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List of extant papal tombs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A procession in the Catacomb of Callixtus, a site of several ancient papal tombs. By Alberto Pisa, 1905
A procession in the Catacomb of Callixtus, a site of several ancient papal tombs. By Alberto Pisa, 1905

A pope is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the Catholic Church. Approximately 100 papal tombs are at least partially extant, representing less than half of the 264 deceased popes, from Saint Peter to Saint John Paul II.[1]

For the first few centuries in particular, little is known of the popes and their tombs, and available information is often contradictory. As with other religious relics, multiple sites claim to house the same tomb. Furthermore, many papal tombs that recycled sarcophagi and other materials from earlier tombs were later recycled for their valuable materials or combined with other monuments. For example, the tomb of Pope Leo I was combined with Leos II, III, and IV circa 855, and then removed in the seventeenth century and placed under his own altar, below Alessandro Algardi's relief, Fuga d'Attila. The style of papal tombs has evolved considerably throughout history, tracking trends in the development of church monuments.[2] Notable papal tombs have been commissioned from sculptors such as Michelangelo and Gian Lorenzo Bernini.

Most extant papal tombs are located in St. Peter's Basilica, other major churches of Rome (especially Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran, Santa Maria sopra Minerva and Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore), or other churches of Italy, France, and Germany.[3]

Papal tombs by century of the pontificate
Non-extant · Antipopes

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Note on non-extant tombs

Many early tombs no longer exist due to repeated translations or destruction. This list does not include non-extant papal tombs. Information about these tombs is generally incomplete and uncertain. Locations of destroyed or lost papal tombs include:

Other tombs not included in this list are:

1st–5th centuries

1st century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
(as Head of the Church)
San Pietro - Lorenzo Veneziano.jpg
Saint Peter
Baldaquin Bernin Saint-Pierre Vatican.jpg
Rom, Vatikan, Petrusgrab unterhalb des Papstaltars des Petersdoms in den Vatikanischen Grotten.jpg
Gian Lorenzo Bernini (baldachin) St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City (Rome) See Saint Peter's tomb
post 42 / ante 57–64/67(?)
(as Bishop of Rome)

2nd century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
c. 157–168
Papa Aniceto cropped.jpg
Saint Anicetus
Palazzo Altemps (Piazza Navona), Rome Remains transferred from Vatican Hill to the Cemetery of Callixtus and possibly again thereafter;[9] sarcophagus which may once have contained remains is extant in the Palazzo Altemps[10]

3rd century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
25 June 253 – 5 March 254
Lucius I.jpg
Lucius I
Saint Lucius
Cripta Santa Cecilia 05.JPG
Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, Rome Transferred from the Catacomb of Callixtus to one or more of: Santa Cecilia in Trastevere, San Silvestro in Capite, and Santa Prassede;[11] sarcophagus that once held remains is extant in the crypt of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere[10]
17 December 283 – 22 April 296
Saint Caius
Barberini chapel.jpg
Sant'Andrea della Valle (Barberini chapel), Rome Translated from the crypt of St. Eusebius in the Cemetery of Callixtus to San Silvestre in Capite, then to another church, then to the private chapel of the Barberini princes in Sant'Andrea della Valle[12]

4th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
18 January 336 – 7 October 336
Marcus (papa).jpg
Saint Mark
Tomb of Pope Mark.jpg
San Marco Evangelista al Campidoglio, Rome Translated from the Catacomb of Balbina, one of the Catacombs of Rome, to an urn below the main altar of San Marco[13]

5th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
29 September 440 – 10 November 461
Leo I
Saint Leo
Leo the Great
Expulsão de átila.jpg
Alessandro Algardi (relief) St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti First pope buried on the porch of Old St. Peter's Basilica; translated multiple times, combined with Leos II, III, and IV circa 855; removed in the seventeenth century and placed under his own altar, below Algardi's relief, Fuga d'Attila (pictured)[14]

6th–10th centuries

6th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
3 September 590 – 12 March 604
Gregory I, O.S.B.
Saint Gregory
Gregory the Great
Tomb of pope Gregorius I.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the portico of Old St. Peter's, partly transferred to Soissons; during the demolition of St. Peter's, transferred to Sant'Andrea della Valle then Cappella Clementina, near the entrance of the modern St. Peter's[15]

7th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
13 September 604 – 22 February 606
Saint Sabinian
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original monument in the atrium of Old St. Peter's destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's;[16] small fragment of the original epitaph remains in the crypt of St. Peter's Basilica[17]
25 August 608 – 8 May 615
Boniface IV.jpg
Boniface IV, O.S.B.
Saint Boniface
Unknown St. Peter's Baslica Originally buried in the portico of Old St. Peter's; translated to the interior; one arm translated to Santa Maria in Cosmedin; other relics translated to the Chapel of St. Sylvester beside the Church of the Quattro Coronati; remainder translated to another chapel of St. Peter's;[18] oratory which once contained the tomb is extant, as well as a sketch of the tomb by Ciampini[17]
December 681 – 3 July 683 Leo II
Saint Leo
Leonae II III IV.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti Originally buried in Old St. Peter's; translated under the altar of the Chapel of the Madonna della Colonna; combined with Leo I in the early seventeenth century; for centuries believed to be under the altar of the Church of San Stefano in Ferrara; combined remains of Leos I, II, and IV found during the demolition of Old St. Peter's[19]

8th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
1 February 772 – 26 December 795
Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I.jpg
Adrian I Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original monument in the Oratory of Cathedra Petri destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's;[20] inscription, composed by Charlemagne, remains in the portico of modern St. Peter's[21][22]
26 December 795 – 12 June 816
Leo III Mosaic.jpg
Saint Leo
Leonae II III IV.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti Originally buried in Old St. Peter's; combined with Leo II and IV by Pope Paschal II; combined sarcophagus destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's; combined with Leo I in 1601 and placed in a sarcophagus under the altar of our Savior della Colonna in new St. Peter's[23]

9th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
January 847 – 17 July 855
Pope St. Leo IV.jpg
Leo IV, O.S.B.
Saint Leo
Leonae II III IV.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica, Chapel of the Madonna of Partorienti Combined with Leos I, II, and III[24]
24 April 858 – 13 November 867
Pope Nicholas I.jpg
Nicholas I
Saint Nicholas
Nicholas the Great
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the atrium of Old St. Peter's; epitaph partially preserved during the demolition of Old St. Peter's, extant in the Vatican grottoes[25]
14 December 867 – 14 December 872
Adrian II.jpg
Adrian II Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in Old St. Peter's; epitaph partially preserved during the demolition of Old St. Peter's, still visible in the Vatican grottoes[25]
17 May 884 – c.September 885
Papa Adriano III.jpg
Adrian III
Saint Adrian
Abbazia di nonantola, interno, cripta 03.JPG
Unknown Nonantola Abbey, Modena Crypt altar[26]

10th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
October 974 – 10 July 983
Pope Benedict VII Illustration.jpg
Benedict VII
Santa croce di gerusalemme.jpg
Unknown Santa Croce in Gerusalemme Funerary inscription embedded in the wall near the entrance[27]
3 May 996 – 18 February 999
Otto III wird von Papst Gregor V. zum Kaiser gesalbt.jpg
Gregory V
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Tomb discovered on August 14, 1607 under the pavement of St. Peter's; exhumed and reburied on January 15, 1609 in a fourth/fifth century sarcophagus[28]
2 April 999 – 12 May 1003
Silvester II.JPG
Sylvester II
San giovanni in laterano, interno, navata interna dx, cenotafio di silvestro II, m. 1003, 01.jpg
Gzila Nalder and Giuseppe Damko Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran Destroyed in the Lateran fire of 1308; charred remains were collected and buried in a polyandrum in the same basilica; epitaph reingraved on a cenotaph in the same basilica; modern monument created in 1910[29]

11th–15th centuries

11th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
31 July 1009 – 12 May 1012
Sergius IV.jpg
Sergius IV
San giovanni in laterano, interno, navata interna dx, sepolcro settecentesco di sergio IV, m. 1012.jpg
Francesco Borromini Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran Original destroyed in a fire in either 1308 or 1361; remains collected in a polyandrum in the same basilica; new cenotaph placed on the right side of the main nave by Borromini in the seventeenth century[30]
24 December 1046 – 9 October 1047
Pope clement II.jpg
Clement II
"Reims workshop"[31] Bamberg Cathedral Only extant papal tomb outside of Italy and France;[32][33][34] original completed circa 1237, dismantled in the seventeenth century, separating the tomb-chest and effigy; tomb-chest constructed with marble from Kärnten[31][35]
17 July 1048 – 9 August 1048
B Damasus II1.jpg
Damasus II
Tomb of Pope Damasus II.jpg
Unknown San Lorenzo fuori le Mura Sarcophagus in the portico[36][37]
12 February 1049 – 19 April 1054
Leon IX.jpg
Leo IX
Saint Leo
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the east wall of Old St. Peter's, close to the altar of Gregory I; coffin opened on January 11, 1606 during the demolition of Old St. Peter's and parts were taken as relics; remainder reburied under the altar of Saints Marziale and Valeria,[38] now dedicated to the Crucifixion of St. Peter.
22 April 1073 – 25 May 1085
Pope Gregory VII.jpg
Gregory VII, O.S.B.
Saint Gregory
Salerno PopeGregoriousVIITomb.JPG
Unknown Salerno Cathedral Originally buried in the Church of St. Matthew; discovered in 1573, opened in 1578, reburied beneath the Salerno altar; opened again in 1605 (head taken to Cathedral of Soana; corpse translated to chapel of the Crociata); original sarcophagus placed in transept in 1954[39]
24 May 1086 – 16 September 1087
Victor III.jpg
Victor III, O.S.B.
Blessed Victor
Monte Cassino Fasada Kosciol.JPG
Unknown Abbey of Monte Cassino Translated in 1515 to the altar in the chapel of St. Bertharius, then the chapel of St. Victor; transferred from Monte Cassino during World War II to San Polo fuori le Mura, avoiding the aerial bombing that destroyed the original chapel;[40] returned to the rebuilt basilica of Monte Cassino in 1963[41]

12th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
24 January 1118 – 28 January 1119
Gelasius II, O.S.B.
Dehio 212 Cluny.jpg
Unknown Cluny Abbey Tuscan-style bright marble tomb destroyed in 1792 during the French Revolution;[42] fragments remain[43]
14 February 1130 – 24 September 1143
B Innozenz II.jpg
Innocent II, Can. Reg.
Tomb of Innocentius II in Santa Maria in Trastevere (Rome).jpg
Vespignani (design) Santa Maria in Trastevere Originally buried in the porphyry sarcophagus of Emperor Hadrian in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran; damaged during the fire of 1308 and moved to the vestibule; moved to a simple slab in the fifteenth century; moved to Santa Maria Trastevere[44]
8 July 1153 – 3 December 1154
B Anastasius IV.jpg
Anastasius IV
Helena tomb.jpg
Unknown Vatican Museum Reused the sarcophagus of Helena of Constantinople, Constantine's mother; only tomb to survive the Lateran fires of 1308 and 1361 (restored fully in 1509); moved to the treasury of the Vatican Museum in the nineteenth century[45]
4 December 1154 – 1 September 1159
Pope Hadrian IV.jpg
Adrian IV, O.S.A.
Tomb of Pope Adrian IV.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Reused an Early Christian sarcophagus[46]
7 September 1159 – 30 August 1181
B-Alexander III1.jpg
Alexander III
San giovanni in laterano, interno, navata interna dx, sepolcro di alessandro III con scultura di domenico guidi, 1658-59.jpg
Francesco Borromini Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran Ruined by mob graffiti and then destroyed in the Lateran fire of 1308 or 1361; new cenotaph raised in seventeenth century[47]
1 September 1181 – 25 November 1185
Pope Lucius III.png
Lucius III Unknown Verona Cathedral Originally buried in a marble sarcophagus in front of the high altar; moved beneath the pavement under a red Veronese marble slab during the reign of bishop Gilberti (1524–1543); damaged during a storm on February 25, 1879; recovered with marble thereafter and original slab hung on the wall of the Cathedral[48][49]
25 November 1185 – 19 October 1187
B Urban III.jpg
Urban III
Tomb of Pope Urban III.jpg
G.B. Boffa (modern cenotaph) Ferrara Cathedral Moved several times; original tomb replaced with cenotaph in fifteenth century[50]
8 January 1198 – 16 July 1216
Innocent III
Tomb Innocentius III San Giovanni in Laterano 2006-09-07.jpg
Giuseppe Lucchetti Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran Originally buried in the Perugia Cathedral; moved several times within the Cathedral, and temporarily combined with Urban IV and Martin IV, before being transferred to Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in 1891[51]

13th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
25 June 1243 – 7 December 1254
Innocent IV - Council of Lyon - 002r detail.jpg
Innocent IV
Tommaso Malvito Naples Cathedral Original, commissioned by archbishop Humbert of Montauro, almost completely destroyed; the recumbent figure (with the anachronistic round top tiara) and above reliefs were added in the sixteenth century[52]
29 August 1261 – 2 October 1264
Pope Urban IV.jpg
Urban IV [53] Giovanni Pisano (original) Perugia Cathedral Destroyed in the late fourteenth century, save the epitaph which is currently in the Civic Museum of Perugia; combined with Innocent III and Martin IV in 1587 and interred in the sacristy;[54] Innocent III's remains were transferred to the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in the late nineteenth century, but the iron casket is extant in the sacristy of the Perugia Cathedral;[10] possibly translated to the Troyes Cathedral in 1901[55]
5 February 1265 – 29 November 1268
Papst Clemens IV.jpg
Clement IV
Pietro di oderisio, monumento di clemente IV e del card. pierre le gros di saint-gilles, post 1268, 01.jpg
Pietro Oderisi San Francesco (Viterbo) Translated from Santa Maria in Gradi[56][57]
1 September 1271 – 10 January 1276
B Gregor X.jpg
Gregory X
Blessed Gregory
Duomo di arezzo, interno, sepolcro di gregorio X, inizi XIV secolo.JPG
Margaritone d'Arezzo Arezzo Cathedral Original body and sarcophagus are extant[43][58]
11 July 1276 – 18 August 1276
Papa Adriano V.jpg
Adrian V
Mausoleo Adriano V.jpg
Arnolfo di Cambio (possibly Pietro Vassalletto) San Francesco (Viterbo) Modified in 1994[57][59]
8 September 1276 – 20 May 1277
B Johannes XXI.jpg
John XXI
Jean XXI (Viterbo Cath.).JPG
Filippo Gnaccarini Viterbo Cathedral Original destroyed in the sixteenth century, no longer extant;[57] new monument constructed in the 19th century and damaged during World War II,[60] of which a sarcophagus and other fragments remain[10][61]
25 November 1277 – 22 August 1280
Nicholas III
St. Peter's Basilica-tomb2.JPG
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's; combined with two Rainaldo Orsinis in 1620[62]
22 February 1281 – 28 March 1285
B Martin IV.jpg
Martin IV [53] Giovanni Pisano Perugia Cathedral Original tomb destroyed by 1375; reconstructed and redestroyed by the end of the fourteenth century; combined with Popes Urban IV and Innocent III in 1587; Innocent III's remains were transferred to the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in the late nineteenth century, but the iron casket containing Martin IV and possibly Urban IV is extant in the sacristy of the Perugia Cathedral[10]
2 April 1285 – 3 April 1287
Honorius IV
Santa Maria in Aracoeli; Grabmal Giovanna Aldobrandeschi.JPG
Arnolfo di Cambio Santa Maria in Aracoeli Original destroyed early in the demolition of Old St. Peter's; baldecchio destroyed and replaced in 1727[63][64]
22 February 1288 – 4 April 1292
Nicholas IV, O.F.M.
Tomb of Pope Nicholas IV.jpg
Domenico Fontana (design)
Leonardo da Sarzana (sculptor)
Leonardo Sormani (figures)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Originally buried in a simple urn; mausoleum commissioned in the late sixteenth century[65]
5 July 1294 – 13 December 1294
Celestin 5 statue.jpg
Celestine V, O.S.B.
Saint Celestine
Celestino V tomba.jpg
Girolama da Vicenza Santa Maria di Collemaggio (L'Aquila) Originally buried in Church of St. Anthony; moved to Church of St. Agatha; stolen in 1327 by L'Aquilan friars;[66] damaged in the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake[67]
24 December 1294 – 11 October 1303
Bonifatius VIII Grabstatue.JPG
Boniface VIII
Tomb of Boniface VIII.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Original tomb chapel, into which Boniface VIII had moved the relics of Boniface IV, destroyed[68][69]

14th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
22 October 1303 – 7 July 1304
B Benedikt XI.jpg
Benedict XI, O.P.
Blessed Benedict
Lorenzo maitani (attr.), monumento di benedetto XI, 1305 circa, 01.jpg
Giovanni Pisano Basilica of San Domenico (Perugia) Wall tomb and ossuary[43][70]
5 June 1305 – 20 April 1314
Papst klemens v.jpg
Clement V
Jehan de Bonneval Collegiate church (Uzeste) [71]
7 August 1316 – 4 December 1334
Tombeau de Jean XXII.jpg
Unknown Avignon Cathedral Moved several times within the Cathedral's chapels; all 60 statuettes have been stolen, head of effigy is originally from another bishop's tomb; damaged badly during French Revolution[72][73]
20 December 1334 – 25 April 1342
Benedikt XII1.png
Benedict XII, O.Cist.
Tomb of Benedict XII, Cathédrale de Notre-Dame-des-Doms, Avignon.JPG
Jean Lavenier Avignon Cathedral Bust of Benedict XII in the St. Peter's Basilica grottoes;[74] fragments of original in Fondation Calvet[43]
7 May 1342 – 6 December 1352
Clemens VI.png
Clement VI
Gisant du pape Clément VI 2.jpeg
Pierre Boye, Jean Sanholis, and Jean David Abbey of La Chaise-Dieu Sculpted weepers in Musée Crozatier, Le Puy;[75][76] sculpted angel in Musée de Petit-Palais, Avignon[77]
18 December 1352 – 12 September 1362
Innozenz VI.gif
Innocent VI
Villeneuve avignon chartreuse tombeau.jpg
Beltran Nogayrol Chartreuse du Val de Bénédiction (Villeneuve-lès-Avignon) [78]
28 September 1362 – 19 December 1370
Urban V.gif
Urban V, O.S.B.
Blessed Urban
Urbain V by JM Rosier.jpg
Joglarii Abbey of St. Victor (Marseille) Effigy in Musée de Petit-Palais, Avignon[79][80]
30 December 1370 – 26 March 1378
Gregory XI
Grabmal Gregor XI.jpg
Pietro Paolo Olivieri Santa Francesca Romana Original Olivieri relief carved in 1584 (drawing above);[81] replica located in Palais des Papes
8 April 1378 – 15 October 1389
Urbanus VI.jpg
Urban VI
Tomb of pope Urbanus VI.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Saved during the deconstruction of Old St. Peter's; nearly dumped by workmen for use as a water trough[82][83]

15th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
17 October 1404 – 6 November 1406
Innocent VII.jpg
Innocent VII
Tomb of Pope Innocent VII.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in the Chapel of Saints Peter and Paul, moved to the Chapel of St. Thomas in 1455, moved into a mid-fifteenth century copy of the original sarcophagus on September 12, 1606[84]
30 November 1406 – 4 July 1415
Gregory XII.jpg
Gregory XII
Original Tomb of Gregory XII.jpg
Camillo Rusconi San Flaviano (Recanati) Cardinal at the time of his death, due to his resignation during the Council of Constance; Moved in 1623, 1760, and 1793; illustrations of an "original" tomb (pictured) have been deemed fabrications by historians;[85] last papal tomb outside Rome (c.f. Tomb of Antipope John XXIII); original sarcophagus extant[10]
11 November 1417 – 20 February 1431
Martin V.jpg
Martin V
Tomb of Pope Martin V Gregorovius.jpg
Simone Ghini Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran[86] Moved in front of the high altar in 1853[87]
3 March 1431 – 23 February 1447
Portrait du pape Eugène IV.jpg
Eugene IV, O.S.A.
Tomb of Pope Eugene IV.jpg
Iaia da Piso and Pellegrino di Antonio da Viterbo San Salvatore in Lauro Moved out of Old St. Peter's before its demolition[88]
6 March 1447 – 24 March 1455
Paus Nicolaas V door Peter Paul Rubens.jpg
Nicholas V, O.P.
Tomb of Pope Nicholas V.jpg
Mino da Fiesole St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the left outer aisle of Old St. Peter's to the right outer aisle; monument (not sarcophagus) destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's[89]
8 April 1455 – 6 August 1458
Calixtus III.jpg
Callixtus III
Tomb of Pope Callixtus III.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally located in Chapel of St. Mary della febbre; monument, but not sarcophagus, destroyed during the demolition of Old St. Peter's[90]
Tomb of Popes Borja ( Callisto III and Alessandro VI).jpg
Filippio Moratilla Santa Maria in Monserrato Remains later combined with Alexander VI[90]
19 August 1458 – 15 August 1464
Pintoricchio 012.jpg
Pius II
Tomb of Pope Pius II color.jpg
Paolo Romano Sant'Andrea della Valle Heart enshrined in the Duomo of Ancona; originally buried in the Chapel of St. Andrews in St. Peter's; moved to San Andrea della Valle in 1614[91]
30 August 1464 – 26 July 1471
Paul II
Tomb of pope Paulus II.jpg
Giovanni Dalmata (effigy)
Mino da Fiesole (figures and bas-reliefs)
St. Peter's Basilica Monument moved in 1544 and torn down in seventeenth century; sarcophagus survived demolition of Old St. Peter's[92]
9 August 1471 – 12 August 1484
Sixtus IV.png
Sixtus IV, O.F.M.
Tomb of Sixtus IV Color.jpg
Antonio del Pollaiolo St. Peter's Basilica Originally located in the choir chapel of Old St. Peter's; moved in 1610 to the sacristy; moved in 1625 to the Chapel del Coro in new St. Peter's; combined with Julius II in 1926; moved again in 1940s[93]
29 August 1484 – 25 July 1492
Innocent VIII.JPG
Innocent VIII
Monument to Innocentius VIII in Saint Peter's Basilica.jpg
Antonio del Pollaiolo St. Peter's Basilica First papal tomb to depict a live pope rather than a deathbed effigy; originally placed in the Oratory of Our Lady in Old St. Peter's; moved to the sudarium on 5 September 1606 during the demolition[93]
11 August 1492 – 18 August 1503
Pope Alexander Vi.jpg
Alexander VI
Regola - s M Monserrato tomba Borgia 1050567.JPG
Filippio Moratilla Santa Maria di Monserrato Originally located in the oratory of Saints Cosmas and Damian, in the round chapel of Santa Maria de Febribus; moved in the sixteenth century next to Calixtus III; combined in 1582 in the Chapel of Santa Maria della Febbre; survived demolition of Old St. Peter's but broken up in 1605; urns were taken to Santa Maria di Monserrato; monument in Chapel of St. Diego sculpted in 1881[94]

16th–21st centuries

16th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
22 September 1503 – 18 October 1503
Pius III, Nordisk familjebok.png
Pius III
Tomb of pope Pius III.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally built in Old St. Peter's; last papal mausoleum erected in Old St. Peter's[95]
Wall Tomb of Pope Pius III color.jpg
Sebastiano Ferrucci Sant'Andrea della Valle Moved to Sant'Andrea della Valle by Paul V[95]
31 October 1503 – 21 February 1513
Pope Julius II.jpg
Julius II
Rome-Basilique San Pietro in Vincoli-Moise MichelAnge.jpg
Possible assistants include:
Antonello Gagini
Giacomo del Duca
San Pietro in Vincoli Original, planned tomb—intended for the Cappella Maggiore of St. Peter's—never completed and moved to San Pietro in Vincoli[96]
See Tomb of Pope Julius II, Moses and Dying Slave
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Actual remains deposited in a simple sarcophagus, combined with Sixtus IV, his uncle[95]
9 March 1513 – 1 December 1521
Leo X
LX graf.jpg
Baccio Bandinelli (design)
Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (monument)
Raffaello da Montelupo (statue)
Santa Maria sopra Minerva Translated from Old St. Peter's in 1536[97]
9 January 1522 – 14 September 1523
Hadrian VI.jpg
Adrian VI
Baldassare Peruzzi (design)
Michelangelo of Sieno and Niccolò Tribolo (carved)
Santa Maria dell'Anima Translated from Old St. Peter's in 1533 to the national church of the Holy Roman Empire[98]
26 November 1523 – 25 September 1534
Clement VII. Sebastiano del Piombo. c.1531..jpg
Clement VII
Antonio da sangallo il giovane, monumento di clemente VII.JPG
Nanni di Baccio Bigio Santa Maria sopra Minerva Originally buried in a brick tomb in Old St. Peter's; tomb is across from that of Leo X, another Medici pope[99]
13 October 1534 – 10 November 1549
Tizian 083b.jpg
Paul III
Tomb of Pope Paul III.jpg
Guglielmo della Porta St. Peter's Basilica Moved in 1599[100]
7 February 1550 – 29 March 1555
Julius III.jpg
Julius III
Tomb of Pope Julius III requiem.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in St. Peter's Basilica sans monument in a red stone sarcophagus in the chapel of San Andrea; reinterred in an ancient sarcophagus in 1608, which was reopened two years later during the demolition of Old St. Peter's;[101] sometimes cited as buried in the Del Monte chapel of San Pietro in Montorio along with his adopted cardinal-nephew, Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte[102]
9 April 1555 – 30 April or 1 May 1555
Pope Marcellus II.jpg
Marcellus II
Tomb of Marcellus II.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica No monument; fourth century sarcophagus, bearing a traditio legis[103]
23 May 1555 – 18 August 1559
Pope Paul IV.jpg
Paul IV
Tomb of Pope Paul IV color.jpg
Pirro Ligorio (design)
Giacomo da Castignola, Tommaso della Porta, Gian Pietro Annon, and Rocco da Montefiascone (sculpted)
Santa Maria sopra Minerva [104]
26 December 1559 – 9 December 1565
Pius iv.jpg
Pius IV
S. Maria degli Angeli-Interior3.JPG
Unknown Santa Maria degli Angeli e dei Martiri Moved from Old St. Peter's in 1583; buried under the altar with a nearby wall plaque[105]
7 January 1566 – 1 May 1572
El Greco 050.jpg
Pius V, O.P.
Saint Pius
Tomb of Pope Pius V Gregorovius.jpg
Domenico Fontana (design)
Leonardo Sormani (effigy)
Nicholas Cordier (left and right bas-reliefs)
Silla Longhi da Viggiu (center bas-relief)
Pierre Le Gros the Younger (design and execution of the sarcophagus)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Translated from Old St. Peter's in 1583[106]
After the canonisation process was started by Antonin Cloche, the sarcophagus with the body of the saint was added in 1697–98. A flap of gilded bronze, showing the effigy of the pope in shallow relief, is hinged and can be opened to venerate the body of the saint.[107]
13 May 1572 – 10 April 1585
Gregory XIII.jpg
Gregory XIII
Camillo rusconi, monumento a gregorio XIII, 1723, 01.JPG
Camillo Rusconi St. Peter's Basilica Original monument destroyed; new monument built in eighteenth century[108]
24 April 1585 – 27 August 1590
Sixtus V, O.F.M. Conv.
Tomb of Pope Sixtus V Gregorovius.jpg
Domenico Fontana (design)
Vasoldo (sculpted)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore [109]
15 September 1590 – 27 September 1590
Urban VII.jpg
Urban VII
Tomb of Pope Urban VII.jpg
Ambrogio Buonvicino Santa Maria sopra Minerva [110]
5 December 1590 – 15 /16 October 1591
Gregory XIV.PNG
Gregory XIV Prospero Antichi St. Peter's Basilica [111]
29 October 1591 – 30 December 1591
Innocent IX
Tomb of pope Innocent IX.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica No monument[111]
30 January 1592 – 3 March 1605
Clement VIII
Flaminio Ponzio (design) Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Moved in 1646 to the Borghese Crypt in the Paulline Chapel in Santa Maria Maggiore; figure of Clement VIII was carved by Silla da Viggiu and the cornice figures by Pietro Bernini; features "The Peace of Henry IV and Philip III by Ippolito Buzzi and "The Coronation of Clement VIII" by Bernini, "The Canonization of St. Giacinto and St. Raimondo" by Giovanni Antonio Valsolde, "The Occupation of Ferrara" by Ambriogo Bonvicino, and "Invitation of the Troops in Hungary" by Camillo Mariani[112]

17th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
1 April 1605 – 27 April 1605
Leo XI 2.jpg
Leo XI
Alessandro Algardi, monumento a leone XI Medici, 1644, 01.JPG
Alessandro Algardi (pope and sarcophagus)
Ercole Ferrata (Prudence)
Giuseppe Peroni (Liberty)
St. Peter's Basilica [113]
16 May 1605 – 28 January 1621
Pope Paul V.jpg
Paul V
Paul V SM Maggiore.jpg
Flaminio Ponzio (design)
Silla da Viggiu (figure of pope)
Stefano Moderna, Ambrogio Bonvicinio, Ippolito Buzzi, Cristoforo Stati, and Antonio Valsoldo (reliefs)
Pompeo Ferucci (cornice figures)
Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Moved from the Borghese Chapel of St. Peter's to the Pauline chapel of Santa Maria Maggiore[113]
9 February 1621 – 8 July 1623
Guercino - Pope Gregory XV (ca. 1622-1623) - Google Art Project.jpg
Gregory XV
Tomb Gregorius XV Sant Ignazio.jpg
Pierre Le Gros the Younger (design and execution)
Pierre-Étienne Monnot (sculpted the two Famae from designs by Le Gros))
Sant'Ignazio Uniquely combines the pope's tomb with that of his cardinal-nephew, Ludovico Ludovisi.
According to Reardon[114] the pope was originally buried in the Quirinal Palace and his remains moved to Sant'Ignazio in 1634.
The monument was created c. 1709–14.[115]
6 August 1623 – 29 July 1644
Gian Lorenzo Bernini - Portrait d'Urbain VIII.jpg
Urban VIII
Tomb of Pope Urban VIII Gregorovius.jpg
Gian Lorenzo Bernini St. Peter's Basilica [116]
15 September 1644 – 7 January 1655
Retrato del Papa Inocencio X. Roma, by Diego Velázquez.jpg
Innocent X
G. Valvassori and G.B. Maini Sant'Agnese in Agone Cenotaph featuring the Virtues (left) and Strength (right) erected in 1730[117]
7 April 1655 – 22 May 1667
Alexander VII.jpg
Alexander VII
View of the Tomb of Alexander VII, St Peter's, Vatican City.jpg
Gian Lorenzo Bernini (monument)
Michele Maglia (figure of pope)
Giuseppe Mazzuoli (Charity)
Lazzaro Morelli and Giulio Catani (Truth)
Giuseppe Baratta and Giulio Cartari (Prudence)
Giulio Catani (Justice)
St. Peter's Basilica Sculpted between 1672 and 1678; Charity's breast's covered by Innocent XI[118]
See Tomb of Pope Alexander VII
20 June 1667 – 9 December 1669
Pope Clement IX.jpg
Clement IX
Carlo rainaldi, monum. a clemente IX (1671), con papa di domenico guidi, fede di cosimo fancelli e carità ercole ferrata 2.JPG
Ercole Ferrata Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Moved from St. Peter's in 1675; figures are Clement IX (by Girolamo Rainaldi), Charity (by Ferrata), and Truth (by Cosimo Fancelli)[119]
29 April 1670 – 22 July 1676
Clement X.jpg
Clement X
Mattia de' Rossi (design) St. Peter's Basilica Figures are Clement X (by Ercole Ferrata), Clemency (by Giuseppe Mazzuoli), Goodness (by Lazzaro Morelli), and two putti (by Filippo Carcani)[120]
21 September 1676 – 11/12 August 1689
Innocent XI
Blessed Innocent XI
C. Maratta (design)
Pierre Etienne Monnot (sculpted)
St. Peter's Basilica Featured the pope with the Virtue Truth and the Goddess Athena; bas-relief on the sarcophagus reads "The Liberation of Vienna"[121]
Tomb of Innocentius XI in the Chapel of St. Sebastian of Saint Peter's Basilica.jpg
Unknown Separate glass sarcophagus moved under the altar of the Transfiguration after his body was removed from the altar of Saint Sebastian in 2011[121]
6 October 1689 – 1 February 1691
Alexander VIII 1.jpg
Alexander VIII
Angelo de Rossi St. Peter's Basilica [122]
12 July 1691 – 27 September 1700
Pope Innocent XII.PNG
Innocent XII
Pope Innocent XII Tomb.jpg
Filippo della Valle and Ferdinando Fuga St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the tribune to the left transept in the late eighteenth century by Cardinal Giuseppe Spinelli; originally buried in a simple marble sarcophagus in the Chapel of the Sacrament; present monument completed in 1746; features the pope bestowing the benediction with Charity (left) and Justice (right)[123]
23 November 1700 – 19 March 1721
Clement XI.jpg
Clement XI
Tomb of Pope Clement XI requiem.jpg
Carlo Fontana St. Peter's Basilica In the Choro chapel; no monument;[124] cenotaph also placed in Ferrara Cathedral[43]

18th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
8 May 1721 – 7 March 1724
Innocent XIII
Tomb of Innocentius XIII.jpg
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Originally buried in a stucco sepulcher in the right nave of St. Peter's; reinterred in an ancient sarcophagus in 1836[125]
29 May 1724 – 21 February 1730
Benedetto XIII.jpg
Servant of God
Benedict XIII, O.P.
Tomb of Pope Benedict XIII.jpg
Pietro Bracci and Carlo Marchionni Santa Maria sopra Minerva Remains were originally with his monument in St. Peter's Basilica[125]
12 July 1730 – 6 February 1740
Pope Clement XII, portrait.jpg
Clement XII
Tomb of Pope Clement XII.jpg
Giovanni Battista Maini Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran [126]
17 August 1740 – 3 May 1758
Benoit XIV.jpg
Benedict XIV
Pietro Bracci St. Peter's Basilica Two figures are Knowledge (by Bracci) and Temptation (by Gaspare Sibilla)[127]
6 July 1758 – 2 February 1769
Clement xii.jpg
Clement XIII
Tomb of Pope Clement XIII Gregorovius.jpg
Antonio Canova St. Peter's Basilica [127]
19 May 1769 – 22 September 1774
Clement XIV.jpg
Clement XIV, O.F.M. Conv.
Tomb of Pope Clement XIV Gregorovius.jpg
Antonio Canova Santi Apostoli, Rome Moved to Santi Apostoli in 1802[128]
15 February 1775 – 29 August 1799
Pompeo Batoni - Ritratto di Papa Pio VI (National Gallery of Ireland).jpg
Pius VI
Tomb Monument of Pius VI Gregorovius.jpg
Antonio Canova St. Peter's Basilica Monument by Antonio Canova, circa 1822[43]
Tomb of Pius VI.jpg
Unknown Remains placed in an ancient sarcophagus with a bas-relief of the Adoration of the Magi by Pius XII in 1949 (below); original praecordia monument in the Valence Cathedral sculpted by Massimiliano Laboureur and commissioned by Napoleon[43]
14 March 1800 – 20 August 1823
Jacques-Louis David 018.jpg
Servant of God
Pius VII, O.S.B.
Grab Pius VII.jpg
Bertel Thorvaldsen St. Peter's Basilica Commissioned at the expense of Cardinal Consalvi, Pius VII's Secretary of State, it depicts the pope blessing the angels of Time and History, with the onlooking figures of Fortitude (left) and Wisdom (right)[129]

19th century

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
28 September 1823
– 10 February 1829
Pope Leo XII.PNG
Leoxii monument.jpg
Giuseppe Fabris St. Peter's Basilica [130]
31 March 1829
– 1 December 1830
Ritratto di Papa Pio VIII, by Clemente Alberi.jpg
Monument to Pope Pius VIII.jpg
Pietro Tenerani St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the Vatican grottoes in 1857 to the Tenerani monument commissioned by Cardinal Albani; figures are the kneeling pontiff and seated Christ as well as Saints Peter (left) and Paul (right); base reliefs are Prudence (left) and Justice (right)[130]
2 February 1831
– 1 June 1846
Gregory XVI.jpg
Gregory XVI
O.S.B. Cam.
Luigi Amici St. Peter's Basilica [131]
16 June 1846
– 7 February 1878
Pius IX
Tomb of Pope Pius IX.jpg
Unknown San Lorenzo fuori le Mura [132]
20 February 1878
– 20 July 1903
Leo XIII.jpg
Roma Grab Leo XIII BW.JPG
Giulio Tadolini Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran Tomb monument[10]

20th–21st centuries

Pontificate Portrait Common English name Image Sculptor Location Notes
4 August 1903
– 20 August 1914
PiusX, Bain.jpg
Pius X
Pier Enrico Astorri
Florestano Di Fausto (architect)
St. Peter's Basilica [133]
3 September 1914
– 22 January 1922
Benedictus XV.jpg
Benedict XV
Benedyktxv rzezba.JPG
Pietro Canonica St. Peter's Basilica Monument in St. Peter's[134]
Grotto 9.JPG
Giulio Barbieri (bronze effigy) Tomb[134]
6 February 1922
– 10 February 1939
Pius XI
Rom 58 (RaBoe).jpg
Giannino Castiglioni Chapel of Saint Sebastian[135] Candoglia marble sarcophagus topped with a deathbed effigy[136]
2 March 1939
– 9 October 1958
His Holiness Pope Pius XII.png
Pius XII
Tumulo pio xii.jpg
Francesco Messina (bronze funeral monument) St. Peter's Basilica Funeral monument in St. Peter's separate from sarcophagus in the Vatican grottoes.[137]
28 October 1958
– 3 June 1963
Ioannes XXIII, by De Agostini, 1958–1963.jpg
Emilio Greco St. Peter's Basilica Moved from the Vatican grottoes to the Altar of Saint Jerome after his beatification on 3 September 2000.[138]
21 June 1963
– 6 August 1978
Paulus VI, by Fotografia Felici, 1969.jpg
Paul VI
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica Three reliefs are from the fifteenth century; "as simple as possible [...] neither tomb nor monument" and buried in the ground per Paul VI's wishes.[139]
Unknown Updated in October 2018 with "Sanctvs" for his canonisation.
26 August 1978
– 28 September 1978
Ioannes Paulus I, at the window, 1978 (retouched) (cropped).tif Venerable
John Paul I
Tomb of pope Johannes Paulus I.jpg
Francesco Vacchini (design)
Andrea Bregno (reliefs)
St. Peter's Basilica Reliefs are late fifteenth century; across the aisle from Marcellus II, another short-reigning pope.[140]
16 October 1978
– 2 April 2005
John Paul II
Grób Bł. Jana Pawła II w Kaplicy Św. Sebastiana.JPG
Unknown St. Peter's Basilica See Funeral of Pope John Paul II.

His body was moved from the Vatican grottoes to the chapel of Saint Sebastian after his beatification on 1 May 2011. The inscription "Beatvs" was changed in April 2014 to "Sanctvs" for his canonization.

See also


  1. ^ Mann, 2003, p. 1.
  2. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 5–12.
  3. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 269–271.
  4. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 23–26.
  5. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 23.
  6. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 10–11.
  7. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 272–277.
  8. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 70–109.
  9. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 25.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g Reardon, 2004, p. 270.
  11. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 30.
  12. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 31.
  13. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 34–35.
  14. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 40–41.
  15. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 46–48.
  16. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 48.
  17. ^ a b Mann, 2003, p. 22.
  18. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 49–51.
  19. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 54–55.
  20. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 60.
  21. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 16.
  22. ^ Mann, 2003, p. 24.
  23. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 61.
  24. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 62.
  25. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 64.
  26. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 66.
  27. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 74.
  28. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 76.
  29. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 77.
  30. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 80.
  31. ^ a b Williamson, Paul. (1998). Gothic sculpture, 1140–1300. pp. 95–98.
  32. ^ Beckwith, John. (1961). "Review: The Tomb of Pope Clement II at Bamberg". The Burlington Magazine, Vol. 103, No. 700, pp. 321–322.
  33. ^ Turner, Jane. (1996). The dictionary of art. p. 139.
  34. ^ Porter, Darwin. (2004). Frommer's Germany. p. 210.
  35. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 82–83.
  36. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 9.
  37. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 83.
  38. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 84.
  39. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 87.
  40. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 88.
  41. ^ Thomas, Sarah Fawcett. (2000). Butler's Lives of the Saints: September / revised by Sarah Fawcett Thomas. Continuum International Publishing. ISBN 978-0-86012-258-6. p. 150.
  42. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 89.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g Reardon, 2004, p. 269.
  44. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 90–91.
  45. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 93.
  46. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 11.
  47. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 95.
  48. ^ Mann, 2003, p. 32.
  49. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 12.
  50. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 98.
  51. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 100.
  52. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 102–103.
  53. ^ a b An illustration of the iron casket can be seen in Reardon, 2004, p. 113.
  54. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 104.
  55. ^ Keys to Umbria: City Walks. May 22, 2009 (retrieved). "Interior of the Duomo Archived 2009-01-07 at the Wayback Machine ".
  56. ^ Gardner, 1992, p. 36, ill. 21, 25–27, 31.
  57. ^ a b c Frothingham, A. L., Jr. (1891). "Notes on Roman Artists of the Middle Ages. III. Two Tombs of the Popes at Viterbo by Vassallectus and Petrus Oderisi". The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, 7(1/2): 38.
  58. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 132–135.
  59. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 34–38.
  60. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 109.
  61. ^ An illustration of the nineteenth century Tomb of Pope John XXI can be found in: Daly, Walter J. (2004). "An Earlier De Motu Cordis". Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, Vol. 115.
  62. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 111.
  63. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 97–99.
  64. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 115.
  65. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 116.
  66. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 118.
  67. ^ Kington, Tom (14 April 2009). "Italy earthquake focus shifts to saving Abruzzo's heritage". The Guardian.
  68. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 106–108, 111–112.
  69. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 120–121.
  70. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 88, 124–130.
  71. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 176–179.
  72. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 167–172.
  73. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 126.
  74. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 139.
  75. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 183–184.
  76. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 186.
  77. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 195–196.
  78. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 190–194.
  79. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 203. As seen in Acta Sanctorum.
  80. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 204–207.
  81. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 133.
  82. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 147.
  83. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 137.
  84. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 141–142.
  85. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 145.
  86. ^ Gardner, 1992, ill. 18.
  87. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 149.
  88. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 152.
  89. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 153.
  90. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 156.
  91. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 161.
  92. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 163.
  93. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 167.
  94. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 173.
  95. ^ a b c Reardon, 2004, p. 177.
  96. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 177–178.
  97. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 179.
  98. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 182.
  99. ^ Reardon, 2004, 182.
  100. ^ Reardon, 2004, 185–186.
  101. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 186.
  102. ^ Aldrich, Robert, and Wotherspoon, Garry. (2002). Who's who in gay and lesbian history. Routledge. p. 278.
  103. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 187–188.
  104. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 188.
  105. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 189.
  106. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 191.
  107. ^ Gerhard Bissell, Pierre le Gros, 1666–1719, Reading, Berkshire 1997, pp. 42–44.
  108. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 195.
  109. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 195–197.
  110. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 198.
  111. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 199.
  112. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 201.
  113. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 204.
  114. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 206–207.
  115. ^ Gerhard Bissell, Pierre le Gros, 1666–1719, Reading, Berkshire 1997, pp. 104–105. Reardon's statement (Reardon, 2004, p. 206–207) that the design was by Orazio Grassi is based on an unreliable source of more than a century ago and not correct; also, while it is correct, as she states, that Camillo Rusconi created statues of the Cardinal Virtues for the chapel, they were there decades before the monument and have nothing to do with it.
  116. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 207.
  117. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 208–209.
  118. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 211.
  119. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 211–213.
  120. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 213.
  121. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 215.
  122. ^ Olszewski, Edward J. (2004). Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni (1667–1740) and the Vatican tomb of Pope Alexander VIII. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-0-87169-252-8.
  123. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 218.
  124. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 218–219.
  125. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 219.
  126. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 221.
  127. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 223.
  128. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 224–225.
  129. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 227.
  130. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 229.
  131. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 229–232.
  132. ^ Reardon, 2004, pp. 232–233.
  133. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 235.
  134. ^ a b Reardon, 2004, p. 239.
  135. ^ "The Tomb of Pius XI".
  136. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 240.
  137. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 243.
  138. ^ Fodors. 2009, May 24 (accessed). "Basilica di San Pietro Archived 2009-05-08 at the Wayback Machine."
  139. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 246.
  140. ^ Reardon, 2004, p. 249.


External links

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