tuning is based on the D Open tuning.

Microtonal tuning

The open strings of a guitar can be tuned to microtonal intervals, however microtonal scales cannot easily be played on a conventional guitar because the frets only allow for a chromatic scale of twelve equally spaced pitches, each a semitone apart. (Certain microtonal scales, particularly quarter tones, can be played on a standard guitar solely by adjusting tunings, but the distance between notes on the scale makes it somewhat impractical.) It is possible to play microtonal scales on a fretless guitar, to convert a fretted guitar into a fretless, or to make a custom neck with a specific microtonal fret spacing.

Guitars can also be refretted to a microtonal scale.[43] On many refretted microtonal guitars, the frets are split, so that the tuning of each string is independent from the others. To enable an adjustable microtonal tuning, there exist guitars with frets that can be moved across the fingerboard.[44][45]

Extended techniques such as the 3rd bridge technique, slide guitar and prepared guitar techniques can be used to produce microtonality without severe modification to the instrument.

Guitar tunings inspired by other Instruments

In his on-line guide to alternative tunings for six-string guitars, William Sethares mentions several that are inspired by instruments other than guitars, for example, balalaika (E-A-D-E-E-A), cittern C-G-C-G-C-G, and Dobro G-B-D-G-B-D.

Extended range and other guitar tunings

Five-string

Five string guitars are common in Brazil, where they are known as guitarra baiana and are typically tuned in 5ths. Schecter Guitar Research produced a production model 5 string guitar called the Celloblaster in 1998.[46] A five-string tuning may be necessary in a pinch when a string breaks on a standard six-string (usually the high E) and no replacement is immediately available.

Some basic five-string tunings include:

  • Standard - E-A-d-g-b
    The standard tuning, without the top E string attached. Alternative variants are easy from this tuning, but because several chords inherently omit the lowest string, it may leave some chords relatively thin or incomplete with the top string missing (the D chord, for instance, must be fretted 5-4-3-2-3 to include F#, the tone a major third above D).
  • High C - E-A-d-g-c'
    Standard tuning with the B tuned a half step higher to C to emulate a 6 string bass guitar, minus the low B. This is an all fourths tuning.
  • Celloblaster or Guitello - C-G-d-a-e'
    An all fifths tuning as used on cello or mandolin, extended to five strings. Used by the noise-rock band Lightning Bolt, and by Jeffrey McFarland-Johnson on his Bach Cello Suites album.[47]
  • Baritone - E-A-d-f-b
    In this tuning, the fourth (G) string is lowered a half-step, thus recreating the intervals between the top five strings, lowered a perfect fourth. Though chords can easily and more fully be played from this tuning, it sometimes results in awkward inversions, a relatively minor problem if the five-string is played in an ensemble with a bass guitar.
  • E-A-c-f-b
    Simulates the top four strings, followed by the second-from-bottom string on top, raised a whole step (the F representing both the top and bottom E). It makes playing in the key of A major easier, though chord fingerings have to be altered unless the strings are rearranged to F-B-E-A-C.
  • Open G tuning - G-d-g-b-d'
    Some slide/bottleneck guitarists omit the bottom E string when playing in open G to have the root note as the tonic. This tuning is used by Keith Richards.
  • Open E5 tuning - E-B-e-b-e'
    This is achieved by removing the fourth (G) string, tuning both Es and the B down a half step, and the A and D strings up a half-step. This creates a five-string power chord.

Seven-string

Similar to five-string bass guitar tuning, seven-string tuning allows for the extra string a fourth lower than the original sixth string. This allows for the note range of B standard tuning without transposing E standard guitar chords down two and a half steps down. Baritone 7-string guitars are available which features a longer scale-length allowing it to be tuned to a lower range.

  • Standard 7-string tuning - B'-E-A-d-g-b-e'
    This is the standard tuning for a seven-string guitar. Used by Fear Factory, In This Moment, Animals as Leaders, Unearth, Nickelback on the song "Burn It To The Ground", Decapitated, Trivium (band) on much of Shogun, and The Crusade (album), Dream Theater, Crossfade on some songs, Hypocrisy, Lacuna Coil, and All That Remains on some songs. John Prine also used it on performances of "Fish and Whistle" from 1998 to 2020, to accommodate the permanent change in his voice following his battle with throat cancer.
  • Drop D 7-string tuning - D-D-A-d-g-b-e'
    This is the standard seven-string tuning with the low B string raised to D and lower E string dropped to D.
  • Drop A 7-string tuning - A'-E-A-d-g-b-e'
    This is the standard seven-string tuning with the low B string dropped to A.
  • Standard Choro tuning - C-E-A-d-g-b-e'
    Standard seven-string tuning for Brazilian choro.
  • Drop D + B 7-string tuning - B'-D-A-d-g-b-e'
    Standard seven-string tuning with the low E dropped to D, which results in a minor 3rd interval between the two lowest strings of B and D. Used by Ed Sloan of Crossfade. Also used by Animals as Leaders on the song "CAFO". A flat variation of this tuning is used by Periphery on the song “Racecar”.
  • Drop D + A 7-string tuning - A'-D-A-d-g-b-e'
    Seven-string tuning with the low E string dropped to D and a low A added below. Used extensively by Dir En Grey since the album "Dum Spiro Spero" as well as the song "Obscure" from the album Vulgar. Also used by Stam1na.
  • Thirds tuning - E-G-c-e-g-c'-e'
    Same range as standard six-string. Allows over two full chromatic octaves without changing position, slides or bends.
  • All fourths tuning - B'-E-A-d-g-c'-f'
    Expands the major third between the second and third strings, extending range a half step higher.
  • Russian Tuning - D-G-B-D-g-b-d
    6-string Open G tuning with additional 5th B-string. Was a standard tuning for classic 7-string guitars in Russia in the 19th to 20th centuries.

Lower

The open C tuning for 7-string guitar was Devin Townsend's preferred tuning for the extreme metal band Strapping Young Lad (GCGCGCE, used on their last two albums. Also used on Ziltoid the Omniscient, "Planet of the Apes" from Deconstruction, and "Failure" from Transcendence).

Higher

  • High A - E-A-d-g-b-e'-a' - Standard tuning with a high 'A' instead of a low 'B'. Because of the high pitch of the 'A' string, it usually requires a multi-scale fingerboard (fanned frets) to provide enough tension.
  • C tuning - C-F-A-d-g-c'-f' / C-F-B-e-g-c'-f'
    Half a step up from standard, used by Eddie Rendini during his time in Cold.
  • C tuning - C-F-B-e-a-c-f
    The whole step up from standard. This tuning was used by Wes Borland with high E-string being lowered to C (C-F-B-e-a-c-c) on the first two Limp Bizkit records.

Dropped

These tunings have the lowest string (or other strings tuned one full step lower allowing for chord structures similar to six-string drop tunings.

Eight-string

A continuation of the 7-string, adding another string a perfect fourth lower than the low B of the seven-string guitar. The eight string guitars additional low F string is just a whole step up from a bass guitars low E string.

Lower

  • F tuning - F'-B'-E-A-d-g-b-e'
    Half a step down from standard tuning. Used famously by Meshuggah, as well as After The Burial and Carnifex on some songs.
  • E tuning - E'-A'-D-G-c-f-a-d'
    One full step down from standard tuning. Used by Meshuggah and Korn on their "Untitled" album and on songs "Illuminati" and "Way Too Far" from their The Path of Totality album.
  • E tuning- E'-A'-D-G-B-e-a-d'
    One and a half steps down from standard tuning. Used by Meshuggah on "Nebulous" and Dissipate on their Tectonics EP.
  • D tuning - D'-G'-C-F-a-d-g-c'
    Two full steps down from standard tuning.
  • D tuning - D'-G'-B-R-a-d-g-c'
    Two and a half steps down from standard tuning
  • A tuning - A"-D'-G'-C-F-A-d-g
    Three and one half steps down from standard tuning.

Higher

  • High A tuning - B'-E-A-d-g-b-e'-a'
    Standard seven string tuning with a 'high a' Used by Rusty Cooley.
  • All fourths tuning - F'-B'-E-A-d-g-c'-f'
    Regular tuning which extends range a half step higher.

Dropped

  • Drop E 8-string tuning - E-B-E-A-D-G-B-E
    A combination of standard 7-string tuning and the 8th string dropped one full step from F to E. Allows to play in the range of a standard electric bass, as well as one-finger power chords. Used by Animals as Leaders on most songs.[49] and Whitechapel (on the songs "Devolver" and "Breeding Violence" from A New Era of Corruption) Also used by Deftones on Koi No Yokan and Gore, Allegaeon, and Emmure on the song "N.I.A. (News in Arizona)". An open variation of this tuning is used by Hacktivist with 3rd and 4th strings tuned a whole step up to A and E respectively. Also used by Born of Osiris on the song "Silence the Echo" and Chelsea Grin on more recent material.
  • Drop A + E 8-string tuning - E-A-E-A-D-G-B-E
    A combination of 7-string drop A tuning and an 8th string dropped one full step from F to E, allowing both power chords rooted on A, and easy fingering with the E a fourth below. This is the tuning of the lowest two strings of a bass, along with all strings of a standard 6-string guitar in standard tuning. It is used by Rings Of Saturn on the album Lugal Ki En.
    • Drop A + E (variation) - E-A-E-A-D-F-B-E
      A variation on Drop E, A with the G flattened one half step to F; this tuning is identical to 6-string Drop A, with two E strings added: one above, and one below. Like Drop E + A; this tuning allows easy fingering on the E since it is a standard fourth interval below the A. It also provides three high strings a fourth apart instead of the usual two. The tuning is used by Infant Annihilator on their album The Elysian Grandeval Galèriarch.
  • Drop E/D 8-string tuning - E-B-E-A-D-G-B-E
    Half a step down from drop E tuning. Used by Meshuggah in the album Catch Thirty-Three, in the song Shed, and used by Emmure in the album Speaker of the Dead in the song "Word of Intulo". Also used by After the Burial in the song "To Carry You Away" off of the album In Dreams.
  • Drop D 8-string tuning - D-A-D-G-C-F-A-D
    One full step down from drop E. Used by Meshuggah in the song "Obsidian". Also used by Issues in the song "Tapping Out and Mick Gordon - The only thing they fear is you."
  • Drop C 8-string tuning - C-G-C-F-B-E-G-C
    One and a half steps down from drop E.
  • Drop C + A 8-string tuning - C-A-E-A-D-G-B-E Standard 8-string tuning with the 8th string dropped 5 half steps from F to C and the 7th string dropped one full step from B to A. this tuning is used by Animals as Leaders on the song "Physical Education" using a guitar with two extra frets on the 8th and the 7th string.
  • Drop E/Open Tuning - E-B-E-B-E-F#-B-E
    3rd string half a step down. 4th & 5th strings a whole step up. Used by The Tony Danza Tapdance Extravaganza in Danza III and IV

Nine-string

A continuation of the eight-string guitar, adding a string lower or higher.

Lower

  • B tuning - B-E-A-D-G-c-f-a-d
    One full step from standard tuning. Gives the range of a five-string electric bass as well as a 6-string guitar in D tuning.

Higher

  • High A - F-B-E-A-d-g-b-e'-a'

Dropped

  • Drop E + B 9-string tuning - B-E-B-E-A-d-g-b-e
    Gives the range of a five-string electric bass as well as a seven-string electric guitar in standard tuning. Used by Rings of Saturn for their song The Husk.
  • Drop B 9-string tuning - B-F-B-E-A-d-g-b-e
    9-string guitar in standard tuning with the lowest string dropped two half steps down to B0, the same note as on the lowest string of a 5-string electric bass. Used by Rob Scallon for his song Rogue.
  • Double Drop A - A-E-A-E-A-d-g-b-e
    This is the 7-string drop A tuning with another E and A string added one octave lower. Used by Rings of Saturn.
  • Drop A 9-string tuning - A-E-A-D-G-c-f-a-d
    Standard 9-string tuning tuned one whole step down, and the lowest string dropped another whole step.
  • Drop G - G-D-G-C-F-a-d -g-c.
  • Drop F 9-string tuning - F-C-F-A#-D#-g#-c#-f-a#
    Used by American deathcore band Anzu.[50]

Ten-string

A continuation of the nine string, adding another lower string to the standard or high A tuning.

  • Standard - G-C-F-B-E-A-d-g-b-e'
  • High A - C-F-B-E-A-d-g-b-e'-a'
  • Drop F 10-string tuning - F-C-F-B-E-A-d-g-b-e'
    10-string guitar in standard tuning with the lowest string dropped two steps from G to F, which is a fourth lower than the low B string on a 5-string bass.
  • Standard bass plus standard guitar - standard E-A-D-g-b-e tuning for the top 6 strings and standard E'-A'-G-D bass tuning for the bottom 4 strings. It's set as a factory tuning for Agile Septor 1030.

Steel Guitar

On table steel guitar and pedal steel guitar, the most common tunings are the extended-chord C6 tuning and E9 tuning, sometimes known as the Texas and Nashville tunings respectively. On a multiple-neck instrument, the near neck will normally be some form of C6, and the next closest neck E9.

Necks with 12 or more strings can be used with universal tunings which combine the features of C6 and E9. On a 12 string pedal steel guitar, all 12 strings are tuned and played individually, not as 6 double courses as on the 12 string guitar.

On lap steel guitar there is often only one six-string neck. C6 tuning is popular for these instruments, as are open G, E6, and E7 tuning.

Renaissance lute

  • Renaissance lute tuning: E-A-d-f-b-e'

This tuning may also be used with a capo at the third fret to match the common lute pitch: G-c-f-a-d'-g'. This tuning also matches standard vihuela tuning and is often employed in classical guitar transcriptions of music written for those instruments, such as, for instance, "La Canción Del Emperador" and "Diferencias Sobre Guardame Las Vacas" by Renaissance composer Luis de Narváez.

References

  1. ^ Sethares (2009, pp. 18–19)
  2. ^ Hannu Annala, Heiki Mätlik (2007). "Composers for other plucked instruments: Rudolf Straube (1717-1785)". Handbook of Guitar and Lute Composers (Translated by Katarina Backman ed.). Mel Bay. p. 30. ISBN 9780786658442. ISBN 0786658444.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  3. ^ a b Guitar Tunings Database (2013). "CCGCEG Guitar Tuner". CCGCEG: Open C via harmonic overtones. Archived from the original on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  4. ^ a b Persichetti (1961, pp. 23–24): Persichetti, Vincent (1961). Twentieth-century harmony: Creative aspects and practice. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-09539-8. OCLC 398434.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  5. ^ a b Sharken, Lisa (15 May 2001). "Mick Ralphs: The rock 'N' roll fantasy continues". Vintage Guitar. Retrieved 21 February 2013.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  6. ^ Sethares (2009, pp. 20–21)
  7. ^ Grossman (1972, p. 29)
  8. ^ a b Johnson, Gordie (1 May 2008). "Hey Kid, What Tuning is That?". Canadian Musician. 30 (3): 25.
  9. ^ "List of all Guitar and Piano Transcriptions". GGDGBD. JoniMitchell.com. Retrieved February 22, 2013.
  10. ^ "George Kahumoku  - D Wahine Tuning". Taropatch.
  11. ^ Blackett, Matt. "Big Wreck in Guitar PLayer Magazine". Ultimate-Guitar.com. Guitar Player. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  12. ^ Bellow (1970, p. 164): Bellow, Alexander (1970). The illustrated history of the guitar. Colombo Publications.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  13. ^ Timofeyev (1999): Timofeyev, Oleg V. (1999). The golden age of the Russian guitar: Repertoire, performance practice, and social function of the Russian seven-string guitar music, 1800-1850. Duke University, Department of Music. pp. 1–584. University Microfilms (UMI), Ann Arbor, Michigan, number 9928880.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  14. ^ Sethares (2001, p. 16)
  15. ^ Cohen, Andy (22 March 2005). "Stefan Grossman- Country Blues Guitar in Open Tunings". Sing Out!. 49 (1): 152.
  16. ^ "John Sheehan". Soundclick.
  17. ^ "Latest Recording News and Reviews". johnsheehan.net.
  18. ^ Erlewine, Dan (August 1992). "Talking With The Iceman: Albert Collins". Guitar Player. 26 (8): 62.
  19. ^ < "The Art of Fingerstyle Guitar: Solos in Open Tunings", Stefan Grossman ©1984, Mel Bay Publications Inc. Pacific, MO>
  20. ^ Hanson (1995, pp. 111)
  21. ^ Dazzling Stranger: Bert Jansch and the British Folk and Blues Revival Colin Harper (©2000, published by Bloomsbury)
  22. ^ The Guitar Book Pierre Bensusan (©1986, published by Hal Leonard)
  23. ^ Classic Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young: Selections from Déjà Vu and Crosby Stills & Nash [Authentic Guitar-Tab Edition] © 1993 Warner Bros. Music
  24. ^ Hanson (1995, pp. 98)
  25. ^ Coby & Simone, Something to Do with Time, published February 1, 2020, https://hist.bandcamp.com/album/something-to-do-with-time
  26. ^ Coby & Simone, Something to Do with Space, published January 20, 2019, https://hist.bandcamp.com/album/something-to-do-with-space
  27. ^ Hanson (1995, pp. 75)
  28. ^ Sethares (2001, pp. 54)
  29. ^ a b Peterson (2002, pp. 36–37):Peterson, Jonathon (2002). "Tuning in thirds: A new approach to playing leads to a new kind of guitar". American Lutherie: The Quarterly Journal of the Guild of American Luthiers. 8222 South Park Avenue, Tacoma WA 98408: USA: The Guild of American Luthiers. Number 72 (Winter): 36–43. ISSN 1041-7176. Archived from the original on 21 October 2011.CS1 maint: location (link)
  30. ^ a b Sethares (2001, pp. 56)
  31. ^ Griewank, Andreas (1 January 2010), Tuning guitars and reading music in major thirds, Matheon preprints, 695, Rosestr. 3a, 12524 Berlin, Germany: DFG research center "MATHEON, Mathematics for key technologies" Berlin, Postscript file and Pdf file, archived from the original on 8 November 2012CS1 maint: location (link) CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  32. ^ Kirkeby, Ole (1 March 2012). "Major thirds tuning". m3guitar.com. cited by Sethares (2011). Archived from the original on 29 May 2012. Retrieved 10 June 2012.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  33. ^ Patt, Ralph (14 April 2008). "The major 3rd tuning". Ralph Patt's jazz web page. ralphpatt.com. cited by Sethares (2011). Retrieved 10 June 2012.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  34. ^ Sethares (2001, pp. 58–59)
  35. ^ Bianco, Bob (1987). Guitar in Fourths. New York City: Calliope Music. ISBN 0-9605912-2-2. OCLC 16526869.
  36. ^ Ferguson (1986, p. 76): Ferguson, Jim (1986). "Stanley Jordan". In Casabona, Helen; Belew, Adrian (eds.). New directions in modern guitar. Guitar Player basic library. Hal Leonard Publishing Corporation. pp. 68–76?. ISBN 9780881884234. ISBN 0881884235.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  37. ^ Sethares (2001, "The augmented fourths tuning" 60–61)
  38. ^ Sethares (2001, "The mandoguitar tuning" 62–63)
  39. ^ Lou Reed biography at IMDb
  40. ^ Charupakorn, Joe. "Pentagram's Victor Griffin: Commandeering the Low Road". Premier Guitar. Premier Guitar. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  41. ^ https://dealsyaari.in/best-acoustic-guitars-under-5000/
  42. ^ Steward, Gary (2004). Rumba on the River: A History of the Popular Music of the Two Congos. Verso. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-85984-368-0.
  43. ^ Bart Hopkin; Mark Rankin (April 1988). "Alternative tunings on Fretted Instruments–Refretting and Other Approaches". Experimental Musical Instruments journal. 3 (6): 3–6.
  44. ^ US Patent for individually adjustable frets
  45. ^ Adjustable Microtonal Guitar
  46. ^ Schecter Guitar Research (1999) Diamond Series. Schecter Guitar Research Catalogs. Los Angeles, CA
  47. ^ McFarland-Johnson, Jeffrey (2013). "GUITELLO". johnsong.com. Retrieved 2013-06-16.
  48. ^ "Rigged: Luc Lemay of Gorguts". MetalSucks.net. MetalSucks. Retrieved 24 October 2016.
  49. ^ Guitar Player: Interview with Tosin Abasi and Javier Reyes
  50. ^ Quarandjent [Instrumental], retrieved 2020-04-13

Sources

Further reading

External links

This page was last edited on 26 October 2020, at 07:43
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.