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List of federal judges appointed by Grover Cleveland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland

Following is a list of all Article III United States federal judges appointed by President Grover Cleveland during his presidency.[1] In total Cleveland appointed 45 Article III federal judges, including 4 Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States (including 1 Chief Justice), 11 judges to the United States courts of appeals and United States circuit courts and 30 judges to the United States district courts.

Additionally, Cleveland appointed 2 judges to the United States Court of Claims, an Article I tribunal.

The Judiciary Act of 1891, approved March 3, 1891, during the intervening administration of President Benjamin Harrison, established the United States courts of appeals. Prior to the passage of that act, United States Circuit Judges were appointed solely to the existing United States circuit courts. Subsequent to the passage of that act, United States Circuit Judges were concurrently appointed to both the United States courts of appeals and the United States circuit courts. This situation persisted until the abolition of the United States circuit courts on December 31, 1911. Starting January 1, 1912, United States Circuit Judges served only upon their respective United States court of appeals.

Thus, the 2 United States Circuit Judges appointed during Cleveland's first administration were appointed solely to the United States circuit court for their respective circuit and were reassigned by operation of law to serve concurrently on the United States court of appeals and United States circuit court on March 3, 1891. The 6 United States Circuit Judges appointed to numbered circuits during Cleveland's second administration were appointed concurrently to the United States court of appeals and United States circuit court.

The Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia (now the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit) was established on February 9, 1893. As the United States Circuit Court for the District of Columbia had been abolished in 1863, the judges of this newly established court served only on the Court of Appeals and had no concurrent Circuit Court service. Cleveland appointed 3 judges to this newly established court during his second administration.

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Transcription

I am Mr. Beat, and you are under arrest. Hypothetically, that is. Let’s say you are accused of breaking the law. Judas Priest: Breaking the what? Mr. Beat: The law! Judas Priest: Breaking the what? Mr. Beat: I said the law! Judas Priest: Breaking the what? (unintelligible) Geez, Judas Priest needs to get their hearing checked. Anyway, this video about the American court system. And yeah, let’s say you are accused of a crime in the United States. First of all, remember that you are innocent until proven guilty. Let me say that again. You are innocent until proven guilty. Say you’re accused of breaking a federal law, or a statute, or a treaty, or anything in the U.S. Constitution really. First of all, woah. Second of all, you go straight to the federal court system. You start out in district courts, aka the general trial courts. There are 94 districts in the country. Some states, like my home state of Kansas, have just one district. Other states, like Texas, have four. Even some of the United States territories get district courts. Ah, that’s nice. Each district court has at least one judge, appointed by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. They can serve for life...unless they misbehave, of course. One of the judges in my district, a dude named Sam Crow, has been a district court judge literally my entire life. He is 93 freaking years old. But he’s joined by 10 others. I should say that Crow would be considered a youngin’ compared to this guy. Wesley Brown, who died in 2012 at the age of 104, was actively hearing cases also in the District of Kansas up until a month before he died. He was the oldest person to serve as a federal judge in American history. Anyway, at the district level, there are also subject-specific courts, you know...courts that specialize in certain areas, like taxes, claims against the federal government, and international trade. Also, each district has its own bankruptcy court. So say they find you guilty in district court. (gasp!) No worries, you can appeal to the circuit courts. Also called the U.S. courts of appeals, they mostly hear appeals from district courts in a designated area. Uh, hey, could you please put up that map again? Uh, thank you. Yeah so I’d be appealing in District 10...no not that District 10. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit. There you go. Each circuit court has multiple judges, ranging from six in the First Circuit all the way to 29 in the Ninth Circuit. Again, all of them appointed by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. Again, they can serve for life...unless they misbehave. Some circuit courts also deal with specific subjects, such as veterans claims and military matters. So say they find you guilty in circuit court. (gasp!) No worries, it’s not over yet! Although you might worry a bit. You can appeal again, this time to the highest court in the land, as they say, the Supreme Court of the United States, who meet in the capital, Washington, D.C. You’ve got to petition to them. Basically, suck up to them so they’ll hear your case. The fancy phrase for this is a writ of certiorari. Unfortunately for you, less than 1% of all appeals are actually heard by the Supreme Court. It’s made up of nine justices, again nominated by the President and confirmed by the U.S. Senate. No surprise here...they can serve for life...unless they misbehave, but who are we kidding here, no justice has ever been kicked out of the Supreme Court. Of all the 112 justices in American history, only one has ever been impeached for...get this...being political with his decisions. That was Samuel Chase, and while Congress impeached him in 1804, they acquitted him later on and he got to stay on the Court. The Supreme Court hears between 100-150 cases each year. They meet beginning the first Monday in October, and, depending on how busy they get, meet regularly until the next summer, usually until late June. Sometimes the Supreme Court will combine lower court appeals into one case, and sometimes cases even begin in the Supreme Court. This is called “original jurisdiction,” and one example of this typically happening is when there is a dispute between two states, like in the 1998 case New Jersey v. New York. If you are a subscriber of this channel, you probably already know I have an entire series dedicated to important Supreme Court cases called Supreme Court Briefs. If you haven't heard of it, though, check out the series for a deeper understanding of the Supreme Court, eh? If the Supreme Court rules against you, I'm sorry. You're done. However, the Supreme Court does have a regular habit of overruling itself every so often. For example, they said segregated public facilities were ok in Plessy v. Ferguson, but later overruled themselves with the Brown v. the Board of Education decision. Granted, that was nine different justices by that time, but still. Ok, so now let's say you’re accused of breaking a state law. Actually, that’s the most likely scenario, as most laws that apply to you are state laws. State courts handle the vast majority of criminal cases in the country. While it’s different in every state, state courts are usually common law courts, or courts where judges often use precedent, or previous judicial decisions, to interpret state laws. They are courts of “general jurisdiction,” meaning they hear all kinds of cases. Oh yeah, these state court judges, depending on the state or jurisdiction, may be appointed by the governor for life like federal judges, or appointed for a limited time, or elected. Actually, 90 percent of state judges are elected, and nearly every American who votes has no idea who they are yet many of them vote for them anyway. So a judge will hear your case, which probably will be settled without a trial. You’ll probably just say you’re guilty, even if you’re not. That’s right, probably more than 90% of cases end in guilty pleas and never goes to trial. But say you’re lucky enough to get your case to trial. Similar to federal courts, state courts also have district courts, appeals courts, and supreme courts, although in some states the highest court is called something else. So say you are found guilty at every level in state court. Well you could then appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States. But the odds of the Supreme Court hearing your case from the state courts is even less likely than it was if it was in the federal court system. And you’ll probably need a lawyer or two or three or four to help you defend yourself in the legal system. That gets expensive. In fact, if you do end up appealing your case expect to spend tens of thousands of dollars. For serious charges, it’s even more expensive. According to one report, the cost of a death penalty defense averaged $127,363.58 per case. So yeah, so let’s say you just want to sue someone. Well that’s civil court. You know, civil cases, and it can happen in both state and federal courts. First of all, you can sue anyone for almost anything, as long as there is a valid cause of action. You first have to let the defendant know you are suing them and why you are suing them. Hey that reminds me... (dials Steven) Steven: It's a good book. Steven: Hello? Hey Steven, how are you doing? Steven: I’m great! How are you? Oh great! How is the family? Steven: Just fine. How is yours? Oh fantastic. I’m going to sue you. (Steven acts surprised, to say the least) You can demand the defendant pays you or try to get a court to order the defendant from doing whatever it was you are suing them for. Judges will try to get you to resolve your dispute before going to court, of course, but ultimately you get a trial, and a jury if the amount you are suing for is at least $300 or so. That’s both for civil cases in federal court and state courts….well MOST state courts, that is. So if you do get that jury, or if you’re just appearing before a judge, you have to convince them by what’s known as a “preponderance of the evidence.” In other words, it has to be clear the person you sued hurt you bad, man. And if you lose the lawsuit, you can appeal, just like with criminal cases. So good luck to you, you innocent until proven guilty in a court of law person, you. Hang in there, and thanks for watching...likely from prison, hypothetically! This video topic was recommended by my terrific Patreon supporter Kenneth. Thank you Kenneth for suggesting this wonderful topic that compliments my Supreme Court Briefs series really well. I took his suggestion because he donates to me at the Grover Cleveland level on Patreon. Speaking of Supreme Court Briefs, if you want to check out the entire series, I have a link in the description. I have a new episode of Supreme Court Briefs next week! Thank you again for watching.

Contents

United States Supreme Court Justices

First administration

# Justice Seat State Former Justice Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began
active service
Ended
active service
1 Lucius Q. C. Lamar II 3 Mississippi William Burnham Woods December 6, 1887 January 16, 1888 January 16, 1888 January 23, 1893
2 Melville Fuller Chief Illinois Morrison Waite April 30, 1888 July 20, 1888 July 20, 1888 July 4, 1910

Second administration

# Justice Seat State Former Justice Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began
active service
Ended
active service
1 Edward Douglass White 1 Louisiana Samuel Blatchford February 19, 1894 February 19, 1894 February 19, 1894 December 19, 1910
2 Rufus Wheeler Peckham 3 New York Howell Edmunds Jackson December 3, 1895 December 9, 1895 December 9, 1895 October 24, 1909

Court of Appeals/Circuit Courts

First administration

# Judge Circuit Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
1 Howell Edmunds Jackson Sixth April 12, 1886 April 12, 1886 April 12, 1886 March 4, 1893 Elevated
2 Emile Henry Lacombe Second February 27, 1888 February 28, 1888 May 26, 1887[2] December 31, 1911

Second administration

# Judge Circuit Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
1 James Graham Jenkins Seventh March 20, 1893 March 23, 1893 March 23, 1893 February 23, 1905
2 Horace Harmon Lurton Sixth March 22, 1893 March 27, 1893 March 27, 1893 December 20, 1909 Elevated
3 Richard Henry Alvey D.C. April 14, 1893 April 15, 1893 April 15, 1893[3] January 1, 1905
4 Martin Ferdinand Morris D.C. April 14, 1893 April 15, 1893 April 15, 1893[4] June 30, 1905
5 Seth Shepard D.C. April 14, 1893 April 15, 1893 April 15, 1893[4] January 19, 1905[5]
6 Charles Henry Simonton Fourth December 11, 1893 December 19, 1893 December 19, 1893 April 25, 1904
7 Amos Madden Thayer Eighth August 6, 1894 August 9, 1894 August 9, 1894 April 24, 1905
8 Erskine Mayo Ross Ninth February 19, 1895 February 22, 1895 February 22, 1895 May 31, 1925 December 10, 1928
9 John William Showalter Seventh February 25, 1895 March 1, 1895 March 1, 1895 December 10, 1898

District Courts

First administration

# Judge Court
[Note 1]
Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
1 William Matthews Merrick D.D.C. December 14, 1885 March 30, 1886 May 1, 1885[6] February 4, 1889
2 Henry Franklin Severens W.D. Mich. May 14, 1886 May 25, 1886 May 25, 1886 March 16, 1900 Elevated
3 William Truslow Newman N.D. Ga. December 9, 1886 January 13, 1887 August 13, 1886[7] February 14, 1920
4 Charles Henry Simonton D.S.C. December 9, 1886 January 13, 1887 September 3, 1886[7] December 28, 1893 Elevated
5 Erskine Mayo Ross S.D. Cal. December 16, 1886 January 13, 1887 January 13, 1887 March 5, 1895 Elevated
6 Harry Theophilus Toulmin S.D. Ala. December 13, 1886 January 13, 1887 January 13, 1887 November 12, 1916
7 Amos Madden Thayer E.D. Mo. February 21, 1887 February 26, 1887 February 26, 1887 August 20, 1894 Elevated
8 Martin V. Montgomery D.D.C. December 20, 1887 January 26, 1888 April 1, 1887[8] October 2, 1892
9 William J. Allen S.D. Ill. December 20, 1887 January 19, 1888 April 18, 1887[9] January 26, 1901
10 Edward Franklin Bingham D.D.C. December 20, 1887 January 23, 1888 April 22, 1887[10] April 30, 1903
11 Thomas Sheldon Maxey W.D. Tex. June 18, 1888 June 25, 1888 June 25, 1888 December 12, 1916
12 John Finis Philips W.D. Mo. June 19, 1888 June 25, 1888 June 25, 1888 June 25, 1910
13 James Graham Jenkins E.D. Wis. June 19, 1888 July 2, 1888 July 2, 1888 March 23, 1893 Elevated

Second administration

# Judge Court
[Note 1]
Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
Ended senior
status
1 William Henry Seaman E.D. Wis. March 27, 1893 April 3, 1893 April 3, 1893 March 1, 1905 Elevated
2 Charles B. Bellinger D. Ore. April 11, 1893 April 15, 1893 April 15, 1893 May 12, 1905
3 Charles Parlange E.D. La. December 11, 1893 January 15, 1894 January 15, 1894 February 4, 1907
4 William H. Brawley D.S.C. December 20, 1893 January 18, 1894 January 18, 1894 June 14, 1911
5 Henry Samuel Priest E.D. Mo. August 6, 1894 August 9, 1894 August 9, 1894 May 23, 1895
6 Charles Dickens Clark E.D. Tenn.
M.D. Tenn.
December 17, 1894 January 21, 1895 January 21, 1895 March 15, 1908
7 Olin Wellborn S.D. Cal. February 25, 1895 March 1, 1895 March 1, 1895 January 31, 1915
8 Elmer Bragg Adams E.D. Mo. December 4, 1895 December 9, 1895 May 17, 1895[11] May 29, 1905 Elevated
9 John Augustine Marshall D. Utah January 13, 1896 February 4, 1896 February 4, 1896 September 8, 1915
10 William Lochren D. Minn. May 15, 1896 May 18, 1896 May 18, 1896 July 11, 1908
11 John Emmett Carland D.S.D. December 8, 1896 December 15, 1896 August 31, 1896[12] February 6, 1911 Elevated
12 Charles Fremont Amidon D.N.D. December 8, 1896 February 18, 1897 August 31, 1896[13] June 2, 1928 December 26, 1937
13 Arthur Lewis Brown D.R.I. December 8, 1896 December 15, 1896 October 15, 1896[12] June 30, 1927
14 Andrew Kirkpatrick D.N.J. December 8, 1896 December 15, 1896 November 20, 1896[12] May 3, 1904
15 William Douglas McHugh D. Neb. December 8, 1896 November 20, 1896[14] March 3, 1897
16 John Henry Rogers W.D. Ark. December 8, 1896 December 15, 1896 November 27, 1896[12] April 16, 1911
17 William Henry Munger D. Neb. February 1, 1897 February 18, 1897 February 18, 1897 August 11, 1915

Specialty courts

United States Court of Claims

# Judge Nomination
date
Confirmation
date
Began active
service
Ended active
service
1 Charles C. Nott December 8, 1896 December 15, 1896 November 23, 1896[12][15] December 31, 1905
2 Charles Bowen Howry December 8, 1896 January 28, 1897 November 23, 1896[16] March 6, 1915

Notes

References

General
  • "Judges of the United States Courts". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Federal Judicial Center. Archived from the original on 2016-07-30. Retrieved 2009-04-03.
Specific
  1. ^ All information on the names, terms of service, and details of appointment of federal judges is derived from the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
  2. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on February 27, 1888, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 28, 1888, and received commission on February 28, 1888.
  3. ^ Appointed as Chief Justice of the court.
  4. ^ a b Appointed as an Associate Justice of the Court.
  5. ^ Laterally appointed Chief Justice of the same court on January 19, 1905.
  6. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 14, 1885, confirmed by the United States Senate on March 30, 1886, and received commission on March 30, 1886.
  7. ^ a b Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 9, 1886, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 13, 1887, and received commission on January 13, 1887.
  8. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 20, 1887, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 26, 1888, and received commission on January 26, 1888.
  9. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 20, 1887, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 19, 1888, and received commission on January 19, 1888.
  10. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 20, 1887, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 23, 1888, and received commission on January 23, 1888.
  11. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 4, 1895, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 9, 1895, and received commission on December 9, 1895.
  12. ^ a b c d e Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 8, 1896, confirmed by the United States Senate on December 15, 1896, and received commission on December 15, 1896.
  13. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 8, 1896, confirmed by the United States Senate on February 18, 1897, and received commission on February 18, 1897.
  14. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 8, 1896, but the United States Senate did not confirm the appointment.
  15. ^ Laterally appointed Chief Justice, previously served as a Judge of the same court.
  16. ^ Recess appointment; formally nominated on December 8, 1896, confirmed by the United States Senate on January 28, 1897, and received commission on January 28, 1897.

Sources

This page was last edited on 7 December 2019, at 00:02
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