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List of federal judges appointed by Theodore Roosevelt

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

President Theodore Roosevelt.
President Theodore Roosevelt.

Following is a list of all Article III United States federal judges appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt during his presidency.[1] In total Roosevelt appointed 80 Article III federal judges, a record for his day surpassing the 46 appointed by Ulysses S. Grant. These included 3 Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States, 19 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 58 judges to the United States district courts.

Five of Roosevelt's appointees - George Bethune Adams, Thomas H. Anderson, and Robert W. Archbald, Andrew McConnell January Cochran, and Benjamin Franklin Keller, were originally placed on their respective courts as recess appointments by President William McKinley. Following the assassination which resulted in McKinley's death on September 14, 1901, Roosevelt chose to formally nominate those judges for confirmation by the United States Senate, and all were confirmed.

Additionally, 8 Article I appointments are listed, including 4 judges to the United States Court of Claims and 4 members to the Board of General Appraisers (later the United States Customs Court).

From the establishment of the United States courts of appeals on June 16, 1891, until the abolition of the United States circuit courts on December 31, 1911, all United States Circuit Judges where jointly appointed to both the United States court of appeal and the United States circuit court for their respective circuit. Starting January 1, 1912, United States Circuit Judges served only on the United States court of appeal for their respective circuit.

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Transcription

Episode 34 – The New Deal Hi, I’m John Green, this is CrashCourse U.S. history, and today we’re going to get a little bit controversial, as we discuss the FDR administration’s response to the Great Depression: the New Deal. That’s the National Recovery Administration, by the way, not the National Rifle Association or the No Rodents Allowed Club, which I’m a card-carrying member of. Did the New Deal end the Depression (spoiler alert: mehhh)? More controversially, did it destroy American freedom or expand the definition of liberty? In the end, was it a good thing? Mr. Green, Mr. Green. Yes. Ohh, Me from the Past, you are not qualified to make that statement. What? I was just trying to be, like, provocative and controversial. Isn’t that what gets views? You have the worst ideas about how to make people like you. But anyway, not EVERYTHING about the New Deal was controversial. This is CrashCourse, not TMZ. intro The New Deal redefined the role of the federal government for most Americans and it led to a re-alignment of the constituents in the Democratic Party, the so-called New Deal coalition. (Good job with the naming there, historians.) And regardless of whether you think the New Deal meant more freedom for more people or was a plot by red shirt wearing Communists, the New Deal is extremely important in American history. Wait a second. I’m wearing a red shirt. What are you trying to say about me, Stan? As the owner of the means of production, I demand that you dock the wages of the writer who made that joke. So after his mediocre response to the Great Depression, Herbert Hoover did not have any chance of winning the presidential election of 1932, but he also ran like he didn’t actually want the job. Plus, his opponent was Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was as close to a born politician as the United States has ever seen, except for Kid President. The phrase New Deal came from FDR’s campaign, and when he was running FDR suggested that it was the government’s responsibility to guarantee every man a right to make a comfortable living, but he didn’t say HOW he meant to accomplish this. Like, it wasn’t gonna come from government spending, since FDR was calling for a balanced budget and criticizing Hoover for spending so much. Maybe it would somehow magically happen if we made alcohol legal again and one thing FDR did call for was an end to Prohibition, which was a campaign promise he kept. After three years of Great Depression, many Americans seriously needed a drink, and the government sought tax revenue, so no more Prohibition. FDR won 57% of the vote and the Democrats took control of Congress for the first time in a decade. While FDR gets most of the credit, he didn’t actually create the New Deal or put it into effect. It was passed by Congress. So WTFDR was the New Deal? Basically, it was a set of government programs intended to fix the depression and prevent future depressions. There are a couple of ways historians conceptualize it. One is to categorize the programs by their function. This is where we see the New Deal described as three R’s. The relief programs gave help, usually money, to poor people in need. Recovery programs were intended to fix the economy in the short run and put people back to work. And lastly, the Run DMC program was designed to increase the sales of Adidas shoes. No, alas, it was reform programs that were designed to regulate the economy in the future to prevent future depression. But some of the programs, like Social Security, don’t fit easily into one category, and there are some blurred lines between recovery and reform. Like, how do you categorize the bank holiday and the Emergency Banking Act of March 1933, for example? FDR’s order to close the banks temporarily also created the FDIC, which insures individual deposits against future banking disasters. By the way, we still have all that stuff, but was it recovery, because it helped the short-term economy by making more stable banks, or was it reform because federal deposit insurance prevents bank runs? A second way to think about the New Deal is to divide it into phases, which historians with their A number one naming creativity call the First and Second New Deal. This more chronological approach indicates that there has to be some kind of cause and effect thing going on because otherwise why would there be a second New Deal if the first one worked so perfectly? The First New Deal comprises Roosevelt’s programs before 1935, many of which were passed in the first hundred days of his presidency. It turns out that when it comes to getting our notoriously gridlocked Congress to pass legislation, nothing motivates like crisis and fear. Stan can I get the foreshadowing filter? We may see this again. So, in a brief break from its trademark obstructionism, Congress passed laws establishing the Civilian Conservation Corps, which paid young people to build national parks, the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Glass Stegall act, which barred commercial banks from buying and selling stocks, and the National Industrial Recovery Act. Which established the National Recovery Administration, which has lightening bolts in its claws. The NRA was designed to be government planners and business leaders working together to coordinate industry standards for production, prices, and working conditions. But that whole public-private cooperation idea wasn’t much immediate help to many of the starving unemployed, so the Hundred Days reluctantly included the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, to give welfare payments to people who were desperate. Alright. Let’s go to the ThoughtBubble. Roosevelt worried about people becoming dependent on relief handouts, and preferred programs that created temporary jobs. One section of the NIRA created the Public Works Administration, which appropriated $33 billion to build stuff like the Triborough Bridge. So much for a balanced budget. The Civil Works Administration, launched in November 1933 and eventually employed 4 million people building bridges, schools, and airports. Government intervention reached its highest point however in the Tennessee Valley Authority. This program built a series of dams in the Tennessee River Valley to control floods, prevent deforestation, and provide cheap electric power to people in rural counties in seven southern states. But, despite all that sweet sweet electricity, the TVA was really controversial because it put the government in direct competition with private companies. Other than the NIRA, few acts were as contentious as the Agricultural Adjustment Act. The AAA basically gave the government the power to try to raise farm prices by setting production quotas and paying farmers to plant less food. This seemed ridiculous to the hungry Americans who watched as 6 million pigs were slaughtered and not made into bacon. Wait, Stan, 6 million pigs? But…bacon is good for me... Only property owning farmers actually saw the benefits of the AAA, so most African American farmers who were tenants or sharecroppers continued to suffer. And the suffering was especially acute in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, and Colorado, where drought created the Dust Bowl. All this direct government intervention in the economy was too much for the Supreme Court. In 1936 the court struck down the AAA in U.S. v. Butler. Earlier in the Schechter Poultry case (AKA the sick chicken case - finally a Supreme Court case with an interesting name) the court invalidated the NIRA because its regulations “delegated legislative powers to the president and attempted to regulate local businesses that did not engage in interstate commerce.”[1] Thanks, ThoughtBubble. So with the Supreme Court invalidating acts left and right, it looked like the New Deal was about to unravel. FDR responded by proposing a law that would allow him to appoint new Supreme Court justices if sitting justices reached the age of 70 and failed to retire. Now, this was totally constitutional – you can go ahead at the Constitution, if Nicolas Cage hasn’t already swiped it – but it seemed like such a blatant power grab that Roosevelt’s plan to “pack the court” brought on a huge backlash. Stop everything. I’ve just been informed that Nicolas Cage stole the Declaration of Independence not the Constitution. I want to apologize to Nic Cage himself and also everyone involved in the National Treasure franchise, which is truly a national treasure. Anyway, in the end, the Supreme Court began upholding the New Deal laws, starting a new era of Supreme Court jurisprudence in which the government regulation of the economy was allowed under a very broad reading of the commerce clause. Because really isn’t all commerce interstate commerce? I mean if I go to Jimmy John’s, don’t I exit the state of hungry and enter the state of satisfied? Thus began the Second New Deal shifting focus away from recovery and towards economic security. Two laws stand out for their far-reaching effects here, the National Labor Relations Act, also called the Wagner Act, and the Social Security Act. The Wagner Act guaranteed workers the right to unionize and it created a National Labor Relations Board to hear disputes over unfair labor practices. In 1934 alone there were more than 2,000 strikes, including one that involved 400,000 textile workers. Oh, it’s time for the Mystery Document? Man, I wish there were a union to prevent me from getting electrocuted. The rules here are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document. And I’m usually wrong and get shocked. “Refusing to allow people to be paid less than a living wage preserves to us our own market. There is absolutely no use in producing anything if you gradually reduce the number of people able to buy even the cheapest products. The only way to preserve our markets is an adequate wage.” Uh I mean you usually don’t make it this easy, but I’m going to guess that it’s Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Dang it! Eleanor Roosevelt? Eleanor. Of course it was Eleanor. Gah! The most important union during the 1930s was the Congress of Industrial Organizations, which set out to unionize entire industries like steel manufacturing and automobile workers. In 1936 the United Auto Workers launched a new tactic called the sit-down strike. Workers at the Fisher Body Plant in Flint, Michigan simply stopped working, sat down, and occupied the plant. Eventually GM agreed to negotiate, and the UAW won. Union membership rose to 9 million people as “CIO unions helped to stabilize a chaotic employment situation and offered members a sense of dignity and freedom.”[2] That quote, by the way, is from our old buddy Eric Foner. God, I love you, Foner. And unions played an important role in shaping the ideology of the second New Deal because they insisted that the economic downturn had been caused by underconsumption, and that the best way to combat the depression was to raise workers’ wages so that they could buy lots of stuff. The thinking went that if people experienced less economic insecurity, they would spend more of their money so there were widespread calls for public housing and universal health insurance. And that brings us to the crowning achievement of the Second New Deal, and/or the crowning achievement of its Communist plot, the Social Security Act of 1935. Social Security included unemployment insurance, aid to the disabled, aid to poor families with children, and, of course, retirement benefits. It was, and is, funded through payroll taxes rather than general tax revenue, and while state and local governments retained a lot of discretion over how benefits would be distributed, Social Security still represented a transformation in the relationship between the federal government and American citizens. Like, before the New Deal, most Americans didn’t expect the government to help them in times of economic distress. After the New Deal the question was no longer if the government should intervene, but how it should. For a while, the U.S. government under FDR embraced Keynesian economics, the idea that the government should spend money even if it means going into deficits in order to prop up demand. And this meant that the state was much more present in people’s lives. I mean for some people that meant relief or social security checks. For others, it meant a job with the most successful government employment program, the Works Progress Administration. The WPA didn’t just build post offices, it paid painters to make them beautiful with murals, it paid actors and writers to put together plays, and ultimately employed more than 3 million Americans each year until it ended in 1943. It also, by the way, payed for lots of photographers to take amazing photographs, which we can show you for free because they are owned by the government so I’m just going to keep talking about how great they are. Oh, look at that one, that’s a winner. Okay. Equally transformative, if less visually stimulating, was the change that the New Deal brought to American politics. The popularity of FDR and his programs brought together urban progressives who would have been Republicans two decades earlier, with unionized workers - often immigrants, left wing intellectuals, urban Catholics and Jews. FDR also gained the support of middle class homeowners, and he brought African Americans into the Democratic Party. Who was left to be a Republican, Stan? I guess there weren’t many, which is why FDR kept getting re-elected until, you know, he died. But, fascinatingly, one of the biggest and politically most important blocs in the New Deal Coalition was white southerners, many of whom were extremely racist. Democrats had dominated in the South since the end of reconstruction, you know since the other party was the party of Lincoln. And all those Southern democrats who had been in Congress for so long became important legislative leaders. In fact, without them, FDR never could have passed the New Deal laws, but Southerners expected whites to dominate the government and the economy and they insisted on local administration of many New Deal programs. And that ensured that the AAA and the NLRA would exclude sharecroppers, and tenant farmers, and domestic servants, all of whom were disproportionately African American. So, did the New Deal end the depression? No. I mean, by 1940 over 15% of the American workforce remained unemployed. But, then again, when FDR took office in 1933, the unemployment rate was at 25%. Maybe the best evidence that government spending was working is that when FDR reduced government subsidies to farms and the WPA in 1937, unemployment immediately jumped back up to almost 20%. And many economic historians believe that it’s inaccurate to say that government spending failed to end the Depression because in the end, at least according to a lot of economists, what brought the Depression to an end was a massive government spending program called World War II. So, given that, is the New Deal really that important? Yes. Because first, it changed the shape of the American Democratic Party. African Americans and union workers became reliable Democratic votes. And secondly, it changed our way of thinking. Like, liberalism in the 19th century meant limited government and free-market economics. Roosevelt used the term to refer to a large, active state that saw liberty as “greater security for the average man.” And that idea that liberty is more closely linked to security than it is to, like, freedom from government intervention is still really important in the way we think about liberty today. No matter where they fall on the contemporary political spectrum, politicians are constantly talking about keeping Americans safe. Also our tendency to associate the New Deal with FDR himself points to what Arthur Schlessinger called the “imperial presidency.” That is, we tend to associate all government policy with the president. Like, after Jackson and Lincoln’s presidencies Congress reasserted itself as the most important branch of the government. But that didn’t happen after FDR. But above all that, the New Deal changed the expectations that Americans had of their government. Now, when things go sour, we expect the government to do something. We’ll give our last words today to Eric Foner, who never Foner-s it in, the New Deal “made the government an institution directly experienced in Americans’ daily lives and directly concerned with their welfare.”[3] Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is made with the help of all of these nice people. And it is possible because of your support at subbable.com. Here at Crash Course we want to make educational video for free, for everyone, forever. And that’s possible thanks to your subscription at subbable.com. You can make a monthly subscription and the price is up to you. It can even be zero dollars although more is better. Thanks so much for watching Crash Course and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. ________________ [1] Foner. Give me Liberty ebook version p. 870 [2] Foner. Give me Liberty ebook version p. 873 [3] Give me Liberty ebook version p. 898

Contents

United States Supreme Court Justices

# Justice Seat State Former Justice Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began
active service
Ended
active service
1 Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. 2 Massachusetts Horace Gray December 2, 1902 December 4, 1902 December 4, 1902 January 12, 1932
2 William R. Day 10 Ohio George Shiras Jr. February 19, 1903 February 23, 1903 February 23, 1903 November 13, 1922
3 William Henry Moody 4 Massachusetts Henry Billings Brown December 3, 1906 December 12, 1906 December 12, 1906 November 19, 1910

Courts of Appeals/Circuit Courts

The United States circuit courts were abolished on January 1, 1912, the final day of service being December 31, 1911. The United States circuit court in the District of Columbia was abolished in 1863. Therefore, those individuals who served in the D.C. Circuit served only on the Court of Appeals and had no Circuit Court service.

# Judge Circuit Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
1 Francis Elisha Baker Seventh December 11, 1901 January 21, 1902 January 21, 1902 March 15, 1924
2 William Kneeland Townsend Second January 15, 1902 January 21, 1902 January 21, 1902 June 2, 1907
3 Alfred Conkling Coxe Sr. Second May 29, 1902 June 3, 1902 June 3, 1902 July 31, 1917
4 Willis Van Devanter Eighth February 4, 1903 February 18, 1903 February 18, 1903 December 16, 1910
5 John K. Richards Sixth February 19, 1903 February 23, 1903 February 23, 1903 March 1, 1909
6 William Cather Hook Eighth November 10, 1903 November 17, 1903 November 17, 1903 August 11, 1921
7 Jeter Connelly Pritchard Fourth April 27, 1904 April 27, 1904 April 27, 1904 April 10, 1921
8 Charles Holland Duell D.C. December 16, 1904 January 5, 1905 January 5, 1905 August 31, 1906
9 Seth Shepard D.C. December 16, 1904 January 5, 1905 January 5, 1905[2] September 30, 1917
10 Francis Cabot Lowell First February 15, 1905 February 23, 1905 February 23, 1905 March 6, 1911
11 William Henry Seaman Seventh February 25, 1905 March 1, 1905 March 1, 1905 March 8, 1915
12 Christian Cecil Kohlsaat Seventh March 18, 1905 March 18, 1905 March 18, 1905 May 11, 1918
13 Elmer Bragg Adams Eighth December 5, 1905 December 12, 1905 May 20, 1905[3] October 24, 1916
14 Louis E. McComas D.C. December 5, 1905 December 6, 1905 June 26, 1905[4] November 10, 1907
15 Joseph Buffington Third December 3, 1906 December 11, 1906 September 25, 1906[5] June 1, 1938 October 21, 1947
16 Charles Henry Robb D.C. December 3, 1906 December 11, 1906 October 5, 1906[5] November 15, 1937 June 10, 1939
17 Henry Galbraith Ward Second December 3, 1907 December 17, 1907 May 18, 1907[6] June 30, 1921 October 31, 1924
18 Walter Chadwick Noyes Second December 3, 1907 December 10, 1907 September 18, 1907[7] July 1, 1913
19 Josiah Alexander Van Orsdel D.C. December 3, 1907 December 12, 1907 November 14, 1907[8] August 7, 1937

District Courts

# Judge Court
[Note 1]
Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
1 Robert Wodrow Archbald M.D. Pa. December 5, 1901 December 17, 1901 March 29, 1901[9] February 1, 1911
2 Thomas H. Anderson D.D.C. December 5, 1901 February 4, 1902 April 23, 1901[10] October 1, 1916
3 Andrew McConnell January Cochran E.D. Ky. December 5, 1901 December 17, 1901 April 24, 1901[9] June 12, 1934
4 Benjamin Franklin Keller S.D. W. Va. December 5, 1901 December 17, 1901 June 18, 1901[9] August 8, 1921
5 George Bethune Adams S.D.N.Y. December 5, 1901 December 17, 1901 August 30, 1901[9] October 9, 1911
6 Thomas G. Jones M.D. Ala.
N.D. Ala.
December 5, 1901 December 17, 1901 October 7, 1901[11] April 28, 1914
7 Henry C. McDowell Jr. W.D. Va. December 5, 1901 December 18, 1901 November 12, 1901[12] September 1, 1931 October 8, 1933
8 James Perry Platt D. Conn. February 18, 1902 February 28, 1902 February 28, 1902 January 26, 1913
9 Waller Thomas Burns S.D. Tex. April 12, 1902 April 24, 1902 April 22, 1902 November 17, 1917
10 Clarence Hale D. Me. May 13, 1902 May 19, 1902 May 19, 1902 January 1, 1922 April 9, 1934
11 George W. Ray N.D.N.Y December 2, 1902 December 8, 1902 September 12, 1902[13] January 10, 1925
12 Albert Barnes Anderson D. Ind. December 8, 1902 December 8, 1902 December 8, 1902 January 13, 1925
13 Ashley Mulgrave Gould D.D.C. December 2, 1902 December 8, 1902 December 8, 1902 May 20, 1921
14 George Chandler Holt S.D.N.Y. March 2, 1903 March 3, 1903 March 3, 1903 January 16, 1914
15 Page Morris D. Minn. March 5, 1903 March 9, 1903 March 9, 1903 June 30, 1923 December 16, 1924
16 Harry M. Clabaugh D.D.C. November 10, 1903 November 16, 1903 April 1, 1903[14][15] March 6, 1914
17 Jeter Connelly Pritchard D.D.C. November 10, 1903 November 16, 1903 November 16, 1903 June 1, 1904
18 Daniel Thew Wright D.D.C. November 10, 1903 November 17, 1903 November 17, 1903 November 15, 1914
19 John Calvin Pollock D. Kan. November 25, 1903 December 1, 1903 December 1, 1903 January 24, 1937
20 Henry Thomas Reed N.D. Iowa March 5, 1904 March 7, 1904 March 7, 1904 November 30, 1921 February 22, 1924
21 James Buchanan Holland E.D. Pa. April 14, 1904 April 19, 1904 April 19, 1904 April 24, 1914
22 William Henry Hunt D. Mont. April 14, 1904 April 19, 1904 April 19, 1904 March 30, 1910
23 William M. Lanning D.N.J. December 6, 1904 December 13, 1904 June 1, 1904[16] May 24, 1909
24 Wendell Phillips Stafford D.D.C. December 6, 1904 December 13, 1904 June 1, 1904[16] May 4, 1931
25 Arthur Loomis Sanborn W.D. Wis. January 6, 1905 January 9, 1905 January 9, 1905 October 18, 1920
26 Robert Walker Tayler N.D. Ohio January 6, 1905 January 10, 1905 January 10, 1905 November 25, 1910
27 John E. McCall W.D. Tenn. January 9, 1905 January 17, 1905 January 17, 1905 August 8, 1920
28 Frederic Dodge D. Mass. February 15, 1905 February 23, 1905 February 23, 1905 September 10, 1912
29 Joseph V. Quarles E.D. Wis. March 6, 1905 March 6, 1905 March 6, 1905 October 7, 1911
30 Alston G. Dayton N.D. W. Va. March 7, 1905 March 14, 1905 March 14, 1905 July 30, 1920
31 Edward Whitson E.D. Wash. March 10, 1905 March 14, 1905 March 14, 1905 October 15, 1910
32 Joseph Cross D.N.J. March 13, 1905 March 17, 1905 March 17, 1905 October 29, 1913
33 Francis Marion Wright E.D. Ill. March 14, 1905 March 17, 1905 March 17, 1905 July 15, 1917
34 Solomon Hicks Bethea N.D. Ill. March 18, 1905 March 18, 1905 March 18, 1905 August 3, 1909
35 Kenesaw Mountain Landis N.D. Ill. March 18, 1905 March 18, 1905 March 18, 1905 February 28, 1922
36 Gustavus A. Finkelnburg E.D. Mo. December 5, 1905 December 12, 1905 May 20, 1905[3] March 31, 1907
37 Charles E. Wolverton D. Ore. December 5, 1905 January 10, 1906 November 20, 1905[17] September 21, 1926
38 Robert E. Lewis D. Colo. April 9, 1906 April 10, 1906 April 10, 1906 December 1, 1921
39 Charles Merrill Hough S.D.N.Y. June 20, 1906 June 27, 1906 June 27, 1906 September 5, 1916
40 Nathaniel Ewing W.D. Pa. December 3, 1906 December 11, 1906 September 25, 1906[5] January 31, 1908
41 James Loren Martin D. Vt. December 3, 1906 December 11, 1906 October 20, 1906[5] January 14, 1915
42 Loyal Edwin Knappen W.D. Mich. December 3, 1906 December 10, 1906 December 10, 1906 February 8, 1910
43 Thomas Chatfield E.D.N.Y. December 13, 1906 January 9, 1907 January 9, 1907 December 24, 1922
44 Edward Silsby Farrington D. Nev. December 19, 1906 January 10, 1907 January 10, 1907 April 30, 1928 August 31, 1929
45 Eugene Davis Saunders E.D. La. February 11, 1907 February 20, 1907 February 20, 1907 February 8, 1909
46 David Patterson Dyer E.D. Mo. February 27, 1907 March 1, 1907 March 1, 1907 November 3, 1919 April 29, 1924
47 Thomas Charles Munger D. Neb. February 27, 1907 March 1, 1907 March 1, 1907 July 31, 1941 November 29, 1941
48 John Elbert Sater S.D. Ohio December 3, 1907 March 18, 1907[18] May 30, 1908
48.1 John Elbert Sater S.D. Ohio December 8, 1908 March 1, 1909 May 30, 1908[19] November 18, 1924
49 Frank Sigel Dietrich D. Idaho December 3, 1907 December 17, 1907 March 19, 1907[6] January 18, 1927
50 William Cary Van Fleet N.D. Cal. December 3, 1907 December 17, 1907 April 2, 1907[6] September 3, 1923
51 Oscar Richard Hundley N.D. Ala. December 3, 1907 April 9, 1907[18] May 30, 1908
51.1 Oscar Richard Hundley N.D. Ala. December 8, 1908 May 30, 1908[20] March 3, 1909
52 William Bostwick Sheppard N.D. Fla. December 3, 1907 May 20, 1908 September 4, 1907[21] April 21, 1934
53 Ralph E. Campbell E.D. Okla. December 3, 1907 January 13, 1908 November 11, 1907[22] August 31, 1918
54 John Hazelton Cotteral W.D. Okla. December 3, 1907 January 13, 1908 November 11, 1907[22] May 23, 1928
55 James Scott Young W.D. Pa. January 14, 1908 January 22, 1908 January 22, 1908 February 25, 1914
56 Edward Terry Sanford E.D. Tenn.
M.D. Tenn.
May 14, 1908 May 18, 1908 May 18, 1908 February 5, 1923
57 Milton D. Purdy D. Minn. December 8, 1908 July 6, 1908[20] March 3, 1909
58 Rufus Edward Foster E.D. La. January 22, 1909 February 2, 1909 February 2, 1909 January 13, 1925

Specialty courts (Article I)

United States Court of Claims

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
1 Francis Marion Wright December 2, 1902 January 13, 1903 January 13, 1903 March 16, 1905
2 Fenton Whitlock Booth March 14, 1905 March 17, 1905 March 17, 1905 April 23, 1928[23]
3 George W. Atkinson December 5, 1905 January 16, 1906 April 15, 1905[24] April 16, 1916
4 Samuel S. Barney December 19, 1905 December 20, 1905 December 20, 1905 April 15, 1919

Board of General Appraisers

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
1 Byron Sylvester Waite June 13, 1902 June 19, 1902 June 25, 1902 May 28, 1926[25]
2 Charles P. McClelland November 10, 1903 December 7, 1903 August 21, 1903[26] May 28, 1926[25]
3 Eugene Gano Hay November 10, 1903 November 24, 1903 September 21, 1903[27] November 30, 1923
4 Roy Chamberlain December 8, 1908 January 11, 1909 June 3, 1908[28] March 3, 1913[29]

Notes

References

General
Specific
  1. ^ All information on the names, terms of service, and details of appointment of federal judges is derived from the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public-domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
  2. ^ Laterally appointed Chief Justice, previously served as Associate Justice of the same court.
  3. ^ a b Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 5, 1905, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 12, 1905, and received commission on December 12, 1905.
  4. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 5, 1905, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 6, 1905, and received commission on December 6, 1905.
  5. ^ a b c d Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 3, 1906, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 11, 1906, and received commission on December 11, 1906.
  6. ^ a b c Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 3, 1907, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 17, 1907, and received commission on December 17, 1907.
  7. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 3, 1907, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 10, 1907, and received commission on December 18, 1907.
  8. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 3, 1907, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 12, 1907, and received commission on December 12, 1907.
  9. ^ a b c d Recess appointment by William McKinley; formally nominated by Theodore Roosevelt on December 5, 1901, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 17, 1901, and received commission on December 17, 1901.
  10. ^ Recess appointment by William McKinley; formally nominated by Theodore Roosevelt on December 5, 1901, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 4, 1902, and received commission on February 6, 1902.
  11. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 5, 1901, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 17, 1901, and received commission on December 17, 1901.
  12. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 5, 1901, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 18, 1901, and received commission on December 18, 1901.
  13. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 2, 1902, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 8, 1902, and received commission on December 8, 1902.
  14. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on November 10, 1903, confirmed by the United States Senate on November 16, 1903, and received commission on November 16, 1903.
  15. ^ Laterally appointed as Chief Justice, previously served as Associate Justice of the same court.
  16. ^ a b Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 6, 1904, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 13, 1904, and received commission on December 13, 1904.
  17. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 5, 1905, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 10, 1906, and received commission on January 10, 1906.
  18. ^ a b Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 3, 1907, but no United States Senate vote.
  19. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 8, 1908, confirmed by the United States Senate on March 1, 1909, and received commission on March 1, 1909.
  20. ^ a b Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 8, 1908, but no United States Senate vote.
  21. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 3, 1907, confirmed by the United States Senate on May 20, 1908, and received commission on May 20, 1908.
  22. ^ a b Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 3, 1907, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 13, 1908, and received commission on January 13, 1908.
  23. ^ Laterally appointed Chief Justice of the same court on April 23, 1928.
  24. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 5, 1905, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 16, 1906, and received commission on January 16, 1906.
  25. ^ a b Reassigned by operation of law to the United States Customs Court on May 28, 1926.
  26. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on November 10, 1903, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 7, 1903, and received commission on December 8, 1903.
  27. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on November 10, 1903, confirmed by the United States Senate on November 24, 1903, and received commission on November 25, 1903.
  28. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 8, 1908, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 11, 1909, and received commission on January 15, 1909.
  29. ^ Removed from office by William Howard Taft on March 3, 1913.

Sources

This page was last edited on 5 May 2018, at 17:35
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