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List of governors of Vermont

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The governor of Vermont is the U.S. state government's chief executive. As of 2015, Vermont is one of only two U.S. states (New Hampshire being the other) that elects governors for two-year terms. Until 1870, Vermont elected its governors for one-year terms.[1]

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • ✪ Worst 10 American Governors
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I’m Mr. Beat, and I’m running for governor of Kansas in 2018. Here’s Chris Christie, the former governor of New Jersey. At one time, he was one of the most popular governors in the United States. However, by the time he left office, his approval rating had dropped all the way down to 14%. (Chris Christie clip) Many in New Jersey say he is the worst governor in their state’s history. But what about the worst governors in other states? Based on my research, here are the 10 worst governors in American history that I could find. Oh, and before we get into this list, I didn’t include the governors who are currently in office or recently got out of office. What can I say? We are always biased to have hatred to more recent politicians. #10 Edwin Edwards Governor of Louisiana from 1972 to 1980, 1984 to 1988, and 1992 to 1996, serving 16 years total in office, or 5,784 days, the sixth-longest amount of time in office for any governor since the Constitution. Widely considered one of the most corrupt governors in American history, he actually got caught for racketeering, extortion, money laundering, mail fraud, wire fraud, and conspiracy. He went to federal prison for eight years. He was unapologetic about receiving illegal campaign donations. He was accused of obstruction of justice and bribery. The only reason why Edwards is not higher up on my list is because is dedication to civil rights and protecting minorities and the poor. #9 Joel Aldrich Matteson Or MATTson. Both pronunciations are correct. I'll call him Mattyson because that's more fun. Oh Louisiana and Illinois. You both have a long history of electing corrupt and just, plain horrible governors. And Matteson is one of them. Governor of Illinois from 1853 to 1857, he actually had a few accomplishments during his tenure. This was when Illinois began public education, and Matteson oversaw a strong economy and the reduction of the state’s debt. However, after he got out of office people started to find out about his shadiness. You see, while in office, Matteson had found essentially IOU money in the form of scrips to pay for the Illinois and Michigan Canal. Even though scrips had already been cashed in, Matteson found out they could be used again due to poor record keeping. So he took a bunch of them for himself and cashed them in later on. They were like blank checks from the state. It was later estimated, that Matteson stole at least $5 million this way, adjusted for inflation. He would have probably stolen more if it weren’t for getting caught. So Matteson stole a bunch of taxpayer money. Oh yeah, and Abraham Lincoln hated him, too, so there’s that. #8 Peter Hardeman Burnett California’s first governor, and probably its worst. He was also the first California governor to resign, in office for just 14 months, from late 1849 to early 1851. He wanted the American West for whites only, supporting laws that banned blacks from living in Oregon when he lived up there and trying to get laws passed in California to ban blacks from living there after it became a state under his watch. He was also outspokenly racist toward Native Americans and Chinese immigrants. He pushed for heavy taxes on immigrants and for Indian removal. Oh, and he wanted the death penalty for theft. Peter, you were not a good start for California. #7 George Wallace Yeah, you’ve probably heard of George Wallace, he’s one of the most infamous in American history and ran for President several times. He was even in Forrest Gump. But if you want a great bio about him, I recommend this video by Connor Higgins. He’s most infamously known for the “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever” and racist stuff of his tenure, in which he embraced the KKK and basically argued that blacks and whites being in the same room was one of the worst things ever. He even freaking stood in front of a door to prevent black students from attending classes at the University of Alabama. But here’s the thing...he lost his first race for governor because he criticized the KKK and spoke out for African Americans. Later in life, after being paralyzed in an assassination attempt, he reversed his ways also by condemning his past racism. This just makes me assume he said whatever the majority of people wanted to hear in his state to get elected. George Wallace, were you racist or were you not? Ok yeah I think he truly was, though. He was so power hungry he got his wife elected after he couldn’t run for re-election due to term limit laws, and to do so, he hid her cancer diagnosis from her. She ended up dying less than 200 days after she took office. The bottom line is, George Wallace was as us vs. them as one could get. He knew how to divide Americans not only in Alabama, but across the country. Wallace would be higher up on this list if not for changing later in life, asking forgiveness from African Americans. "I was wrong. Those days are over, and they ought to be over." #6 Orval Faubus From one Southern racist governor to another, but at least this one has a cool name. Faubus was governor or Arkansas from 1955 to 1967. Now Faubus really just had one major decision that tainted his legacy Similar to Wallace, he was more about his political power, starting out more moderate when it came to civil rights issues, then all of sudden taking a firm pro-segregation stance after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision. In 1957, he became internationally infamous in what is known as the Little Rock Crisis. After the federal government ordered racial desegregation, he was like, “nope,” sending the Arkansas National Guard to stop African Americans from attending Little Rock Central High School. President Eisenhower had to send in federal troops to escort them in. And then at the end of the year, the school shut down. What’s frustrating about Faubus is that he really didn’t seem that racist. He just stubbornly did the wrong thing fueled the hatred of blacks in the South. And he never apologized for it, like Wallace did. #5 Lilburn Boggs Governor of Missouri from 1836 to 1840 Boggs is best known for Missouri Executive Order 44, or as many Mormons call it, the “Extermination Order.” It was a response to the growing violence during what became known as the 1838 Mormon War, a series of clashes between Mormons and those they threatened in northeast Missouri. Governor Boggs issued the order to drive Mormons out of the state because of their “open and avowed defiance of the laws, and of having made war upon the people of this State.” He also added, “The Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace.” Geez, dude. And yep, it worked. The Mormons fled to the town of Nauvoo, Illinois. Other great stuff about Boggs. He wasted a bunch of taxpayer money building a new capitol. Oh, and he almost caused a war with Iowa Territory due to a border dispute. Actually, it was known as a war. The Honey War. Awwww, what a sweet name for a war. #4 Len Small Well, here we go. Another Illinois governor. In office during the Roaring Twenties, from 1921 to 1929. His corruption started long before he was governor, back when he was the Illinois Treasurer. He was charged with embezzling over a million dollars through money laundering, by “misplacing” state funds into a fake bank. He went to trial for it while he was governor, and despite there being pretty good evidence that he was guilty, got off scot-free. Coincidentally, eight of the jurors who said he was not guilty in his trial later got cushy state jobs, and so did the brothers of the judge in that case. Coincidence? In 1925, when the Illinois Supreme Court said that yep, Small was guilty and he had to pay back that $1 million after all, Small fought back with a legal team and forced his own state employees to help pay for his defense. Small pardoned or released more than 1000 convicted felons, including a dude who was convicted of kidnapping young girls and making them slaves in which they were forced to be prostitutes. Also, Small released a bootlegger who later became the leader of one of the most powerful bootlegging gangs in Chicago. Oh Lenny. I can’t make this stuff up, can I? #3 Wilson Lumpkin Another great name, another bad governor. He was in office for the lovely state of Georgia from 1831 to 1835. He thought his biggest accomplishment, you know, something he was most proud of, was the removal of the peaceful Cherokee Indians from north Georgia. Yep, he was proud of kicking the Cherokee off their land, which led to the Trail of Tears and eventual death of 4,000 people. Wow, Wilson. Just wow. Did I mention he went against the Supreme Court by kicking them out? Check out that decision, by the way, I have a video about that called Worcester v. Georgia. He encouraged white settlers to take their land while they were still there. And did I mention he was a big supporter of slavery? Of course he was. And speaking of slavery... For #2, it’s a tie. In fact, 28 governors all tie for #2 on this list. They are the 28 Southern governors who all agreed to secede from the Union and become leaders in the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. Here are their names. I’m not going to read them off for you, but all of them declared allegiance to the Confederacy in the name of preserving the institution of slavery. I’m not going to call them traitors, because they didn’t think they were traitors. But they were wrong, and in my opinion, they do not deserve to be honored. And this last one will likely surprise you… #1 Brigham Young If you’re one of his 1,000 direct descendants, I’m pretty sure you are going to be offended by what I’m about to say. And if you’re Mormon, well I talked trash about Boggs earlier so hopefully this evens out. In case you didn’t know, Brigham Young was governor of the Territory of Utah from 1851 to 1858. Governor? Dictator might be a better word. I mean, he had absolute power. And there was no separation of church and state, it was a theocracy. After he led his Mormon followers into what is now known as Utah, and before the Feds go involved, whatever he said went. He argued slavery was a “divine institution.” Yep, people forget Utah used to allow slavery. Ok, and obviously the polygamy thing. He had 55 wives, for crying out loud. After he couldn’t convert the local Native American population to the Church of Latter Day Saints, he basically ordered to kill them. Yep. Genocide. Ethnic cleansing. And under his watch, the Mountain Meadows Massacre happened. Just Google it. It’s horrific, and it caused him to step down as governor. When the federal government came to challenge him during the Utah War, Young declared marital law and told his followers they may have to burn down their homes, hide in the woods, and conduct guerilla warfare to defend their way of life. He maybe started out as a nice guy, but in the end I think the power corrupted him, as power tends to do. So that’s it. I’m sure that last one surprised you, probably because you didn’t realize how horrible Brigham Young was or maybe you didn't realize he was a governor for a short while. He does have tons of monuments out there celebrating him and even a university named after him that’s one of the biggest universities in the country. Before I go, I want to point out that I was fairly out of my comfort zone when researching for this video There are so many governors in American history. that it's really hard to keep track of them. Plus, there's a lot of really bad ones and a lot of governors that we don't know much about in the early years. So if there are any governors that I did not include, that I totally missed please let me know in the comments. I will not be offended. Just let it all out. I do have a list of honorable mentions. Or should I say "DIShonorable mentions." That I included in the description of this video. They didn't quite make the cut. But as far as I know, this is the only video out there about the worst governors in American history. And thank you to Ian for giving me the idea. This video is dedicated to him. And to his mom. Thank you to you both for your support on Patreon. It means so much. I'll be back with a new episode of Supreme Court Briefs next week. Thank you for watching. And there's just one more thing. I'm really not running for Kansas governor in 2018. I just made that up.



As the independent Vermont Republic

# Portrait Governor Took office Left office Party Lieutenant Governor
Thomas Chittenden March 1778 October 1789 No party Joseph Marsh


No party
Benjamin Carpenter


No party
Elisha Payne


No party
Paul Spooner


No party
Joseph Marsh


No party
Moses Robinson October 1789 October 1790 No party
Thomas Chittenden October 1790 October 1791 No party Peter Olcott


No party

As a U.S. state

Political party

  Democratic (6)   Democratic-Republican (6)   Federalist (3)   No party (1)   National Republican (2)   Republican (54)   Whig (8)

# Portrait Governor Took office Left office Lieutenant Governor Party Side of the Green Mountains
Thomas Chittenden October 1790 August 25, 1797 Jonathan Hunt Independent West
Paul Brigham
Paul Brigham Vermont Governor.jpg
Paul Brigham August 25, 1797 October 16, 1797 Democratic-Republican East
Isaac Tichenor.jpg
Isaac Tichenor October 16, 1797 October 9, 1807 Federalist West
Israel Smith.jpg
Israel Smith October 9, 1807 October 14, 1808 Democratic-Republican West
Isaac Tichenor.jpg
Isaac Tichenor October 14, 1808 October 14, 1809 Federalist West
Jonas Galusha.jpg
Jonas Galusha October 14, 1809 October 23, 1813 Democratic-Republican West
Martin Chittenden.jpg
Martin Chittenden October 23, 1813 October 14, 1815 William Chamberlain Federalist West
Jonas Galusha.jpg
Jonas Galusha October 14, 1815 October 23, 1820 Paul Brigham Democratic-Republican West
Richard Skinner.jpg
Richard Skinner October 23, 1820 October 10, 1823 William Cahoon Democratic-Republican West
Aaron Leland
Cornelius P Van Ness.jpg
Cornelius P. Van Ness October 10, 1823 October 13, 1826 Democratic-Republican West
Ezra Butler (Vermont Governor).jpg
Ezra Butler October 13, 1826 October 10, 1828 National Republican East
Henry Olin
Samuel Crafts.jpg
Samuel C. Crafts October 10, 1828 October 18, 1831 Mark Richards National Republican East
William A. Palmer.jpg
William A. Palmer October 18, 1831 November 2, 1835 Lebbeus Egerton Anti-Masonic East
Silas H. Jennison (Whig)
Silas Hemenway Jenison.jpg
Silas H. Jennison November 2, 1835 October 15, 1841 vacant Whig West
David M. Camp
Charles Paine October 15, 1841 October 13, 1843 Waitstill R. Ranney Whig East
John Mattocks.jpg
John Mattocks October 13, 1843 October 11, 1844 Horace Eaton Whig East
William Slade.jpg
William Slade October 11, 1844 October 9, 1846 Whig West
Horace Eaton.jpg
Horace Eaton October 9, 1846 October 1848 Leonard Sargeant Whig East
Carlos Coolidge.gif
Carlos Coolidge October 1848 October 11, 1850 Robert Pierpoint Whig East
Charles K Williams.jpg
Charles K. Williams October 11, 1850 October 1852 Julius Converse Whig West
Erastus Fairbanks.jpg
Erastus Fairbanks October 1852 October 27, 1853 William C. Kittredge Whig East
John S Robinson.jpg
John S. Robinson October 27, 1853 October 13, 1854 Jefferson P. Kidder Democratic West
Stephen Royce.jpg
Stephen Royce October 13, 1854 October 10, 1856 Ryland Fletcher Whig (1st term) West
Republican (2nd term)
Ryland Fletcher (Vermont Governor).jpg
Ryland Fletcher October 10, 1856 October 10, 1858 James M. Slade Republican East
Hiland Hall.jpg
Hiland Hall October 10, 1858 October 12, 1860 Burnham Martin Republican West
Erastus Fairbanks.jpg
Erastus Fairbanks October 12, 1860 October 11, 1861 Levi Underwood Republican East
Frederick Holbrook.jpg
Frederick Holbrook October 11, 1861 October 9, 1863 Republican East
Paul Dillingham
J. Gregory Smith.jpg
J. Gregory Smith October 9, 1863 October 13, 1865 Republican West
Paul Dillingham.jpg
Paul Dillingham October 13, 1865 October 13, 1867 Abraham B. Gardner Republican East
John b page.jpg
John B. Page October 13, 1867 October 15, 1869 Stephen Thomas Republican West
Peter T Washburn.jpg
Peter T. Washburn October 15, 1869 February 7, 1870 George W. Hendee Republican East
George W. Hendee February 7, 1870 October 6, 1870 George N. Dale Republican West
John Wolcott Stewart.jpg
John W. Stewart October 6, 1870 October 3, 1872 Republican West
Julius Converse.gif
Julius Converse October 3, 1872 October 8, 1874 Russell S. Taft Republican East
Asahel Peck.jpg
Asahel Peck October 8, 1874 October 5, 1876 Lyman G. Hinckley Republican West
Horace Fairbanks.jpg
Horace Fairbanks October 5, 1876 October 3, 1878 Redfield Proctor Republican East
Redfield Proctor, 37th United States Secretary of War.jpg
Redfield Proctor October 3, 1878 October 7, 1880 Eben Pomeroy Colton Republican West
Roswell Farnham.jpg
Roswell Farnham October 7, 1880 October 5, 1882 John L. Barstow Republican East
John L Barstow.gif
John L. Barstow October 5, 1882 October 2, 1884 Samuel E. Pingree Republican West
Samuel E. Pingree.jpg
Samuel E. Pingree October 2, 1884 October 7, 1886 Ebenezer J. Ormsbee Republican East
Ebenezer Jolls Ormsbee.jpg
Ebenezer J. Ormsbee October 7, 1886 October 4, 1888 Levi K. Fuller Republican West
William P. Dillingham, governor 1888-1890 (Republican).jpg
William P. Dillingham October 4, 1888 October 2, 1890 Urban A. Woodbury Republican East
Carroll Smalley Page, 1920.jpg
Carroll S. Page October 2, 1890 October 6, 1892 Henry A. Fletcher Republican West
Levi K. Fuller October 6, 1892 October 4, 1894 F. Stewart Stranahan Republican East
Urban A Woodbury.jpg
Urban A. Woodbury October 4, 1894 October 8, 1896 Zophar M. Mansur Republican West
Josiah Grout October 8, 1896 October 6, 1898 Nelson W. Fisk Republican East
Edward Curtis Smith.jpg
Edward C. Smith October 6, 1898 October 4, 1900 Henry C. Bates Republican West
William Wallace Stickney.jpg
William W. Stickney October 4, 1900 October 3, 1902 Martin F. Allen Republican East
John G McCullough.jpg
John G. McCullough October 3, 1902 October 6, 1904 Zed S. Stanton Republican West
Charles J. Bell.jpg
Charles J. Bell October 6, 1904 October 4, 1906 Charles H. Stearns Republican East
Fletcher D. Proctor.jpg
Fletcher D. Proctor October 4, 1906 October 8, 1908 George H. Prouty Republican West
George H. Prouty October 8, 1908 October 5, 1910 John A. Mead Republican East
John Abner Mead USA politician Governor Vermont-crop.jpg
John A. Mead October 5, 1910 October 3, 1912 Leighton P. Slack Republican West
Allen Miller Fletcher.jpg
Allen M. Fletcher October 3, 1912 January 7, 1915 Frank E. Howe Republican East
Charles W. Gates.jpg
Charles W. Gates January 7, 1915 January 4, 1917 Hale K. Darling Republican West
Horace French Graham.jpg
Horace F. Graham January 4, 1917 January 9, 1919 Roger W. Hulburd Republican East
Percival W. Clement January 9, 1919 January 6, 1921 Mason S. Stone Republican West
James Hartness.jpg
James Hartness January 6, 1921 January 4, 1923 Abram W. Foote Republican East
Redfield Proctor Jr. January 4, 1923 January 8, 1925 Franklin S. Billings Republican West
Franklin S. Billings.jpg
Franklin S. Billings January 8, 1925 January 6, 1927 Walter K. Farnsworth Republican East
John Eliakim Weeks.jpg
John E. Weeks January 6, 1927 January 8, 1931 Hollister Jackson
Stanley C. Wilson
Republican West
Stanley Calef Wilson.jpg
Stanley C. Wilson January 8, 1931 January 10, 1935 Benjamin Williams
Charles Manley Smith
Republican East
Charles Manley Smith 2.jpg
Charles M. Smith January 10, 1935 January 7, 1937 George D. Aiken Republican West
George David Aiken January 7, 1937 January 9, 1941 William H. Wills Republican East
Wm Henry Wills.jpg
William H. Wills January 9, 1941 January 4, 1945 Mortimer R. Proctor Republican West
Mortimer Robinson Proctor.jpg
Mortimer R. Proctor January 4, 1945 January 9, 1947 Lee E. Emerson Republican West
Ernest W. Gibson Jr..jpg
Ernest W. Gibson Jr. January 9, 1947 January 16, 1950 Republican East
Harold J. Arthur
Harold J. Arthur.jpg
Harold J. Arthur January 16, 1950 January 4, 1951 vacant Republican West
Lee Emerson Vermont 2.jpg
Lee E. Emerson January 4, 1951 January 6, 1955 Joseph B. Johnson Republican East
Joseph Blaine Johnson.jpg
Joseph B. Johnson January 6, 1955 January 8, 1959 Consuelo N. Bailey
Robert T. Stafford
Republican East
Robert Theodore Stafford.jpg
Robert T. Stafford January 8, 1959 January 5, 1961 Robert S. Babcock Republican West
F. Ray Keyser, Jr..jpg
F. Ray Keyser Jr. January 5, 1961 January 10, 1963 Ralph A. Foote (Republican) Republican East
Philip H. Hoff for Vermont Governor poster 1962 (cropped 2).jpg
Philip H. Hoff January 10, 1963 January 9, 1969 Democratic West
John J. Daley (Democratic)
Deane C. Davis Vermont Governor poster 1970 (cropped).jpg
Deane C. Davis January 9, 1969 January 4, 1973 John S. Burgess (Republican) Republican
Thomas P. Salmon.jpg
Thomas P. Salmon January 4, 1973 January 6, 1977 Brian D. Burns (Democratic) Democratic
Richard A Snelling.jpg
Richard A. Snelling January 6, 1977 January 10, 1985 T. Garry Buckley (Republican) Republican West
Madeleine Kunin (Democratic)
Peter P. Smith (Republican)
Madeleine kunin 20041011 (cropped).jpg
Madeleine Kunin January 10, 1985 January 10, 1991 Democratic West
Howard Dean (Democratic)
Richard A Snelling.jpg
Richard A. Snelling January 10, 1991 August 13, 1991 Republican West
Howard Dean (cropped).jpg
Howard Dean August 13, 1991 January 9, 2003 vacant Democratic West
Barbara W. Snelling (Republican)
Douglas Racine (Democratic)
Jim Douglas-2009 (cropped).jpg
Jim Douglas January 9, 2003 January 6, 2011 Brian Dubie Republican West
Peter Shumlin.jpg
Peter Shumlin January 6, 2011 January 5, 2017 Phil Scott (Republican) Democratic East
Phil Scott.jpg
Phil Scott January 5, 2017 Incumbent[2] David Zuckerman (Progressive/Democratic) Republican East

Other high offices held

This is a table of congressional seats, other federal offices, and other governorships held by governors. All representatives and senators mentioned represented Vermont except where noted.* denotes those offices which the governor resigned to take.

Governor Gubernatorial term U.S. Congress Other offices held
House Senate
Moses Robinson 1789–1790 (Vt. Republic) S
Isaac Tichenor 1797–1807
Israel Smith 1807–1808 H S
Richard Skinner 1820–1823 H
Cornelius P. Van Ness 1823–1826 United States Minister to Spain, Collector of the Port of New York
Ezra Butler 1826–1828 H
Samuel C. Crafts 1828–1831 H S
William A. Palmer 1831–1835 S
John Mattocks 1843–1844 H
William Slade 1844–1846 H
Hiland Hall 1858–1860 H
Paul Dillingham 1865–1867 H
George W. Hendee 1870 H
John W. Stewart 1870–1872 H S
Redfield Proctor 1878–1880 S United States Secretary of War
William P. Dillingham 1888–1890 S
Carroll S. Page 1890–1892 S
John E. Weeks 1927–1931 H
George Aiken 1937–1941 S
William H. Wills 1941–1945 Member, Federal Communications Commission
Ernest W. Gibson Jr. 1947–1950 S Judge, United States District Court for the District of Vermont
Robert Stafford 1959–1961 H S
Madeleine M. Kunin 1985–1991 United States Deputy Secretary of Education; United States Ambassador to Switzerland and Liechtenstein

Living former governors of Vermont

As of April 2018, there are five former governors of Vermont who are currently living at this time, the oldest governor of Vermont being Thomas P. Salmon (served 1973–1977, born 1932). The most recent governor of Vermont to die was Philip H. Hoff (served 1963–1969, born 1924), in April 2018. The most recently serving governor of Vermont to die was Richard A. Snelling (served 1977–1985 and 1991, born 1927), in office on August 13, 1991.

Governor Gubernatorial term Date of birth (and age)
Thomas P. Salmon 1973–1977 (1932-08-19) August 19, 1932 (age 87)
Madeleine M. Kunin 1985–1991 (1933-09-28) September 28, 1933 (age 86)
Howard Dean 1991–2003 (1948-11-17) November 17, 1948 (age 70)
Jim Douglas 2003–2011 (1951-06-21) June 21, 1951 (age 68)
Peter Shumlin 2011–2017 (1956-03-24) March 24, 1956 (age 63)

Mountain Rule

From the founding of the Republican Party in the 1850s until the 1960s, only Republicans won general elections for Vermont's statewide offices. One method that made this possible was imposition of the "Mountain Rule." Under the provisions of the Mountain Rule, one U.S. Senator was a resident of the east side of the Green Mountains and one resided on the west side, and the governorship and lieutenant governorship alternated between residents of the east and west side. Nominees for Governor and Lieutenant Governor were allowed two one-year terms and, later, one two-year term. For nearly 100 years, likely Republican candidates for office in Vermont agreed to abide by the Mountain Rule in the interests of party unity. Several factors led to the eventual weakening of the Mountain Rule, including: the long time political dispute between the Proctor (conservative) and AikenGibson (liberal) wings of the party; primaries rather than conventions to select nominees; the direct election of U.S. Senators; and several active third parties, including the Progressives, the Prohibition Party, and the Local Option movement. In the 1960s, the rise of the Vermont Democratic Party and the construction of Interstate 89 also contributed to the end of the Mountain Rule. Though I-89 is a north-south route, it traverses Vermont from east to west and changed the way Vermonters viewed how the state was divided.[3][4]


  1. ^ pdf Archived 2016-01-12 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Scott's second term began January 10, 2019, and will expire January 2021
  3. ^ Newspaper article, The Mountain Rule in Vermont, New York Times, February 12, 1895
  4. ^ Magazine article, Mountain Rule Revisited, by Samuel B. Hand, Vermont History Magazine, published by Vermont Historical Society, Summer/Fall 2003, pages 139 to 151
This page was last edited on 22 October 2019, at 10:26
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