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List of governors of Puerto Rico

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

La Fortaleza in Old San Juan is the official residence of the Governor of Puerto Rico. It was built between 1533 and 1540.
La Fortaleza in Old San Juan is the official residence of the Governor of Puerto Rico. It was built between 1533 and 1540.
History of Puerto Rico
Flag of Puerto Rico.svg
Puerto Rico portal

This list of Governors of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Gobernador de Puerto Rico) includes all persons who have held that post, either under Spanish or American rule. The Governor of Puerto Rico is the Head of Government of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The position was first established by the Spanish Empire during the 16th century following the archipelago's colonization.

The first person to officially occupy the position was Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in 1509.[1] At the time, the Spanish monarchy was responsible for appointing the functionary who would perform this office. The first native Puerto Rican to perform the function was Juan Ponce de León II, as interim governor in 1579. During this administration, all of those appointed to take the position had served another function within the empire's government or the Roman Catholic Church. In 1898, the United States invaded Puerto Rico and the Spanish government ceded control of the island to the United States. During the first two years, the entire government in Puerto Rico was appointed by the President of the United States. In 1900, the American government approved the establishment of the Foraker Act as a federal law, this act established a civilian government in the island. In 1947, the federal Elective Governor Act was enacted, which created a new system where, since 1948, the governor is elected through a democratic process every four years. The governor is in charge of Puerto Rico's executive branch and is responsible for appointing executive branch agency heads, including the Secretary of State, who fulfills the role of lieutenant governor, the legislative branch's Ombudsman and Comptroller and all judges in the judicial branch.

Duties and succession

The Standard (flag) and Seal of the Governor of Puerto Rico
Juan Ponce de León II, 28th governor of Puerto Rico, grandson of the first governor, and the first born in the island to become governor.
Juan Ponce de León II, 28th governor of Puerto Rico, grandson of the first governor, and the first born in the island to become governor.

In the governor's absence, or if the governor dies or is unable to perform the executive duties, the Secretary of State of Puerto Rico takes control of the executive position, as Acting Governor during a temporary absence or inability, and as Governor in case of death, resignation or impeachment and conviction.[2] The elected governor must designate a number of secretaries and other agency heads that will control the individual administrative agencies during his time in office, the selected secretaries are in charge of the island's health, natural resources, economy, correctional and judicial agencies and the department of consumer concerns, among others. The Governor's four-year term begins on January 2, the day after the New Year's Day holiday.

On July 24, 2019, Ricardo Rosselló became the first governor to resign his office. This happened after more than a week of protests due to a chain of corruption arrests and a leaked Telegram chat which contained offensive remarks made by the governor.

List of Governors of Puerto Rico

Century
16th17th18th19th20th21st
Coat of Arms of Spain (1874-1931) Pillars of Hercules Variant.svg Coat of arms of Puerto Rico (Variant).svg

Governors under Spanish Crown

Portrait Governor
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Ref(s)
1
Appletons' Ponce de Leon Juan.jpg
Captain General Don

Juan Ponce de León (1st time)
1474 – July 1521
(aged c. 47)

1508 1509 [3]
2 Juan Cerón 1509 1510 [4]
3
Appletons' Ponce de Leon Juan.jpg
Captain General Don

Juan Ponce de León (2nd time)

1510 1511 [3]
4 Juan Cerón 1511 1512 [4]
5 Rodrigo Moscoso 1512 1513 [5]
6 Captain General

Cristóbal de Mendoza

1513 1515 [6]
7
Appletons' Ponce de Leon Juan.jpg
Captain General Don

Juan Ponce de León (3rd time)

1515 1519 [5]
8 Sánchez Velázquez 1519 1519 [6]
9 Antonio de la Gama 1519 1521 [6]
10 Pedro Moreno 1521 1523 [6]
11 Bishop

Alonso Manso

1523 1524 [6]
12 Pedro Moreno 1524 1529 [6]
13 Antonio de la Gama 1529 1530 [6]
14 Lieutenant General

Francisco Manuel de Landó

1530 1536 [6]
15 Vasco de Tiedra 1536 1537 [6]
16 Vasco de Tiedra 1537 1544 [6]
17 Jerónimo Lebrón de Quiñones 1544 1544 [6]
18 Lcdo.

Iñigo López Cervantes y Loayza

1544 1546 [6]
19 Lcdo.

Diego de Caraza

1546 1548 [6]
20 Diego de Caraza 1548 1550 [6]
21 Luis de Vallejo 1550 1555 [6]
22 Lcdo.

Alonso Esteves

1555 1555 [6]
23 Lcdo.

Diego de Caraza

1555 1561 [6]
24 Antonio de la Llama Vallejo 1561 1564 [6]
25

Francisco Bahamonde De Lugo

1564 1568 [6]
26 Francisco de Solís Osorio 1568 1574 [6]
27 Francisco de Obando y Mexia 1575 1579 [6]
28
Juan Ponce de Leon II.JPG
Juan Ponce de León II 1579 1579 [7]
29 Jerónimo de Agüero Campuzano 1580 1580 [6]
30 Captain General

Juan de Céspedes

1580 1581 [6]
31 Captain General

Juan López Melgarejo

1581 1582 [6]
32 Captain General

Diego Menéndez de Valdés

1582 1593 [6]
33 Colonel

Pedro Suárez de Coronel (1st time)

1593 1597 [6]
34 Captain General

Antonio de Mosquera

1597 1598 [6]
35 Colonel

Pedro Suárez de Coronel (2nd time)

1597-8 1599 [6]
36 Captain General

Alonso de Mercado

1599 1602 [6]
37 Captain General

Sancho Ochoa de Castro

1602 1608 [6]
38 Gabriel de Rojas Párano 1608 1614 [6]
39 Captain General Felipe de Beaumont y Navarra 1614 1620 [6]
40 Juan de Vargas 1620 1625 [6]
41 Captain General Juan de Haro y Sanvítores 1625 1630 [6]
42 Captain General Enrique Enriquez de Sotomayor 1631 1635 [6]
43 Captain General Iñigo de la Mota Sarmiento 1635 1641 [6]
44 Captain General Agustín de Silva y Figueroa 1641 1641 [6]
45 Captain General Juan de Bolaños 1642 1643 [6]
46 Fernando de la Riva Agüero y Setien 1643 1648 [6]
47 Diego de Aguilera y Gamboa 1649 1655 [6]
48 José Novoa y Moscoso Pérez y Buitron 1655 1660 [6]
49 Captain General Juan Pérez de Guzmán y Chagoyen 1660 1664 [6]
50 Jerónimo de Velasco 1664 1670 [6]
51 Gaspar de Arteaga y Aunoavidao 1670 1674 [8]
52 Diego Roblandillo 1674 1674 [8]
53 Captain General Baltazar Figueroa y Castilla 1674 1674 [8]
54 Alonso de Campos y Espinosa 1675 1678 [8]
55 Juan de Robles Lorenzana 1678 1683 [8]
56 Captain General Gaspar Martínez de Andino 1683 1685 [8]
57 Juan Francisco Medina 1685 1690 [8]
58 Gaspar de Arredondo y Valle 1690 1695 [8]
59 Juan Francisco Medina 1695 1697 [8]
60 Tomás Franco 1697 1698 [8]
61 Antonio de Robles Silva 1698 1699 [8]
62 Gabriel Suárez de Ribera 1700 1703 [8]
63 Diego Jiménez de Villarán 1703 1703 [8]
64 Francisco Sánchez Calderón 1703 1703 [8]
65 Pedro Arroyo y Guerrero 1704 1705 [8]
66 Juan Francisco López de Morla 1706 1706 [8]
67 Francisco Danío Granados 1706 1708 [8]
68 Colonel Juan de Ribera 1709 1715 [8]
69 José Francisco Carreño 1716 1716 [8]
70 Alfonso Bortodano 1716 1720 [8]
71 Francisco Danio Granados 1720 1724 [8]
72 Captain General José Antonio de Mendizabal y Azcue 1724 1730 [8]
73 Lieutenant Colonel Matías de Abadía 1731 1743 [8]
74 Domingo Pérez de Mandares 1743 1744 [8]
75 Colonel Juan José Colomo 1744 1750 [8]
76 Colonel Agustín de Parejas 1750 1751 [8]
77 Lieutenant Colonel Esteban Bravo de Rivero 1751 1753 [8]
78 Captain General Felipe Ramírez de Estenos 1753 1757 [8]
79 Esteban Bravo de Rivero 1757 1759 [8]
80 Mateo de Guaso Calderón 1759 1760 [8]
81 Esteban Bravo de Rivero 1760 1761 [8]
82
Ambrosio de Benavides.jpg
Lieutenant Colonel Ambrosio de Benavides 1761 1766 [8]
83 Colonel Marcos de Vergara 1766 1766 [8]
84 Lieutenant Colonel José Trentor 1766 1770 [8]
85 Colonel Miguel de Muesas 1769 1776 [8][9]
86
José Dufresne 1782.jpg
Colonel José Dufresne 1776 1783 [8]
87
Don Juan Daban .jpg
Field Marshal Don Juan Andrés Daban y Busterino 1783 1789 [8]
88 Coronel Francisco Torralbo y Robles 1789 1789 [8]
89
Retrato del Governador don Miguel Antonio de Ustáriz (pintura).jpg
Brigadier General Miguel Antonio de Ustariz 1789 1792 [5]
90 Coronel Francisco Torralbo y Robles 1792 1794 [8]
91 Brigadier General Enrique Grimarest 1794 1795 [5]
92
Ramon de Castro.jpg
Field Marshal Don Ramón de Castro y Gutiérrez 1795 1804 [8]
93 Toribio Montes 1804 1809 [8]
94 Salvador Meléndez Bruna 1809 1820 [8][10]
95 Brigadier General Juan Vasco y Pascual March 24, 1820 August 7, 1820 [8]
96 Brigadier General Gonzalo Arostegui y Herrera August 7, 1820 February 12, 1822 [8]
97 Coronel José de Navarro February 12, 1822 May 30, 1822 [8]
98 Francisco González de Linares May 30, 1822 December 4, 1823 [8]
99
Miguel de la Torre y Pando.png
Lieutenant General Miguel Luciano de La Torre y Pando December 4, 1823 1837 [8]
100 Francisco Javier de Moreda y Prieto 1837 1838 [8]
101
Domingo valdivieso-Retrato de Miguel López de Baños.jpg
Field Marshal Miguel López de Baños 1838 1841 [8]
102
Estado Mayor General del Ejército Español-santiago méndez de vigo.jpg
Lieutenant General Santiago Méndez de Vigo 1841 1844 [8]
103 Lieutenant General Rafael de Aristegui y Vélez 1844 1847 [8]
104
Prim madrazo.jpeg
Field Marshal Don Juan Prim de Prats y Gonzalez 1847 1848 [11]
105
Retrato de Juan de la Pezuela.jpg
Lieutenant General Juan de la Pezuela y Cevallos 1848 1851 [5][12]
106 Enrique de España y Taberner 1851 1852 [5]
107
Fernando Escudero Norzagaray.jpg
Lieutenant General Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero 1852 1855 [5]
108
GarcíaCamba.jpg
Lieutenant General Andrés García Camba 1855 1855 [5]
109
José Lemery, de Bernardo Blanco y Pérez (cropped).jpg
Lieutenant General José Lemery Ibrarrola Ney y Gonzalez 1855 1857 [5]
110
Fernando Cotoner.jpg
Lieutenant General Fernando Cotoner y Chacon 1857 1860 [5]
111 Sabino Gamir Maladen 1860 1860 [5]
112
CARTE DE VISITE DEL GENERAL ECHAGÜE (COLECCIÓN ROMERO ORTIZ).jpg
Lieutenant General Rafael Echague y Bermingham 1860 1862 [5]
113 Brigadier General Rafael Izquierdo y Gutierrez 1862 1863 [5]
114
Felix Maria de Messina Iglesias.jpg
Lieutenant General Félix María de Messina Iglesias April 1862 November 1865 [5]
115
Jose Matía Marchessi y Oleaga.jpg
Lieutenant General José María Marchessi y Oleaga 1865 1867 [5]
116 General Julián Juan Pavia Lacy 1867 1868 [5]
117 General José Laureano Sanz y Posse 1868 1870 [5][13]
118 Lieutenant General Gabriel Baldrich 1870 1871 [5]
119 General Ramón Gómez Pulido 1871 1872 [5]
120 General Simón de la Torre Ormaza 1872 1872 [5]
121 Brigadier General Joaquín Eurile Hernan 1872 1873 [5]
122 Lieutenant General Juan Martínez Plowes 1873 1873 [5]
123 General Rafael Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte 1873 1874 [5]
124 General José Laureano Sanz y Posse 1875 1875 [5][13]
125 General Segundo de la Portilla Gutierrez 1875 1877 [5]
126 General Manuel de la Serna Hernandez y Pinzón 1877 1878 [5]
127 General José Gamir Maladen 1878 1878 [5]
128
Eulogio Despujols y Dusay.jpg
General Eulogio Despujols y Dussay 1878 1881 [5]
129 General Segundo de la Portilla Gutierrez 1881 1883 [5]
130
Miguel de la Vega Inclán.jpg
General Miguel de la Vega Inclán y Palma 1883 1884 [5]
131 General Don Carlos Suances Campos 1884 1884 [5]
132 General Ramón Fajardo Izquierdo 1884 1884 [5]
133
Luis Dabán y Ramírez de Arellano.jpg
General Luis Daban y Ramírez de Arellanó 1884 1887 [5]
134
Gen. Romualdo Palacios González, Gobernador de Puerto Rico en 1887 (DSC00441H2b).jpg
General Romualdo Palacios Gonzalez 1887 1887 [5]
135 General Juan Contreras Martinez 1887 1888 [5]
136 General Pedro Ruiz Dana 1888 1890 [5]
137 Brigadier General José Pascual Bonanza 1890 1890 [5]
138 General José Lasso y Pérez 1890 1893 [5]
139
Antonio Dabán y Ramírez de Arellano, La Ilustración Española y Americana.jpg
General Antonio Daban y Ramírez de Arrellanó 1893 1895 [5]
140 General José Gamir 1895 1896 [5]
141 General Emilio March 1896 1896 [5]
142 General Sabas Marín González 1896 1898 [14]
143
Ricardo de Ortega y Diez.jpg
General Ricardo de Ortega y Diez 1898 1898 [15]
144 General Andrés González Muñoz 1898 1898 [16][17]
145
Ricardo de Ortega y Diez.jpg
General Ricardo de Ortega y Diez 1898 1898 [15]
146
Macias1.jpg
General Manuel Macías Casado 1898 1898 [18]
147
Ricardo de Ortega y Diez.jpg
General Ricardo de Ortega y Diez 1898 1898 [15]

Governors under U.S. colonial administration

Military government

Image Name Took office Left office Reference
1
Nelson A. Miles by Brands Studios, 1898.jpg
Commanding General Nelson A. Miles 1898 1898
2
John R. Brooke.jpg
Major General John R. Brooke 1898 1898 [19]
3
Guy V. Henry.jpg
Major General Guy Vernor Henry 1898 1899 [20]
4
GeorgeWDavis.jpg
Major General George Whitefield Davis 1899 1900 [5]

Post-Foraker Act of 1900

Image Name Took office Left office Notes Reference
1
Charles Herbert Allen, 1898.jpg
Charles Herbert Allen May 1, 1900 September 15, 1901 First U.S. civil governor appointed by President William McKinley [21]
2
William H. Hunt.jpg
William Henry Hunt September 15, 1901 July 4, 1904 [22]
3
Beekman Winthrop by George Bain (cropped).jpg
Beekman Winthrop July 4, 1904 April 17, 1907 [6]
4
Regispost.jpg
Regis Henri Post 1907 1909 [6]
5
GR Colton Puerto Rico Governor.jpg
George Radcliffe Colton 1909 1913 [6]
6
Arthur Yager.JPG
Arthur Yager 1913 1921 [23]
7 José E. Benedicto 1921 1921 Interim governor [6]
8
E Mont Reily.jpg
Emmet Montgomery Reily July 30, 1921 March 1923 [24]
9 Juan Bernardo Huyke March 1923 April 1, 1923 Interim governor [6]
10
TOWNER, HORACE M. HONORABLE.jpg
Horace Mann Towner April 1, 1923 September 29, 1929 [25]
11 James R. Beverley 1929 September 9, 1929 [6]
12
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. 1921.jpg
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. September 9, 1929 January 1932 [26]
13 James R. Beverley 2nd Term January 1932 July 3, 1933 [6]
14 Robert Hayes Gore July 3, 1933 January 11, 1934 [27]
15 Benjamin Jason Horton January 11, 1934 February 5, 1934 [6]
16
WINSHIP, BLANTON. GENERAL LCCN2016859969.jpg
Blanton C. Winship February 5, 1934 June 25, 1939 Summarily removed by President Roosevelt on May 12, 1939.[28][29] [30]
17 José E. Colón June 25, 1939 September 11, 1939 Interim governor [5]
18
Governor William D. Leahy.jpg
William D. Leahy September 11, 1939 November 28, 1940 [31]
19 José Miguel Gallardo November 28, 1940 February 1941 Interim governor [5]
20 Guy J. Swope February 1941 July 24, 1941 [32]
21 José Miguel Gallardo July 24, 1941 September 19, 1941 Interim governor [5]
22
Rexford G Tugwell 08e03507t.jpg
Rexford Tugwell September 19, 1941 September 2, 1946 [33]
23
Jesus T. Piñero.jpg
Jesús T. Piñero September 2, 1946 January 2, 1949 Only native Puerto Rican governor appointed under US colonial administration [34]

Governors under the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico

  Popular Democratic Party (6)
  New Progressive Party (6)

US Party Affiliation

  Democratic Party (8)
  Republican Party (3)
  Independent (1)

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Party Election Affiliation
within U.S. politics
1
Luis Muñoz Marín.jpg
Luis Muñoz Marín
(1898–1980)[35]
January 2, 1949 January 2, 1965 Popular Democratic 1948 Independent[a]
1952
1956
1960
2
Gobernador de Puerto Rico Roberto Sánchez Vilella en el año 1958.jpg
Roberto Sánchez Vilella
(1913–1997)[37]
January 2, 1965 January 2, 1969 Popular Democratic 1964 Democratic[b]
3
Luis A. Ferré.jpg
Luis A. Ferré
(1904–2003)[39]
January 2, 1969 January 2, 1973 New Progressive 1968 Republican[c]
4
Rafael Hernández Colón, Former Governor of Puerto Rico.jpg
Rafael Hernández Colón
(1936–2019)[41][42]
January 2, 1973 January 2, 1977 Popular Democratic 1972 Democratic[d]
5
Carlos Antonio Romero-Barceló.jpg
Carlos Romero Barceló
(b. 1932)[44]
January 2, 1977 January 2, 1985 New Progressive 1976 Democratic[d]
1980
6
Rafael Hernández Colón, Former Governor of Puerto Rico.jpg
Rafael Hernández Colón
(1936–2019)[41][42]
January 2, 1985 January 2, 1993 Popular Democratic 1984 Democratic[d]
1988
7
PedroRossello.jpg
Pedro Rosselló González
(b. 1944)[45]
January 2, 1993 January 2, 2001 New Progressive 1992 Democratic[46]
1996
8
Puerto Rican Governor Sila Calderon at the Pentagon, Feb 27, 2001.jpg
Sila María Calderón
(b. 1942)[47]
January 2, 2001 January 2, 2005 Popular Democratic 2000 Democratic[e]
9
Anibal Acevedo Vila.jpg
Aníbal Acevedo Vilá
(b. 1962)[49]
January 2, 2005 January 2, 2009 Popular Democratic 2004 Democratic[f]
10
Luis Fortuño congressional portrait.jpg
Luis Fortuño Burset
(b. 1960)
January 2, 2009 January 2, 2013 New Progressive 2008 Republican[51]
11
Alejandro Garcia Padilla -cropped.jpg
Alejandro García Padilla
(b. 1971)
January 2, 2013 January 2, 2017 Popular Democratic 2012 Democratic[g]
12
Ricardo Rossello (cropped).jpg
Ricardo Rosselló Nevares
(b. 1979)
January 2, 2017 August 2, 2019 New Progressive 2016 Democratic[53]
13
Pedro-Pierluisi-cropped.jpg
Pedro Pierluisi
(b. 1959)
August 2, 2019 August 7, 2019 New Progressive none[h] Democratic[53]
14 Wanda Vázquez Garced
(b. 1960)
August 7, 2019 Incumbent New Progressive none[i] Republican[55]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Trías Monge (1995) "Aunque se le percibía como Demócrata e influía decisivamente en las gestiones del Partido Demócrata de Puerto Rico, Muñoz Marín nunca se afilió formalmente a ese partido ni participó en actividad alguna de los partidos políticos estadounidenses."[36]
  2. ^ Metro (2012) "Desde la presidencia de Lyndon B. Johnson ona el gobernación de Roberto Sánchez Vilella, no teníamos un presidente demócrata en Washington y un gobernador demócrata en San Juan."[38]
  3. ^ Fernós (2003) "[...]su dirigente Don Luis A. Ferré, presidente del Partido Republicano en Puerto Rico."[40]
  4. ^ a b c Montalvo (2012) "Carlos Romero Barceló y Rafael Hernández Colón son de partidos contrarios en la Isla, pero demócratas en la política estadounidense."[43]
  5. ^ Castilla y León. "[Calderón] pertenece al Partido Popular Democrático de Puerto Rico y al Partido Demócrata de Estados Unidos."[48]
  6. ^ DARN (2011) "[Acevedo Vilá] was an active member of the National Governors Association, the Southern Governors Association and the Democratic Governors Association."[50]
  7. ^ Varela (2013) "[...] Governor Alejandro Padilla, a Democrat [...]"[52]
  8. ^ As Secretary of State, succeeded to the office following the resignation of Ricardo Rosselló. Shortly thereafter, the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico ruled that his assumption of the office was unconstitutional because his nomination as Secretary of State was never confirmed by the Legislature.[54]
  9. ^ As Justice Secretary, succeeded to the office following the resignation of Ricardo Rosselló and the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico's ruling that Pedro Pierluisi's succession was invalid because he had not been constitutionally appointed as Secretary of State.[54]

External links

References

  1. ^ "Puerto Rico". World Statesmen.org. Retrieved June 14, 2019.
  2. ^ "Rama Ejecutiva" (in Spanish). Gobierno del Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on August 13, 2007. Retrieved September 23, 2007.
  3. ^ a b "Ponce de León, Juan". Infoplease. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  4. ^ a b "Puerto Rico in the Great Depression". New Deal Network. Archived from the original on November 5, 2007. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as "Governors of Puerto Rico - Under Spanish Rule". El Boricua. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay "Puerto Rico - Chronology". World's Statesmen. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  7. ^ Casa Blanca reveals centuries of San Juan history Archived 2009-06-14 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Altagracia Ortiz (January 1, 1983). Eighteenth-century Reforms in the Caribbean: Miguel de Muesas, Governor of Puerto Rico, 1769-76. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. ISBN 978-0-8386-3008-2.
  9. ^ "El capitan general de la Isla de Puerto Rico a todos los vecinos y habitantes de ella : Puerto Rico. Governor (1809-1820 : Meléndez y Bruna)". Internet Archive (in Spanish). October 23, 2016. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  10. ^ "Rafael Cordero Molina: Maestro de proceres, Siervo de Dios" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico en breve. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  11. ^ "A Sketch of the New Spanish Ministers". Empire. December 31, 1856. Retrieved October 31, 2019.
  12. ^ a b "José Laureano Sanz Posse". Real Academia de la Historia (in Spanish). Retrieved September 3, 2019.
  13. ^ "Presencia del ideario masónico en el proyecto revolucionario antillano de Ramón Emeterio Betances" (in Spanish). Universidad de Puerto Rico. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  14. ^ a b c "Protagonistas de la Guerra Hispano Americana en Puerto Rico Parte VII" (in Spanish). Coqui.net. Retrieved September 18, 2007.
  15. ^ "Teniente general Andrés González Muñoz" (in Spanish). Puerto Rico en breve. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  16. ^ "Puerto Rico's New Governor". timesmachine nytimes.
  17. ^ "Protagonistas de la Guerra Hispano Americana en Puerto Rico Parte VI" (in Spanish). Coqui.net. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  18. ^ "John R. Brooke". Library of Congress. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  19. ^ "Guy Vernor Henry". Arlington National Cemetery Website. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  20. ^ "Allen, Charles Herbert, (1848 - 1934)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  21. ^ "Hunt, William Henry". Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on April 23, 2008. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  22. ^ "Arthur Yager 1908-1913". Georgetown College. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  23. ^ "The Architecture of Power". Carnegie Mellon University. Archived from the original on July 4, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  24. ^ "Towner, Horace Mann, (1855 - 1937)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  25. ^ "TR's Family Tree". Theodore Roosevelt Association. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
  26. ^ Washington Post (1933), "Warren D. Robbins Minister to Canada; White House Also Chooses Robert H. Gore as Governor of Puerto Rico", Washington Post (April 29, 1933): 2
  27. ^ Report of the Commission of Inquiry on Civil Rights in Puerto Rico. The Commission of Inquiry on Civil Rights in Puerto Rico, editor. 70 pages. May 22, 1937. Published by The Law Library Microform Consortium (LLMC). Archived December 14, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Accessed on October 30, 2010.
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Further reading

  • Mellander, Gustavo A.(1971) The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years. Daville, Ill.:Interstate Publishers. OCLC 138568.
  • Mellander, Gustavo A.; Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999). Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years. Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1-56328-155-4. OCLC 42970390.

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