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List of electoral systems by country

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of electoral systems by country in alphabetical order. An electoral system is used to elect national legislatures and heads of state.

Maps

Head of state Lower (or unicameral) house Upper house
Electoral systems for heads of state map.svg
Electoral systems map.svg
Electoral systems map for upper houses.svg

Single-member constituencies

Multi-member constituencies, majoritarian (non-proportional)

  Block voting (BV) or mixed FPTP and BV
  Party block voting (PBV) or mixed FPTP and PBV

Multi-member constituencies, semi-proportional

  Single non-transferable vote (SNTV) or mixed FPTP and SNTV
  Modified Borda count

Multi-member constituencies, proportional

Mixed compensatory (proportional or semi-proportional)

  Additional member system / semi-proportional MMP (party-list PR and FPTP)
  Mixed-member majoritarian with compensation / scorporo (FPTP and party-list PR)

Mixed non-compensatory (majoritarian or semi-proportional)

  Mixed-member majoritarian / parallel voting (party-list PR and FPTP)
  Mixed-member majoritarian / parallel voting (party-list PR and TRS)
  Mixed-member majoritarian / parallel voting (party-list PR and BV or PBV)
  Parallel voting (party-list PR and SNTV)
  Majority bonus system (MBS) / Majority jackpot system (PBV + party-list PR)

Indirect election

  Election by legislature
  Election by electoral college or local legislatures
  Election partly by electoral college or local legislatures and appointed by head of state

Other

  Varies by federal states or constituencies
  Appointed by head of state
  No direct election
  No information/Unicameral legislature

Voting systems by country

Country Body or office Type of electoral system Electoral system Seats per district

(if applicable)

Total seats Electoral threshold

(if applicable)

Notes
Afghanistan President single winner
House of the People semi-proportional 2-33 249
Albania President single winner Elected by the Assembly
Parliament (Kuvendi) proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method[1] 3-36 140[2] 1%
Algeria President single winner Two-round system[3]
People's National Assembly proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: Largest remainder method (Hare quota)[3][4] 5-37, 2 (districts representing people abroad)[5] 462[4] 5% of votes in respective district.[4]
Andorra General Council mixed-member majoritarian Parallel: party block voting (local) and list PR (nationwide) 2 (local districts) / 14 (nationwide constituency) 28
Angola President single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP) (Double simultaneous vote)
National Assembly proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 5 per province, 130 across country, + 3 representatives from abroad 233
Antigua and Barbuda House of Representatives majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)[citation needed] 1 17
Argentina President single winner Modified Two-round system
(winner in 1st round with 45% of votes; or with 40% and a 10% lead over the second)
Chamber of Deputies proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 5-70 (Renewed by halves) 257 3% of registered voters
Senate semi-proportional Limited voting with party-lists: 2 seats to most voted party or coalition in each province, 1 seat to second most voted party or coalition (limited vote with closed lists) 3 72
Armenia President single winner Since 2018, the President is elected by members of parliament.
National Assembly proportional Two-tier Party list PR: Largest remainder. Nationwide Closed list and an Open list in each of 13 election districts. Party lists run-off FPTP to ensure stable majority of 54% if it is not achieved either immediately or through building a coalition.[6][7] at least 101 5% (parties), 7% (blocs)
Australia Senate proportional Single transferable vote (STV) 6 (12 per state, renewed by halves), 2 per territory [8] 76
House of Representatives majoritarian Instant runoff voting (IRV) 1 151
Cocos (Keeling) Islands majoritarian Instant runoff voting (IRV)[citation needed] 1 7
Austria President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Bundesrat indirect Proportional to the distribution of seats in the state parliaments (so Party list PR) 3-12 votes 61 votes
Nationalrat proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota) at district and regional levels, D'Hondt method for remaining votes at national level 183 4%
Azerbaijan President single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
National Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 125
Bahamas House of Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 39[citation needed]
Bahrain Council of Representatives majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 1 40
Bangladesh Jatiyo Sangshad majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 350 (300 directly elected + 50 seats reserved for women)
Barbados House of Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 30
Belarus President single winner Two-round system[note 1][9][10]
House of Representatives majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 110
Belgium Chamber of Representatives proportional Party list PR (flexible lists): D'Hondt method 3–22 150 5%
Belize National Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 31[citation needed]
Benin President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder (24 districts) 2-5 (average 35) 83
Bhutan National Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 47
National Council majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 25 (20 directly elected + 5 apppointed)[citation needed]
Bolivia President single winner Modified Two-round system (Double simultaneous)
(winner with 50% of votes or 40% and a 10% lead over the second)[11]
Chamber of Deputies mixed-member proportional MMP:
FPTP (70 seats) /
Party-list proportional representation: Closed lists: D'Hondt method (60 seats)[12]
1 / 5-29[13] 130 3%
Senate proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method[12] 4 36
Bosnia and Herzegovina Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 3 (one each of the three major ethnic groups)
House of Representatives proportional Party list PR: Sainte-Laguë method 14, 28 42
Botswana National Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 63 (57 directly elected + 4 members appointed by the governing party + 2 members ex officio: the President and the Attorney General)
Brazil President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Chamber of Deputies proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method 8–70 513 1.5%[14][15] (starting from 2022, will be 2%)[16]
Senate majoritarian Plurality block voting (BV) and First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 or 2 (alternates each election) 81
Bulgaria President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method[17] 4–14[17] 240 4%
Burkina Faso President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly of Burkina Faso proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota) 2-16 127
Burundi President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 4–11 100 + 18–21 co-opted 2%
Cambodia National Assembly mixed-member majoritarian coexistence: Party list PR: D'Hondt method / FPTP 1-18 123
Cameroon President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly majoritarian <i>Coexistence</i>+conditional supermixed/hybrid:

First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) in single-member constituencies,

party with over 50% of vote gets all seats in multi-member constituencies (party block voting), otherwise highest party gets half, rest distributed by largest remainder (Hare quota)

1–7 180 5%
Canada House of Commons majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 338
Cape Verde President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 2-15 72
Central African Republic President single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)
National Assembly majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 1 140[citation needed]
Chad President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly majoritarian <i>Coexistence</i>+conditional supermixed/hybrid:

First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) party with over 50% of vote gets all seats in multi-member constituencies (party block voting), otherwise List PR (largest remainder, closed list)[18]

188
Chile President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Chamber of Deputies proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method[19][20] 3-8 155
Senate proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method[19][20] 2-5 50[19]
China National People's Congress Block approval voting: Direct election of local People's Congresses and indirect election of all higher levels of People's Congresses[citation needed] 2987
Colombia President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Chamber of Representatives proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 2–18 162
Senate proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 100 + 2 (indigenous) 102
Comoros President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Assembly of the Union majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 1 33 (24 directly elected + 9 elected by lsland assemblies)
Democratic Republic of the Congo President single winner First-past-the-post (FPTP)[21]
National Assembly mixed-member majoritarian <i>Coexistence</i> mixed majoritarian (MMM):

First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) in single-member districts and List PR in multi-member districts (Largest remainder)

1-17 500
Republic of the Congo President single winner Two-round system (TRS)[22]
National Assembly majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 151[citation needed]
Costa Rica President single winner Modified two-round system (TRS): 40% of votes needed to win in first round
Legislative Assembly proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder method 4-20 57
Croatia President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Sabor proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method, plus some reserved for minorities and Croatians living abroad 14 153 5%
Cuba National Assembly of People's Power Two-round system, Endorsement of selected candidates 1 605[citation needed]
Cyprus President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
House of Representatives proportional Party list PR: Open lists (Hare quota): Largest remainder (with remainder allocated at national level) 3–20 80 (56 for Greek-Cypriots; 24 for Turkish-Cypriots (currently vacant)) and 3 observers from religious minorities 3.6% (parties), 10% (coalitions of 2 parties), 20% (coalitions of at least 3 parties), 7.2% (remaining seats distributed to parties after countrywide remainders are allocated proportionally) (lists which do not reach the threshold can receive seats in individual constituencies where they reach the quota)
Czech Republic President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Chamber of Deputies proportional Party list PR: Open lists (Imperiali quota and Hagenbach-Bischoff quota) 5–25 200 5% (party), 8/11% (coalition of 2/3+ parties),
Senate majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 1 27[citation needed]
Denmark Folketinget proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method (135 regional seats), Sainte-Laguë method (40 leveling seats) 179 2%
Djibouti President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly majoritarian Fusion / majority jackpot:

80% of seats (rounded to the nearest integer) in each constituency are awarded to the party receiving the most votes (party block voting), remaining seats are allocated proportionally to other parties receiving over 10% (closed list, D'Hondt method)

3-28[citation needed] 65
Dominica House of Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 21 + 9 appointed + Speaker + 1 ex officio[citation needed]
Dominican Republic President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Chamber of Deputies proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 2–36 150
Senate majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 32 (21 directly elected, 9 appointed + Speaker + 1 ex officio)[citation needed]
East Timor President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Parliament proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder 65
Ecuador President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Congress proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 2–18 100
Egypt President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
House of Representatives mixed-member majoritarian Parallel[citation needed]: Two-round system (TRS) (448 seats) / Party list PR (120 seats)[23] 596 (568 directly elected + 28 appointed)
El Salvador President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Legislative Assembly proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 3–20 84
Equatorial Guinea President single winner FPTP[24]
Chamber of People's Representatives proportional Party list 80
Eritrea National Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)[citation needed]
Estonia President single winner Elected by the parliament (Riigikogu) or by special electoral body
Riigikogu proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method (12 districts) 5-14 (average 8.4) 101 5%
Eswatini National Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)[citation needed]
Ethiopia House of People's Representatives majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 546[citation needed]
Fiji House of Representatives proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method[25] 50 50 5%
Finland President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Eduskunta (and MEPs) proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method (12 districts + 1 seat Åland FPTP) 7-35 (average 16.6) (+1 seat Åland) 200
France President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
National Assembly majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 1 577
Senate Elected indirectly by approximately 150,000 officials ("grands électeurs"), including regional councilors, department councilors, mayors, city councilors in large towns, and members of the National Assembly 1 348
Gabon President single winner FPTP
National Assembly majoritarian Two-round system (TRS) 143[citation needed]
Gambia President single winner FPTP
National Assembly majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 58 (53 directly elected)[citation needed]
Georgia President single winner Two-round system (TRS)
Parliament Parallel voting / superposition (MMM):

Party-list PR (closed list) + First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)

150 5%
Germany President single winner Federal Convention Half the member are the Bundestag, the other half is appointed by state legislatures
Bundesrat appointed by the 16 State Governments respectively 3-6 votes 69 votes
Bundestag MMP: Sainte-Laguë using regional fixed lists / FPTP 299 (lists) / 1 (district) 598 + levelling seats 5% or 3 district seats
Ghana President single winner Two-round system
Parliament First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 275[citation needed]
Greece President single winner Elected by the parliament
Hellenic Parliament SMPR: 250 seats proportionally divided via several allocations; 50 bonus seats to the first party (until 2019)
Party-list proportional representation: all 300 seats proportionally divided via several allocations (after the 2019 elections)
1–18 (5 on average) 300 3%
Grenada House of Representatives FPTP 1 15
Guatemala President single winner Two-round system
Congress of the Republic proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 29 / 1 158
Guinea President Two-round system
National Assembly Parallel: 76 Hare quota + 38 FPTP 76 / 1 114
Guinea-Bissau President Two-round system
National People's Assembly proportional Party list (closed lists) (27 districts) 3.7 (average) 100
Guyana President FPTP (Double simultaneous)
National Assembly Mixed member party list PR: Closed lists: Largest remainder (Hare quota) 1-7 (districts) / 40 (national top-up) 65
Haiti President single winner Two-round system
Chamber of Deputies Two-round system 1 99[citation needed]
Honduras President FPTP
National Congress proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota) 1-23 128
Hong Kong Legislative Council Parallel
District constituencies: Largest remainder (Hare quota)
Functional constituencies: FPTP, Bloc voting, IRV
4–8 (District constituencies) / 1-3 (Functional constituencies) 70
Hungary President single winner Elected by the National Assembly
National Assembly Mixed-member majoritarian: 106 FPTP + 93 national list-PR (combination of parallel and positive vote transfer)[26] 1 199 5% for parties (10% for two-party coalitions, 15% for larger coalitions), 0.27% for minority lists
Iceland President single winner FPTP
Alþing Party list PR: D'Hondt method 8-13 63 5%
India House of the People (Lok Sabha) FPTP 1 545[citation needed]
Indonesia President single winner Two-round system
People's Representative Council Party list PR: Open lists: Webster/Sainte-Laguë method 3-10 575 4% nationally
Regional Representatives Council SNTV 4 136
Iran President single winner Two-round system
Majlis of Iran Two-round system (25% of votes in 1st round) 1-30[citation needed] 290
Assembly of Experts Block voting 1-16 88
Iraq Council of Representatives SNTV 2-5 329
Ireland President IRV
Dáil Éireann proportional STV 3–5 158[27]
Seanad Éireann Indirect election:
– 11 nominated by the Taoiseach
– 6 elected by the graduates of certain Irish universities:
3 by graduates of the University of Dublin
3 by graduates of the National University of Ireland
– 43 elected from five special panels of nominees (known as vocational panels) by an electorate consisting of TDs (member of Dáil Éireann), outgoing senators and members of city and county councils
60
Israel President single winner Elected by the Knesset
Knesset proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 120 120 3.25%[28]
Italy Chamber of Deputies 386 Party list PR, largest remainder (Hare quota) + 232 FPTP + 12 Largest remainder (Hare quota) for the Italians living abroad 2/8 630 3%
Senate SMPR: 193 list-Largest remainder + 116 FPTP + 6 Largest remainder (Hare quota) for the Italians living abroad 1/49 315 3%
Ivory Coast President single winner Two-round system
National Assembly FPTP 1 225
Jamaica House of Representatives FPTP 1 60[citation needed]
Japan House of Representatives Parallel: FPTP (295 seats)[29] / Party list PR (Closed list) D'Hondt method (180 seats) 6-29 / 1 475
House of Councillors Parallel: SNTV (73 seats) / Party list PR (Open list) D'Hondt method (96 seats) 1-5 / 48 (Per election) 242 (Half of the seats are up each election.)
Jordan Chamber of Deputies Parallel: each voter has one vote for one candidate in one subdistrict of his choice in the district he lives in (like SNTV), one winner per subdistrict (like FPTP) (108 seats in 45 districts including 12 seats reserved for minorities) + 15 seats reserved for women (best losers) / Party list PR (closed lists) (27 seats) 2.4 (average) / 27 150
Kazakhstan President single winner Two-round system
Majilis proportional Party-list 98 + 9 members elected by electoral college 7%
Kenya President FPTP
National Assembly of Kenya FPTP (210 seats) (+ 12 seats appointed by parties proportional with seats already won) 1 210 elected + 12 appointed + 2 ex officio[citation needed]
Kiribati President single winner FPTP
House of Assembly Modified runoff[citation needed] 40 + 1 delegate from Banaba Island and 1 ex officio
Kuwait National Assembly Single non-transferable vote (1 vote for 10 seats) 10 50
Kyrgyzstan President single winner Two-round system
Supreme Council Parallel: First-past-the-post (36 seats) / Party list PR (54 seats) 90 5%
Laos National Assembly Bloc voting 115[citation needed]
Latvia Saeima proportional Party list PR: Sainte-Laguë method 14–28 100 5%
Lebanon Chamber of Deputies proportional Party list PR (open list): D'Hondt method 5-13 128
Lesotho National Assembly mixed-member proportional MMP using mixed single vote: (40 party list seats / 80 FPTP seats) 120
Liberia President Two-round system
House of Representatives FPTP 1 73
Senate FPTP 2 per county, 1 per election 30
Liechtenstein Diet proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder (Hare quota) 10, 15 25 8%
Lithuania President Two-round system
Seimas Parallel: Two-round system (71 seats) / Largest remainder (70 seats) 70 / 1 141 5% (parties), 7% (coalitions)
Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies proportional Party list PR:Open lists:D'Hondt method 7-23 60
Macau Legislative Council proportional Party list / Functional constituencies / Appointed 12 29
Madagascar President single winner Two-round system[30]
National Assembly coexistence: FPTP (87 seats) / Party list PR (Closed list, highest averages method; 64 seats)[30][31] 1 / 2 151
Malawi President single winner FPTP
National Assembly FPTP 1 194[citation needed]
Malaysia Dewan Rakyat FPTP 1 222
Maldives President single winner Two-round system
Majlis FPTP 1 77[citation needed]
Mali President single winner Two-round system
National Assembly Two-round system 160[citation needed]
Malta House of Representatives proportional STV 5 65
Marshall Islands Legislature coexistence: FPTP (19 seats) / Bloc voting (14 seats) 1 / 2-5 33
Mauritania President single winner Two-round system
National Assembly Parallel: 106 in 46 districts; in districts with 1-2 seats : Two-round system, in larger districts: List-PR (simple quota largest remainder; closed-list) + twice 20 nationally (one set of 20 reserved for women): List-PR (simple quota largest remainder; closed-list) 146
Mauritius National Assembly Bloc voting 2–3 62 + 8 'best losers' appointed
Mexico President single winner FPTP
Chamber of Deputies Parallel: Largest remainder (Hare quota) (200 seats) / FPTP (300 seats) 40 / 1 500 2%
Senate Parallel: Largest remainder (Hare quota) / winner takes 2, second takes 1 (limited vote with closed lists) 32 / 3 128 2%
Federated States of Micronesia Congress FPTP 1 14
Moldova President single winner Two-round system[32]
Parliament proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 101 101 4%
Monaco National Council Parallel: Plurality-at-large voting in single nationwide constituency (16 seats); D'Hondt method (8 seats)[33] 24 5% (For proportional seats)[33]
Mongolia President Two-round system[34]
State Great Khural Plurality-at-large voting (76 seats, 1-3 per district) Candidates have to get at least 28% of the votes in a district to get elected. If there are unfilled seat, a runoff is held with twice the number of candidates as there are unfilled seats.[35] 1-3, 28 76
Montenegro President single winner Two-round system
Parliament proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 5, 76 81 3%
Montserrat Legislative Council 9 9
Morocco Assembly of Representatives Parallel: Largest remainder (295 seats) / list of women (30 seats) 325
Mozambique President single winner Two-round system
Assembly of the Republic proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 250 250 5%
Myanmar (Burma) People's Assembly (Pyithu Hluttaw) majoritarian FPTP 12 per region or state 440 (25% appointed by military)
National Assembly (Amyotha Hluttaw) majoritarian FPTP 1 per township 224 (25% appointed by military)
Namibia President Two-round system
National Assembly proportional Party list PR: Hare quota + 6 appointed 72 78
Nauru Parliament Modified Borda Count (Dowdall system, First ranked candidate gets 1 point, second 1/2, third 1/3 and so on.)[36] 2-4[36] 19[37]
Nepal House of Representatives Parallel: Party list PR: Closed lists: Modified Sainte-Laguë method (110/275 members)

FPTP(165/275 members)[38][39]

1-10 165 FPTP and 110 PR (3% of total votes for PR or at least one seat in FPTP)
Kindgom of the Netherlands House of Representatives proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method 150 150 0.67%
Senate proportional Elected by members of states-provincial using Party list PR 75 75
Aruba: Estates proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method[40] 21[41] 21 4,76% (One quota)
New Zealand House of Representatives (Parliament) mixed-member proportional MMP: Sainte-Laguë method (48+ seats) / FPTP (72 district seats which also includes 7 seats reserved for Maori) 120 + overhang seats 5% or 1 district seat
Nicaragua President single winner FPTP
National Assembly proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 1-20 90 + 2 (former president and presidential runner-up)
Niger President single winner Two-round system
National Assembly proportional Party list (105 seats) + 8 from FPTP 113
Nigeria President single winner Two-round system
House of Representatives FPTP 1 per federal constituency (5 - 24 per state, plus 2 for the federal capital) 360
Senate FPTP 3 per state (plus one for the federal capital) 109
Niue Assembly parallel: FPTP (14 seats) / Bloc voting (6 seats) 1 / 6 20
North Korea Supreme People's Assembly Endorsement of candidate 687
North Macedonia President single winner Two-round system
Assembly proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 20 120
Norway Storting proportional Party list PR: Open lists: Modified Sainte-Laguë method[42] 4–19 150 + 19 leveling seats 4% for leveling seats
Pakistan President single winner Electoral college Electors consist of National Assembly, Senate and provincial assemblies
National Assembly FPTP (272 seats) (+ 70 members appointed by parties proportional with seats already won) 1 272 elected + 70 appointed (60 women + 10 non-Muslim)
Palau President single winner Two-round system
House of Delegates FPTP 1 16
Senate FPTP 1 13
Palestine President single winner FPTP
Legislative Council Parallel: Sainte-Laguë method (closed list; 66 seats) / Bloc voting or FPTP (66 seats) 66 / 1–9 132 2%
Panama President single winner FPTP
National Assembly coexistence: Single-member constituencies: FPTP; multi-member: Saripolo or Sartori method (Largest remainder, but remainders only for those with no seats) 1–7 78
Papua New Guinea National Parliament IRV 1 109
Paraguay President single winner FPTP[43]
Chamber of Deputies proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 1-19 80
Senate proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 45 45
Peru President single winner Two-round system
Congress of the Republic proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder 1-35 130
Philippines President single winner FPTP
House of Representatives Parallel: Party list (closed lists; modified Hare quota with 3-seat cap and no remainders; 57 seats in 2010, 58 in 2013, 59 in 2016, 61 in 2019) / FPTP (229 districts in 2010, 232 in 2013, 238 in 2016, 243 in 2019) 57 / 1 (2010), 58 / 1 (2013), 59 / 1 (2016), 61 / 1 (2019) 286 (2010), 292 (2013), 297 (2016), 304 (2019) 2%; parties with less than 2% of the vote may win seats if the list seats haven't been completely distributed.
Senate Bloc voting 12 / 1 24
Poland President single winner Two-round system
Sejm proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 7–20 460 5% (8% for coalitions, 0% for national minorities)
Senate FPTP 1 100
Portugal President single winner Two-round system
Assembly of the Republic proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 2–47 230
Romania President single winner Two-round system
Chamber of Deputies proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method[44] 4–29[45] + 1 seat for each national minority 330 (out of which 18 seats for the national minorities, 4 for the Romanians living abroad)[45] 5% on national level or 20% in at least 4 constituencies (parties), 8-10% (coalitions)[46]
Senate proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method[44] 2–13[45] 136 (out of which 2 seats for the Romanians living abroad)[45] 5% on national level or 20% in at least 4 constituencies (parties), 8-10% (coalitions)[46]
Russia President single winner Two-round system
State Duma Parallel voting: Party list (225 seats) / FPTP (225 seats)[47][48] 1, 225 450 5%
Rwanda President single winner FPTP[49]
Chamber of Deputies proportional Party list PR: Largest remainder 53 53 + 24 elected by provincial councils + 3 appointed 5%
Saint Kitts and Nevis National Assembly FPTP 1 11 + 3 appointed + 1 ex officio
Saint Lucia House of Assembly FPTP 1 17
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines House of Assembly FPTP 1 15 + 6 appointed
Samoa Fono coexistence: FPTP (35 seats) / Bloc voting (14 seats) 1 / 2 49
San Marino Grand and General Council proportional Party list using a D'Hondt method with, if no government is formed, second round with only 2 largest parties (national majority bonus/jackpot) 60
São Tomé and Príncipe President single winner Two-round system
National Assembly proportional Party list: closed lists (7 districts) 7.9 (average) 55
Senegal President single winner Two-round system
National Assembly Parallel voting: 105 seats by First-past-the-post or  Party Bloc vote, 60 seats by Proportional Representation 150
Serbia President single winner Two-round system
National Assembly proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method 250 250 5% (0.4% for minorities)
Seychelles President single winner FPTP
National Assembly Parallel: Hare quota (8 seats) / FPTP (25 seats) 9 / 1 34
Sierra Leone President single winner Two-round system[50]
Parliament FPTP 1 112 + 12 Paramount chiefs 12.5%
Singapore President single winner FPTP
Parliament coexistence: Party bloc voting (79 seats) / FPTP (14 seats)[51] 4 or 5 / 1 93 elected[52] + 11 appointed (9 NMP + 2 NCMP)
Slovakia President single winner Two-round system
National Council of the Slovak Republic proportional Party list PR: flexible lists: Hagenbach-Bischoff 150 150 5% / 7% (coalitions of 2-3 parties) / 10% (coalitions of at least 4 parties)
Slovenia President single winner Two-round system
National Assembly proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method (88 seats) + 2 seats by Borda Count 11/8 + 2 single-seat constituencies 90 4%
Solomon Islands National Parliament FPTP 1 50
South Africa National Assembly proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: Droop quota 400 400
South Korea President single winner FPTP
National Assembly Combination of parallel voting and additional member system: FPTP (253 seats) / AMS party list (30 seats) / parallel party list (closed lists: modified Hare quota largest remainder method) (17 seats) 300 PR: 5 FPTP seats / 3%
Spain Congress of Deputies proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: D'Hondt method 1–35 350 3%
Senate Limited vote (3 votes for 4 seats) (208 members), appointment by regional legislatures (variable) 2–4 208 + variable number
Sri Lanka President single winner Sri Lankan contingent vote
Parliament proportional Party list PR: Open lists: Largest remainder (Hare quota) 4-20 225
Suriname National Assembly of Suriname proportional Party list PR: Open lists: (10 districts) 2-17 51
Sweden Riksdag proportional Party list PR: Open lists: Modified Sainte-Laguë 2-38 349 4% (or 12% in a constituency)
Switzerland National Council proportional Party list PR: Open lists: D'Hondt method 1–-34 200
Council of States Varies with canton (generally Two-round system) 1–2 46
Syria President single winner Two-round system[53]
People's Council
Taiwan (Republic of China) President single winner FPTP
Legislative Yuan Parallel: FPTP (73 seats) / Party-list PR (Hare quota) (34 seats)
Aboriginal seats: SNTV (6 seats)
1
Aboriginal constituencies: 3
113 5%
Tajikistan President single winner FPTP
Supreme Assembly of Tajikistan Parallel: Party list (22 seats) / Two-round system single-member constituencies (41 seats) 63 5%
Tanzania President Two-round system[54]
National Assembly Parallel: Party list (113 seats) / FPTP (264 seats) + 5 Elected Indirectly by Zanzibar's Legislature + 5 Appointed by the President + 1 Ex-officio[55] 113/1/5/6 393
Thailand House of Representatives Parallel: Party list (100 seats) / FPTP (400 seats) 100/1 500
Togo President Two-round system
National Assembly of Togo Two-round system 81
Tonga Legislative Assembly Two-round system 9 + 9 elected by nobles + 10 members of Privy Council + 2 governors
Trinidad and Tobago House of Representatives FPTP 1 41
Tunisia President single winner Two-round system[56][57]
Assembly of the Representatives of the People proportional Party-list PR: Closed list: Largest remainder method (Hare Quota) [58][59] 4-10 (Seats in Tunisia), 1-5 (Seats for Tunisians abroad) 217
Turkey President Two-round system
Grand National Assembly proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method, closed list 1-35 600 10%
Turkmenistan President single winner FPTP
Assembly Two-round system 50
Tuvalu Parliament coexistence: Bloc voting (14 seats) / FPTP (1 seat) 2 / 1 15
Uganda President single winner FPTP
National Assembly FPTP 1 214 + 78 from various groups
Ukraine President single winner Two-round system if a candidate can not capture more than 50% of the vote in the first round.[60]
Verkhovna Rada Parallel: Party list PR: Closed list: Largest remainder method (Hare quota) / FPTP[61] 225 / 1 450 5%
United Kingdom House of Commons majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 650
Northern Ireland proportional
Scotland mixed-member proportional
Wales mixed-member proportional
Anguilla majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP)
Bermuda
House of Assembly
majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 36
Cayman Islands Parliament majoritarian First-past-the-post (FPTP/SMP) 1 18 + 2 ex officio[62]
United States President Electoral college members chosen using FPTP on a per state basis, except in Maine and Nebraska, where two electors are chosen on a statewide basis, and one elector is chosen from each Congressional district on a per district basis.

48 states, including Nebraska, all use FPTP for presidential general elections, while Alaska and Maine will begin use IRV in 2020 and 2022 elections, respectively.

Party nominees chosen by delegates allocated in state primaries with varying methods by state and party.

House of Representatives FPTP for all seats in 41 states except: Two-round system in Georgia, Mississippi[63][64][65] and Texas,[note 2][66] Nonpartisan blanket primary in Alaska, California, Louisiana[67] and Washington,[note 3][note 4] and IRV in Alaska and Maine.[68][69][70][71] 1 435 + 6 non-voting members
Senate 2 per state, 1 per election 100
Uruguay President Two-round system (Double simultaneous)
Chamber of Representatives proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method, closed list 2-42 99
Chamber of Senators proportional Party list PR: D'Hondt method, closed list 30 31 (30 directly elected + the vice-president)
Uzbekistan President single winner Two-round system
Vanuatu Parliament SNTV 52
Venezuela President single winner FPTP
National Assembly Parallel: Regional party list (closed list; D'Hondt method) (52 seats) / FPTP or bloc voting, and FPTP in districts reserved for indigenous peoples (113 seats) 2 (20 states)-3 (4) / 1 (68 districts), 2 (15), and 3 (4); at least 1 district per state. The three indigenous' districts comprise some whole states 165
Vietnam National Assembly 498
Yemen President single winner Two-round system
Assembly of Representatives FPTP 1 301
Zambia President single winner Two-round system[72]
National Assembly FPTP 1 150
Zimbabwe President single winner Two-round system[73]
House of Assembly Parallel: FPTP (210 seats) / Party list PR: Closed lists: Largest remainder method (Hare quota) (60 seats, 6 for each province, reserved for women, and based on vote in the districts)[74][75][note 5] 1, 6 (Women's lists) 210 + 60 reserved for women
Senate proportional Party list PR: Closed lists: Largest remainder method (Hare quota) (60 seats, 6 for each province, based on vote for national assembly). Additionally the senate consists of 2 seats for each non-metropolitan district of Zimbabwe elected by each provincial assembly of chiefs using SNTV,[77] 1 seat each for the president and deputy president of the National Council of Chiefs, 1 male and 1 female seat for people with disabilities elected on separate ballots using FPTP by an electoral college designated by the National Disability Board.[74][75] 6 (directly elected seats) 60 directly elected + 20

Key

Seats per district
Most elections are split into a number of electoral districts. In some elections, there is one person elected per district. In others, there are many people elected per district. Electoral districts can have different names, see list of electoral districts by nation.
Total number of seats
the number of representatives elected to the body in total.
Election threshold
see Election threshold
FPTP
Using the system of First Past The Post voting to pick a single winner per district
Party list
One of many Party-list proportional representation systems. Where possible, this has been replaced by the allocation system used within the party-list (e.g. D'Hondt method)
Parallel voting, hybrid systems and coexistence
Parallel voting means that two independent, simultaneous systems are used to elect representatives to the same body (e.g. local and national level). If there is interchange between the two systems (i.e. the number elected in one system affects the number elected in the other) then this is called a compensatory mixed system (e.g. mixed member proportional, additional member system). Hybrid systems, by contrast may combine parallel voting and compensatory systems (e.g. scorporo) or different systems may be used in coexistence (e.g. different methods are used used in different regions of a country[78]).

See also

Notes

  1. ^ For a round to be declared valid, the turnout must be at least 50% of voters in the electoral register.
  2. ^ U.S. House and Senate general and special elections in Texas require majority votes.
  3. ^ Louisiana uses a variant of the blanket primary with the primary at the day of the general election, with a runoff if no candidate receives a majority, while California and Washington has a primary before the general election with the top-two candidates facing off in the general election regardless of whether one has a majority or not. Similarly, Alaska has a variant where instead of having two candidates being the finalists, it has four candidates to be its finalists to facing off. Several states use runoff voting in the partisan primaries.
  4. ^ Elections in the United States commonly feature partisan primary elections run by the state (as opposed to by the parties); see Primary election#Primaries in the United States.
  5. ^ The constitution specifies the extra 60 seats for women only for the two first parliaments. The first parliament elected with this constitution was in 2013[76]

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Much of the data on Bulgaria from Central electoral committee - "Methods for determining the number of mandates in constituencies and the results of the vote" (in Bulgarian); A mathematical analysis of the system

Much of the data regarding which voting system is used is drawn from this 2002 report from the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA).

Much of the data regarding the size of the parliaments comes from this 1997 report from the same Institute.

Some of the data has been updated since then.

External links

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