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List of federal judges appointed by Harry S. Truman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman

Following is a list of all Article III United States federal judges appointed by President Harry S. Truman during his presidency.[1] In total Truman appointed 133 Article III federal judges, including 4 Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States (including one Chief Justice), 27 judges to the United States Courts of Appeals, and 102 judges to the United States district courts.

Additionally, 9 Article I federal judge appointments are listed, including 3 judges to the United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals, 2 judges to the United States Court of Claims and 4 judges to the United States Customs Court.

YouTube Encyclopedic

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  • The New Deal: Crash Course US History #34
  • J. Edgar Hoover: Achievements, Education, Early Life, History, Interesting Facts (2002)
  • Supreme Court Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy visits HLS
  • Justice Stephen Breyer: The Court and the World
  • The Constitution and Executive Power

Transcription

Episode 34 – The New Deal Hi, I’m John Green, this is CrashCourse U.S. history, and today we’re going to get a little bit controversial, as we discuss the FDR administration’s response to the Great Depression: the New Deal. That’s the National Recovery Administration, by the way, not the National Rifle Association or the No Rodents Allowed Club, which I’m a card-carrying member of. Did the New Deal end the Depression (spoiler alert: mehhh)? More controversially, did it destroy American freedom or expand the definition of liberty? In the end, was it a good thing? Mr. Green, Mr. Green. Yes. Ohh, Me from the Past, you are not qualified to make that statement. What? I was just trying to be, like, provocative and controversial. Isn’t that what gets views? You have the worst ideas about how to make people like you. But anyway, not EVERYTHING about the New Deal was controversial. This is CrashCourse, not TMZ. intro The New Deal redefined the role of the federal government for most Americans and it led to a re-alignment of the constituents in the Democratic Party, the so-called New Deal coalition. (Good job with the naming there, historians.) And regardless of whether you think the New Deal meant more freedom for more people or was a plot by red shirt wearing Communists, the New Deal is extremely important in American history. Wait a second. I’m wearing a red shirt. What are you trying to say about me, Stan? As the owner of the means of production, I demand that you dock the wages of the writer who made that joke. So after his mediocre response to the Great Depression, Herbert Hoover did not have any chance of winning the presidential election of 1932, but he also ran like he didn’t actually want the job. Plus, his opponent was Franklin Delano Roosevelt, who was as close to a born politician as the United States has ever seen, except for Kid President. The phrase New Deal came from FDR’s campaign, and when he was running FDR suggested that it was the government’s responsibility to guarantee every man a right to make a comfortable living, but he didn’t say HOW he meant to accomplish this. Like, it wasn’t gonna come from government spending, since FDR was calling for a balanced budget and criticizing Hoover for spending so much. Maybe it would somehow magically happen if we made alcohol legal again and one thing FDR did call for was an end to Prohibition, which was a campaign promise he kept. After three years of Great Depression, many Americans seriously needed a drink, and the government sought tax revenue, so no more Prohibition. FDR won 57% of the vote and the Democrats took control of Congress for the first time in a decade. While FDR gets most of the credit, he didn’t actually create the New Deal or put it into effect. It was passed by Congress. So WTFDR was the New Deal? Basically, it was a set of government programs intended to fix the depression and prevent future depressions. There are a couple of ways historians conceptualize it. One is to categorize the programs by their function. This is where we see the New Deal described as three R’s. The relief programs gave help, usually money, to poor people in need. Recovery programs were intended to fix the economy in the short run and put people back to work. And lastly, the Run DMC program was designed to increase the sales of Adidas shoes. No, alas, it was reform programs that were designed to regulate the economy in the future to prevent future depression. But some of the programs, like Social Security, don’t fit easily into one category, and there are some blurred lines between recovery and reform. Like, how do you categorize the bank holiday and the Emergency Banking Act of March 1933, for example? FDR’s order to close the banks temporarily also created the FDIC, which insures individual deposits against future banking disasters. By the way, we still have all that stuff, but was it recovery, because it helped the short-term economy by making more stable banks, or was it reform because federal deposit insurance prevents bank runs? A second way to think about the New Deal is to divide it into phases, which historians with their A number one naming creativity call the First and Second New Deal. This more chronological approach indicates that there has to be some kind of cause and effect thing going on because otherwise why would there be a second New Deal if the first one worked so perfectly? The First New Deal comprises Roosevelt’s programs before 1935, many of which were passed in the first hundred days of his presidency. It turns out that when it comes to getting our notoriously gridlocked Congress to pass legislation, nothing motivates like crisis and fear. Stan can I get the foreshadowing filter? We may see this again. So, in a brief break from its trademark obstructionism, Congress passed laws establishing the Civilian Conservation Corps, which paid young people to build national parks, the Agricultural Adjustment Act, the Glass Stegall act, which barred commercial banks from buying and selling stocks, and the National Industrial Recovery Act. Which established the National Recovery Administration, which has lightening bolts in its claws. The NRA was designed to be government planners and business leaders working together to coordinate industry standards for production, prices, and working conditions. But that whole public-private cooperation idea wasn’t much immediate help to many of the starving unemployed, so the Hundred Days reluctantly included the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, to give welfare payments to people who were desperate. Alright. Let’s go to the ThoughtBubble. Roosevelt worried about people becoming dependent on relief handouts, and preferred programs that created temporary jobs. One section of the NIRA created the Public Works Administration, which appropriated $33 billion to build stuff like the Triborough Bridge. So much for a balanced budget. The Civil Works Administration, launched in November 1933 and eventually employed 4 million people building bridges, schools, and airports. Government intervention reached its highest point however in the Tennessee Valley Authority. This program built a series of dams in the Tennessee River Valley to control floods, prevent deforestation, and provide cheap electric power to people in rural counties in seven southern states. But, despite all that sweet sweet electricity, the TVA was really controversial because it put the government in direct competition with private companies. Other than the NIRA, few acts were as contentious as the Agricultural Adjustment Act. The AAA basically gave the government the power to try to raise farm prices by setting production quotas and paying farmers to plant less food. This seemed ridiculous to the hungry Americans who watched as 6 million pigs were slaughtered and not made into bacon. Wait, Stan, 6 million pigs? But…bacon is good for me... Only property owning farmers actually saw the benefits of the AAA, so most African American farmers who were tenants or sharecroppers continued to suffer. And the suffering was especially acute in Oklahoma, Texas, Kansas, and Colorado, where drought created the Dust Bowl. All this direct government intervention in the economy was too much for the Supreme Court. In 1936 the court struck down the AAA in U.S. v. Butler. Earlier in the Schechter Poultry case (AKA the sick chicken case - finally a Supreme Court case with an interesting name) the court invalidated the NIRA because its regulations “delegated legislative powers to the president and attempted to regulate local businesses that did not engage in interstate commerce.”[1] Thanks, ThoughtBubble. So with the Supreme Court invalidating acts left and right, it looked like the New Deal was about to unravel. FDR responded by proposing a law that would allow him to appoint new Supreme Court justices if sitting justices reached the age of 70 and failed to retire. Now, this was totally constitutional – you can go ahead at the Constitution, if Nicolas Cage hasn’t already swiped it – but it seemed like such a blatant power grab that Roosevelt’s plan to “pack the court” brought on a huge backlash. Stop everything. I’ve just been informed that Nicolas Cage stole the Declaration of Independence not the Constitution. I want to apologize to Nic Cage himself and also everyone involved in the National Treasure franchise, which is truly a national treasure. Anyway, in the end, the Supreme Court began upholding the New Deal laws, starting a new era of Supreme Court jurisprudence in which the government regulation of the economy was allowed under a very broad reading of the commerce clause. Because really isn’t all commerce interstate commerce? I mean if I go to Jimmy John’s, don’t I exit the state of hungry and enter the state of satisfied? Thus began the Second New Deal shifting focus away from recovery and towards economic security. Two laws stand out for their far-reaching effects here, the National Labor Relations Act, also called the Wagner Act, and the Social Security Act. The Wagner Act guaranteed workers the right to unionize and it created a National Labor Relations Board to hear disputes over unfair labor practices. In 1934 alone there were more than 2,000 strikes, including one that involved 400,000 textile workers. Oh, it’s time for the Mystery Document? Man, I wish there were a union to prevent me from getting electrocuted. The rules here are simple. I guess the author of the Mystery Document. And I’m usually wrong and get shocked. “Refusing to allow people to be paid less than a living wage preserves to us our own market. There is absolutely no use in producing anything if you gradually reduce the number of people able to buy even the cheapest products. The only way to preserve our markets is an adequate wage.” Uh I mean you usually don’t make it this easy, but I’m going to guess that it’s Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Dang it! Eleanor Roosevelt? Eleanor. Of course it was Eleanor. Gah! The most important union during the 1930s was the Congress of Industrial Organizations, which set out to unionize entire industries like steel manufacturing and automobile workers. In 1936 the United Auto Workers launched a new tactic called the sit-down strike. Workers at the Fisher Body Plant in Flint, Michigan simply stopped working, sat down, and occupied the plant. Eventually GM agreed to negotiate, and the UAW won. Union membership rose to 9 million people as “CIO unions helped to stabilize a chaotic employment situation and offered members a sense of dignity and freedom.”[2] That quote, by the way, is from our old buddy Eric Foner. God, I love you, Foner. And unions played an important role in shaping the ideology of the second New Deal because they insisted that the economic downturn had been caused by underconsumption, and that the best way to combat the depression was to raise workers’ wages so that they could buy lots of stuff. The thinking went that if people experienced less economic insecurity, they would spend more of their money so there were widespread calls for public housing and universal health insurance. And that brings us to the crowning achievement of the Second New Deal, and/or the crowning achievement of its Communist plot, the Social Security Act of 1935. Social Security included unemployment insurance, aid to the disabled, aid to poor families with children, and, of course, retirement benefits. It was, and is, funded through payroll taxes rather than general tax revenue, and while state and local governments retained a lot of discretion over how benefits would be distributed, Social Security still represented a transformation in the relationship between the federal government and American citizens. Like, before the New Deal, most Americans didn’t expect the government to help them in times of economic distress. After the New Deal the question was no longer if the government should intervene, but how it should. For a while, the U.S. government under FDR embraced Keynesian economics, the idea that the government should spend money even if it means going into deficits in order to prop up demand. And this meant that the state was much more present in people’s lives. I mean for some people that meant relief or social security checks. For others, it meant a job with the most successful government employment program, the Works Progress Administration. The WPA didn’t just build post offices, it paid painters to make them beautiful with murals, it paid actors and writers to put together plays, and ultimately employed more than 3 million Americans each year until it ended in 1943. It also, by the way, payed for lots of photographers to take amazing photographs, which we can show you for free because they are owned by the government so I’m just going to keep talking about how great they are. Oh, look at that one, that’s a winner. Okay. Equally transformative, if less visually stimulating, was the change that the New Deal brought to American politics. The popularity of FDR and his programs brought together urban progressives who would have been Republicans two decades earlier, with unionized workers - often immigrants, left wing intellectuals, urban Catholics and Jews. FDR also gained the support of middle class homeowners, and he brought African Americans into the Democratic Party. Who was left to be a Republican, Stan? I guess there weren’t many, which is why FDR kept getting re-elected until, you know, he died. But, fascinatingly, one of the biggest and politically most important blocs in the New Deal Coalition was white southerners, many of whom were extremely racist. Democrats had dominated in the South since the end of reconstruction, you know since the other party was the party of Lincoln. And all those Southern democrats who had been in Congress for so long became important legislative leaders. In fact, without them, FDR never could have passed the New Deal laws, but Southerners expected whites to dominate the government and the economy and they insisted on local administration of many New Deal programs. And that ensured that the AAA and the NLRA would exclude sharecroppers, and tenant farmers, and domestic servants, all of whom were disproportionately African American. So, did the New Deal end the depression? No. I mean, by 1940 over 15% of the American workforce remained unemployed. But, then again, when FDR took office in 1933, the unemployment rate was at 25%. Maybe the best evidence that government spending was working is that when FDR reduced government subsidies to farms and the WPA in 1937, unemployment immediately jumped back up to almost 20%. And many economic historians believe that it’s inaccurate to say that government spending failed to end the Depression because in the end, at least according to a lot of economists, what brought the Depression to an end was a massive government spending program called World War II. So, given that, is the New Deal really that important? Yes. Because first, it changed the shape of the American Democratic Party. African Americans and union workers became reliable Democratic votes. And secondly, it changed our way of thinking. Like, liberalism in the 19th century meant limited government and free-market economics. Roosevelt used the term to refer to a large, active state that saw liberty as “greater security for the average man.” And that idea that liberty is more closely linked to security than it is to, like, freedom from government intervention is still really important in the way we think about liberty today. No matter where they fall on the contemporary political spectrum, politicians are constantly talking about keeping Americans safe. Also our tendency to associate the New Deal with FDR himself points to what Arthur Schlessinger called the “imperial presidency.” That is, we tend to associate all government policy with the president. Like, after Jackson and Lincoln’s presidencies Congress reasserted itself as the most important branch of the government. But that didn’t happen after FDR. But above all that, the New Deal changed the expectations that Americans had of their government. Now, when things go sour, we expect the government to do something. We’ll give our last words today to Eric Foner, who never Foner-s it in, the New Deal “made the government an institution directly experienced in Americans’ daily lives and directly concerned with their welfare.”[3] Thanks for watching. I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is made with the help of all of these nice people. And it is possible because of your support at subbable.com. Here at Crash Course we want to make educational video for free, for everyone, forever. And that’s possible thanks to your subscription at subbable.com. You can make a monthly subscription and the price is up to you. It can even be zero dollars although more is better. Thanks so much for watching Crash Course and as we say in my hometown, don’t forget to be awesome. ________________ [1] Foner. Give me Liberty ebook version p. 870 [2] Foner. Give me Liberty ebook version p. 873 [3] Give me Liberty ebook version p. 898

Contents

United States Supreme Court Justices

# Justice Seat State Former Justice Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began
active service
Ended
active service
Ended
senior service
1 Harold Hitz Burton 8 Ohio Owen Roberts September 18, 1945 September 19, 1945 September 22, 1945 October 13, 1958 October 28, 1964
2 Fred M. Vinson Chief Kentucky Harlan F. Stone June 6, 1946 June 20, 1946 June 21, 1946 September 8, 1953
3 Tom C. Clark 10 Texas Frank Murphy August 2, 1949 August 18, 1949 August 19, 1949 June 12, 1967 June 13, 1977
4 Sherman Minton 3 Indiana Wiley Blount Rutledge September 15, 1949 October 4, 1949 October 5, 1949 October 15, 1956 April 9, 1965

Courts of Appeals

# Judge Circuit Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
1 Bennett Champ Clark D.C. September 12, 1945 September 24, 1945 September 28, 1945 July 13, 1954
2 Wilbur Kingsbury Miller D.C. September 12, 1945 September 24, 1945 September 28, 1945 October 15, 1964 January 24, 1976
3 William Edwin Orr Ninth September 10, 1945 September 19, 1945 September 28, 1945 January 1, 1956 October 7, 1965
4 E. Barrett Prettyman D.C. September 12, 1945 September 24, 1945 September 28, 1945 April 16, 1962 August 4, 1971
5 John Joseph O'Connell Third September 12, 1945 October 3, 1945 October 11, 1945 December 16, 1949
6 Shackelford Miller Jr. Sixth November 23, 1945 December 4, 1945 December 11, 1945 November 1, 1965 November 24, 1965
7 Harry Ellis Kalodner Third May 21, 1946 July 25, 1946 July 27, 1946 October 3, 1969 March 15, 1977
8 John Caskie Collet Eighth April 30, 1947 July 8, 1947 July 9, 1947 December 5, 1955
9 James McPherson Proctor D.C. February 2, 1948 March 2, 1948 March 5, 1948 September 17, 1953
10 Harold Montelle Stephens D.C. February 2, 1948 March 2, 1948 March 5, 1948 May 28, 1955
11 F. Ryan Duffy Seventh January 13, 1949 January 31, 1949 February 2, 1949 June 30, 1966 August 16, 1979
12 Walter Lyndon Pope Ninth February 14, 1949 February 25, 1949 March 1, 1949 April 1, 1961 March 27, 1969
13 Philip J. Finnegan Seventh April 8, 1949 May 3, 1949 May 5, 1949 January 4, 1959
14 Walter C. Lindley Seventh September 15, 1949 October 12, 1949 October 13, 1949 January 3, 1958
15 John Coleman Pickett Tenth September 23, 1949 October 12, 1949 October 13, 1949 January 1, 1966 September 1, 1983
16 Wayne G. Borah Fifth October 15, 1949 October 19, 1949 October 21, 1949 December 31, 1956 February 6, 1966
17 Robert Lee Russell Fifth October 15, 1949 October 19, 1949 October 21, 1949 January 18, 1955
18 David L. Bazelon D.C. January 5, 1950 February 8, 1950 October 21, 1949[2] June 30, 1979 February 19, 1993
19 Charles Fahy D.C. January 5, 1950 April 4, 1950 October 21, 1949[3] April 17, 1967 September 17, 1979
20 William H. Hastie Third January 5, 1950 July 19, 1950 October 21, 1949[4] May 31, 1971 April 14, 1976
21 Hardress Nathaniel Swaim Seventh January 5, 1950 February 8, 1950 October 21, 1949[2] July 30, 1957
22 George Thomas Washington D.C. January 5, 1950 April 28, 1950 October 21, 1949[5] November 10, 1965 August 21, 1971
23 Austin Leander Staley Third April 27, 1950 June 27, 1950 July 5, 1950 December 31, 1967 August 3, 1978
24 Louie Willard Strum Fifth September 14, 1950 September 23, 1950 September 26, 1950 July 26, 1954
25 John Patrick Hartigan First December 21, 1950 January 2, 1951 January 3, 1951 March 31, 1965 August 10, 1968
26 Richard Rives Fifth / Eleventh April 12, 1951 May 1, 1951 May 3, 1951 February 15, 1966 October 27, 1982[6]
27 Harold Medina Second June 11, 1951 June 21, 1951 June 23, 1951 March 1, 1958 February 22, 1980

District Courts

# Judge Court
[Note 1]
Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
1 Roger Thomas Foley[7] D. Nev. March 30, 1945 April 10, 1945 May 2, 1945 April 1, 1957 October 9, 1974
2 Donnell Gilliam E.D.N.C. May 3, 1945 May 15, 1945 May 18, 1945 March 16, 1959 March 6, 1960
3 Dennis F. Donovan D. Minn. June 1, 1945 July 17, 1945 July 18, 1945 December 31, 1965 September 16, 1974
4 Arthur A. Koscinski E.D. Mich. June 4, 1945 July 17, 1945 July 18, 1945 April 30, 1957 November 21, 1957
5 Alexander Holtzoff D.D.C. September 12, 1945 September 24, 1945 September 28, 1945 December 31, 1967 September 6, 1969
6 Ben Herbert Rice Jr. W.D. Tex. September 10, 1945 September 19, 1945 September 28, 1945 March 14, 1964
7 William Carey Mathes S.D. Cal. September 24, 1945 October 11, 1945 October 17, 1945 June 9, 1965 July 24, 1967
8 Thomas M. Madden D.N.J. October 9, 1945 October 23, 1945 October 25, 1945 January 1, 1968 March 29, 1976
9 Wallace Samuel Gourley W.D. Pa. November 2, 1945 November 20, 1945 November 29, 1945 August 4, 1969 September 23, 1976
10 Arthur Johnson Mellott D. Kan. November 13, 1945 November 27, 1945 November 29, 1945 December 29, 1957
11 Seybourn Harris Lynne N.D. Ala. December 14, 1945 December 20, 1945 January 3, 1946 January 9, 1973 September 10, 2000
12 Edward S. Kampf N.D.N.Y. January 17, 1946 February 5, 1946 February 8, 1946 July 1, 1948
13 Roy Mahlon Shelbourne W.D. Ky. January 17, 1946 February 5, 1946 February 8, 1946 November 1, 1964 December 29, 1974
14 Francis Muir Scarlett S.D. Ga. January 24, 1946 February 13, 1946 February 14, 1946 August 2, 1968 November 18, 1971
15 Jacob Weinberger S.D. Cal. January 24, 1946 February 15, 1946 February 21, 1946 November 1, 1958 May 20, 1974
16 Samuel Marion Driver E.D. Wash. March 12, 1946 April 9, 1946 April 13, 1946 September 12, 1958
17 Howard C. Speakman D. Ariz. March 27, 1946 April 9, 1946 April 13, 1946 June 17, 1952
18 John W. Murphy M.D. Pa. May 7, 1946 May 21, 1946 May 27, 1946 March 28, 1962
19 George Bernard Harris N.D. Cal. June 18, 1946 June 29, 1946 July 9, 1946 July 31, 1970 October 18, 1983
20 Raymond Wesley Starr W.D. Mich. July 3, 1946 July 23, 1946 July 25, 1946 August 15, 1961 November 2, 1968
21 Theodore Levin E.D. Mich. July 3, 1946 July 25, 1946 July 27, 1946 December 31, 1970
22 Richard Seymour Rodney D. Del. July 25, 1946 July 27, 1946 July 31, 1946 January 1, 1957 December 22, 1963
23 Frederick Voris Follmer E.D. Pa.
M.D. Pa.
W.D. Pa.
July 31, 1946 July 31, 1946 August 7, 1946 June 1, 1955[8]
December 30, 1967
June 1, 1955[8]

May 3, 1971
24 James P. McGranery E.D. Pa. July 31, 1946 July 31, 1946 August 7, 1946 May 26, 1952
25 Richmond Bowling Keech D.D.C. January 8, 1947 January 22, 1947 October 14, 1946[9] November 1, 1966 April 13, 1986
26 Edward Matthew Curran D.D.C. January 8, 1947 February 3, 1947 October 16, 1946[10] April 2, 1971 January 10, 1988
27 Dal Millington Lemmon N.D. Cal. January 17, 1947 February 5, 1947 February 7, 1947 May 3, 1954
28 John David Clifford Jr. D. Me. January 10, 1947 March 14, 1947 March 24, 1947 November 18, 1956
29 Albert Vickers Bryan E.D. Va. May 15, 1947 June 3, 1947 June 5, 1947 August 23, 1961
30 R. Ewing Thomason W.D. Tex. April 24, 1947 June 3, 1947 June 5, 1947 June 1, 1963 November 8, 1973
31 Harold Medina S.D.N.Y. May 15, 1947 June 18, 1947 June 20, 1947 June 23, 1951
32 Joseph Brannon Dooley N.D. Tex. January 8, 1947 July 8, 1947 July 9, 1947 October 1, 1966 January 19, 1967
33 Leo F. Rayfiel E.D.N.Y. June 30, 1947 July 23, 1947 July 30, 1947 March 4, 1966 November 18, 1978
34 Roy Winfield Harper[11] E.D. Mo.
W.D. Mo.
November 24, 1947 August 7, 1947[12] December 19, 1947
34.1 Roy Winfield Harper[11] E.D. Mo.
W.D. Mo.
December 20, 1947[13] June 20, 1948
34.2 Roy Winfield Harper[11] E.D. Mo.
W.D. Mo.
January 13, 1949 January 31, 1949 June 22, 1948[14] January 5, 1971 February 13, 1994
35 Sylvester J. Ryan S.D.N.Y. November 24, 1947 December 18, 1947 November 1, 1947[15] January 3, 1973 April 10, 1981
36 Herbert William Christenberry E.D. La. July 11, 1947 December 18, 1947 December 20, 1947 October 5, 1975
37 Samuel H. Kaufman S.D.N.Y. January 13, 1949 January 31, 1949 June 22, 1948[14] July 31, 1955 May 5, 1960
38 Edward Allen Tamm D.D.C. January 13, 1949 March 29, 1949 June 22, 1948[16] March 16, 1965
39 David Ezekiel Henderson W.D.N.C. September 1, 1948[17] February 14, 1949
40 Carl Hatch D.N.M. January 13, 1949 January 17, 1949 January 21, 1949 April 5, 1963 September 15, 1963
41 James Thomas Foley N.D.N.Y. January 13, 1949 January 31, 1949 February 2, 1949 June 30, 1980 August 17, 1990
42 William T. McCarthy D. Mass. January 13, 1949 January 31, 1949 February 2, 1949 May 31, 1960 April 6, 1964
43 Thomas Patrick Thornton E.D. Mich. January 13, 1949 January 31, 1949 February 2, 1949 February 15, 1966 July 1, 1985
44 Wilson Warlick W.D.N.C. January 13, 1949 January 31, 1949 February 2, 1949 June 24, 1968 January 30, 1978
45 Herbert Wilson Erskine N.D. Cal. January 13, 1949 February 25, 1949 March 1, 1949 March 18, 1951
46 William Daniel Murray D. Mont. April 5, 1949 May 4, 1949 May 9, 1949 December 31, 1965 October 3, 1994
47 Robert Emmet Tehan E.D. Wis. April 5, 1949 May 17, 1949 May 19, 1949 June 30, 1971 November 27, 1975
48 Abraham Benjamin Conger M.D. Ga. May 19, 1949 June 2, 1949 June 6, 1949 December 9, 1953
49 James Allred[18] S.D. Tex. September 23, 1949 October 12, 1949 October 13, 1949 September 24, 1959
50 Ben Clarkson Connally S.D. Tex. September 23, 1949 October 12, 1949 October 13, 1949 December 28, 1974 December 2, 1975
51 Casper Platt E.D. Ill. September 15, 1949 October 12, 1949 October 13, 1949 September 16, 1965
52 James Marshall Carter S.D. Cal. September 23, 1949 October 15, 1949 October 18, 1949 December 1, 1967
53 Ernest W. Gibson Jr. D. Vt. September 15, 1949 October 15, 1949 October 18, 1949 November 4, 1969
54 Harry Clay Westover S.D. Cal. September 23, 1949 October 15, 1949 October 18, 1949 December 31, 1965 April 14, 1983
55 Maurice Neil Andrews N.D. Ga. January 5, 1950 October 21, 1949[19] October 31, 1950
56 Owen McIntosh Burns W.D. Pa. January 5, 1950 March 8, 1950 October 21, 1949[20] October 26, 1952
57 Thomas James Clary E.D. Pa. January 5, 1950 March 8, 1950 October 21, 1949[20] March 1, 1969 August 1, 1977
58 Delmas Carl Hill D. Kan. January 5, 1950 March 8, 1950 October 21, 1949[20] September 28, 1961
59 James Robert Kirkland D.D.C. January 5, 1950 March 8, 1950 October 21, 1949[20] February 25, 1958
60 John F. X. McGohey S.D.N.Y. January 5, 1950 March 8, 1950 October 21, 1949[20] March 17, 1970 July 7, 1972
61 J. Skelly Wright E.D. La. January 5, 1950 March 8, 1950 October 21, 1949[20] April 15, 1962
62 Frank Arthur Hooper N.D. Ga. January 5, 1950 February 21, 1950 October 21, 1949[21] June 29, 1967 February 11, 1985
63 Charles F. McLaughlin D.D.C. January 5, 1950 February 27, 1950 October 21, 1949[22] December 31, 1964 February 5, 1976
64 Gregory Francis Noonan S.D.N.Y. January 5, 1950 April 25, 1950 October 21, 1949[23] May 1, 1964
65 Willis William Ritter D. Utah January 5, 1950 June 29, 1950 October 21, 1949[24] March 4, 1978
66 Gus J. Solomon D. Ore. January 5, 1950 June 27, 1950 October 21, 1949[25] September 1, 1971 February 15, 1987
67 Carroll O. Switzer S.D. Iowa January 5, 1950 October 21, 1949[26] August 9, 1950
68 Allan Kuhn Grim E.D. Pa. January 5, 1950 April 4, 1950 October 21, 1949[3] November 1, 1961 December 7, 1965
69 Irving Kaufman S.D.N.Y. January 5, 1950 April 4, 1950 October 21, 1949[3] September 22, 1961
70 Burnita Shelton Matthews D.D.C. January 5, 1950 April 4, 1950 October 21, 1949[3] March 1, 1968 April 25, 1988
71 Sidney Sugarman S.D.N.Y. January 5, 1950 April 28, 1950 October 21, 1949[5] June 30, 1971 August 9, 1974
72 Robert Love Taylor E.D. Tenn. January 5, 1950 March 8, 1950 November 2, 1949[20] January 15, 1984 July 11, 1987
73 George William Whitehurst N.D. Fla.
S.D. Fla.
January 30, 1950 February 21, 1950 February 23, 1950 June 30, 1961 January 13, 1974
74 William Lee Knous D. Colo. March 1, 1950 April 4, 1950 April 7, 1950 December 12, 1959
75 William Elwood Steckler S.D. Ind. February 14, 1950 April 4, 1950 April 7, 1950 December 31, 1986 March 8, 1995
76 Rabe Ferguson Marsh Jr. W.D. Pa. March 27, 1950 June 2, 1950 June 8, 1950 January 31, 1977 April 19, 1993
77 William Robert Wallace E.D. Okla.
N.D. Okla.
W.D. Okla.
April 17, 1950 June 2, 1950 June 8, 1950 June 24, 1960
78 Edward Weinfeld S.D.N.Y. July 10, 1950 August 1, 1950 August 5, 1950 January 17, 1988
79 John Milton Bryan Simpson S.D. Fla. September 14, 1950 September 23, 1950 September 26, 1950 October 29, 1962[27]
80 William Matthew Byrne Sr. S.D. Cal. November 27, 1950 December 13, 1950 September 27, 1950[28] June 30, 1966 September 18, 1966[29]
81 Oliver Jesse Carter N.D. Cal. November 27, 1950 December 13, 1950 September 27, 1950[28] April 7, 1976 June 14, 1976
82 Walter Maximillian Bastian D.D.C. November 27, 1950 December 14, 1950 October 23, 1950[30] December 15, 1954
83 Edward Preston Murphy N.D. Cal. December 4, 1950 December 13, 1950 December 21, 1950 December 13, 1958
84 William F. Riley S.D. Iowa November 29, 1950 December 14, 1950 December 27, 1950 December 29, 1956
85 Edward L. Leahy D.R.I. December 21, 1950 January 2, 1951 January 3, 1951 July 22, 1953
86 Alfred Egidio Modarelli D.N.J. November 29, 1950 January 2, 1951 January 3, 1951 September 22, 1957
87 Charles Joseph McNamee N.D. Ohio February 8, 1951 March 6, 1951 March 9, 1951 May 2, 1964
88 Daniel Holcombe Thomas S.D. Ala. January 29, 1951 March 6, 1951 March 9, 1951 August 25, 1971 April 13, 2000
89 William Boyd Sloan N.D. Ga. February 19, 1951 March 20, 1951 March 23, 1951 August 1, 1965 October 22, 1970
90 William James Lindberg E.D. Wash.
W.D. Wash.
March 12, 1951 April 24, 1951 April 25, 1951 May 19, 1961[31]
March 1, 1971

December 15, 1981
91 William Alvah Stewart W.D. Pa. February 27, 1951 April 24, 1951 April 25, 1951 April 9, 1953
92 Joseph Warren Sheehy E.D. Tex. May 16, 1951 June 7, 1951 June 8, 1951 February 23, 1967
93 Thomas Francis Murphy S.D.N.Y. June 11, 1951 June 29, 1951 July 2, 1951 December 3, 1970 October 26, 1995
94 Edward Jordan Dimock S.D.N.Y. June 11, 1951 July 10, 1951 July 11, 1951 July 28, 1961 March 17, 1986
95 Joseph Sam Perry N.D. Ill. July 13, 1951 August 21, 1951 August 22, 1951 November 29, 1971 February 18, 1984
96 Luther Youngdahl D.D.C. July 6, 1951 August 28, 1951 August 29, 1951 May 29, 1966 June 21, 1978
97 Richard Hartshorne D.N.J. October 17, 1951 October 19, 1951 October 20, 1951 October 29, 1961 September 14, 1975
98 Ernest Allen Tolin S.D. Cal. March 3, 1952 June 10, 1952 October 30, 1951[32] June 11, 1961
99 David Norton Edelstein S.D.N.Y. January 30, 1952 April 7, 1952 November 1, 1951[33] November 1, 1994 August 19, 2000
100 Ashton Hilliard Williams E.D.S.C. June 17, 1952 July 2, 1952 July 3, 1952 February 25, 1962
101 James Augustine Walsh D. Ariz. July 3, 1952 July 5, 1952 July 7, 1952 July 9, 1976 May 2, 1991
102 Monroe Mark Friedman N.D. Cal. January 9, 1953 July 17, 1952[34] August 3, 1953

Specialty courts (Article I)

United States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
1 Noble J. Johnson May 28, 1948 June 8, 1948 June 10, 1948 July 19, 1956[35]
2 Eugene Worley February 24, 1950 March 8, 1950 March 9, 1950 April 30, 1959[36]
3 William Purington Cole Jr. July 4, 1952 July 5, 1952 July 7, 1952 September 22, 1957

United States Court of Claims

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
1 John Marvin Jones January 20, 1947 July 8, 1947 July 9, 1947[37] September 1, 1948[38]
2 George Evan Howell July 18, 1947 July 23, 1947 July 30, 1947 September 30, 1953

United States Customs Court

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
1 Irvin Charles Mollison October 3, 1945 October 26, 1945 October 29, 1945 May 5, 1962
2 Jed Johnson April 7, 1947 June 23, 1947 June 25, 1947 May 8, 1963
3 Paul Peter Rao January 13, 1949 January 31, 1949 June 22, 1948[14] November 1, 1980[39]
4 Morgan Ford June 22, 1949 July 12, 1949 July 15, 1949 November 1, 1980[39]

Notes

References

General
Specific
  1. ^ All information on the names, terms of service, and details of appointment of federal judges is derived from the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public-domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
  2. ^ a b Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 8, 1950, and received commission on February 10, 1950.
  3. ^ a b c d Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on April 4, 1950, and received commission on April 7, 1950.
  4. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on July 19, 1950, and received commission on July 22, 1950.
  5. ^ a b Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on April 28, 1950, and received commission on May 1, 1950.
  6. ^ Originally appointed to the Fifth Circuit, but reassigned by operation of law to the newly created Eleventh Circuit on October 1, 1981.
  7. ^ Nominated by Franklin D. Roosevelt but appointed by Harry S. Truman.
  8. ^ a b On June 1, 1955, Follmer was reassigned to only the United States District Court for the Middle District of Pennsylvania
  9. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 8, 1947, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 22, 1947, and received commission on January 24, 1947.
  10. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 8, 1947, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 3, 1947, and received commission on February 5, 1947.
  11. ^ a b c Harper received three consecutive recess appointments to the same court; his formal nomination was not acted on by the United States Senate the first two times, but after the third recess appointment, Harper was confirmed by the Senate.
  12. ^ Recess appointment; the nomination expired without action by the United States Senate.
  13. ^ Recess appointment; the nomination of November 24, 1947 was still pending and later expired without action by the United States Senate.
  14. ^ a b c Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 13, 1949, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 31, 1949, and received commission on February 2, 1949.
  15. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on November 24, 1947, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 18, 1947, and received commission on December 20, 1947.
  16. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 13, 1949, confirmed by the United States Senate on March 29, 1949, and received commission on April 1, 1949.
  17. ^ Recess appointment; nomination never sent to the United States Senate.
  18. ^ Allred had earlier been appointed to a different seat on the same court by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; Allred resigned to seek elected office, and, unsuccessful in that endeavor, was later reappointed to the court by Truman.
  19. ^ Recess appointment; the United States Senate later rejected the appointment.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on March 8, 1950, and received commission on March 9, 1950.
  21. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 21, 1950, and received commission on February 23, 1950.
  22. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 27, 1950, and received commission on March 1, 1950.
  23. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on April 25, 1950, and received commission on April 26, 1950.
  24. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on June 29, 1950, and received commission on July 7, 1950.
  25. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on June 27, 1950, and received commission on July 5, 1950.
  26. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 5, 1950, but the United States Senate rejected the appointment.
  27. ^ Reassigned by operation of law to the United States District Court for the Middle District of Florida on October 29, 1962
  28. ^ a b Recess appointment; formally nominated on November 27, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 13, 1950, and received commission on December 21, 1950.
  29. ^ Reassigned by operation of law to the United States District Court for the Central District of California on September 18, 1966.
  30. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on November 27, 1950, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 14, 1950, and received commission on December 22, 1950.
  31. ^ Reassigned by operation of law to only the Western District on May 19, 1961.
  32. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on March 3, 1952, confirmed by the United States Senate on June 10, 1952, and received commission on June 11, 1952.
  33. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 30, 1952, confirmed by the United States Senate on April 7, 1952, and received commission on April 8, 1952.
  34. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on January 9, 1953, but the United States Senate rejected the appointment.
  35. ^ Laterally appointed to Chief Judge seat on the same court on July 19, 1956.
  36. ^ Laterally appointed to Chief Judge seat on the same court on April 30, 1959.
  37. ^ Laterally appointed to serve as Chief Justice, after serving as a judge on the same court.
  38. ^ Chief Justice seat reassigned as Chief Judge.
  39. ^ a b Reassigned by operation of law to the United States Court of International Trade on November 1, 1980.

Sources

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