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List of domesticated animals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This page gives a list of domestic animals,[1] also including a list of animals which are or may be currently undergoing the process of domestication and animals that have an extensive relationship with humans beyond simple predation. This includes species which are semi-domesticated, undomesticated but captive-bred on a commercial scale, or commonly wild-caught, at least occasionally captive-bred, and tameable. In order to be considered fully domesticated, most species have undergone significant genetic, behavioural and morphological changes from their wild ancestors, while others have changed very little from their wild ancestors despite hundreds or thousands of years of potential selective breeding. A number of factors determine how quickly any changes may occur in a species, but there is not always a desire to improve a species from its wild form. Domestication is a gradual process, so there is no precise moment in the history of a given species when it can be considered to have become fully domesticated.

Archaeozoology has identified three classes of animal domesticates:

  1. Pets (dogs, cats, hamsters, etc.)
  2. Livestock (cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, etc.)
  3. Beasts of burden (horses, camels, donkeys, etc.)[2]

To sort the tables chronologically by date of domestication, refresh your browser window, as clicking the Date column heading will mix CE and BCE dates.

Domesticated animals

Species and subspecies Wild ancestor Date Location of origin Purposes Image Degree and type of domestication Extent in the wild vs. captivity Taxon group
Domestic dog (Canis familiaris)[3] Extinct Pleistocene population of the grey wolf (Canis lupus ssp.)[4] 13,000 BCE[5][6] China,[7][8][9]

Europe[6]

meat, leather, fiber, hunting, herding, guarding, fighting, racing, working, rescuing, guiding, policing, draft, pack, sport, service, therapy, narcotics detection, truffle harvesting, pest control, research, education, show, pets
Pembroke Welsh Corgi 600.jpg
Tame (with exceptions),[10] significant physical changes, probably significant behavioral changes as well Domestic and feral dogs both very common,[10] ancestor or nearest wild relative less common, but not rare 1c Carnivora
Domestic goat (Capra hircus) Bezoar ibex (Capra aegagrus aegagrus) 10,000 BCE[11][12][13] Iran milk, meat, fiber, skin, horns, vellum, manure, guarding, fighting, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, clearing land, show, pets
Capra, Crete 4.jpg
Slight physical changes Common in captivity, threatened in the wild, feral populations common 1b Bovidae
Domestic pig (Sus domesticus) Anatolian boar (Sus scrofa libycus),[14] Northern Chinese boar (Sus scrofa moupinensis)[15] 9000 BCE[16][17][18][19] China, Western Asia meat, leather, tusks, manure, guarding, fighting, racing, truffle harvesting, weed control, research, show, pets
Sow with piglet.jpg
Some physical changes Common in the wild, much more common in captivity, feral populations common in some areas 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries)[3] Unknown ancestor,[20] possibly the Armenian mouflon (Ovis gmelini gmelini) 9000 BCE to 8500 BCE[21][22] Anatolia, Iran meat, milk, fiber, leather, hides, pelts, horns, vellum, manure, guarding, fighting, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, research, ornamental, show, pets
Pair of Icelandic Sheep.jpg
Some physical changes Common in captivity, threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
European cattle or taurine cattle (Bos taurus)[3][23][24] Eurasian aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius)† 8000 BCE[25][26] China,[27] Western Asia meat, milk, leather, hides, fiber, horns, vellum, blood, dung, working, plowing, guarding, fighting, racing, draft, mount, soil fertilization, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets
Koe in weiland bij Gorssel.JPG
Some physical changes Very common in captivity, wild relatives extinct, feral populations fairly common 1b Bovidae
Zebu, Brahman cattle, indicine cattle or humped cattle (Bos indicus)[3] Indian aurochs (Bos primigenius namadicus)† 8000 BCE India meat, milk, leather, hides, horns, vellum, blood, dung, working, plowing, fighting, racing, draft, soil fertilization, lawn mowing, show, pets
Female zebu cattle.JPG
Considerable physical changes Common in captivity, wild relatives extinct 1b Bovidae
Domestic cat or house cat (Felis catus)[3] North African wildcat (Felis lybica lybica)[28] 8000–7500 BCE[28] the Near East meat, pelts, pest control, research, show, pets
Jammlich crop.jpg
Tame, some physical changes Very abundant in captivity; true wildcat species less abundant, though not rare, feral populations very common 1c Carnivora
Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) Indian red junglefowl (Gallus gallus murghi) with some contribution from the grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii) 6000 BCE[29] India and Southeast Asia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, manure, guarding, alarming, fighting, racing, pest control, weed control, ornamental, show, pets
Poltava chicken breed female.jpg
Some physical changes, considerable reproductive changes Very common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) Montane guinea pig (Cavia tschudii) 5000 BCE Peru meat, manure, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, research, show, pets
Caviaklein.jpg
Tame, slight physical changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Domestic donkey or domestic ass (Equus asinus) African wild ass (Equus africanus), including subspecies Nubian (E. a. africanus) and Somali wild ass (E. a. somaliensis)[30] 5000 BCE[31][32] Nubia meat, milk, manure, working, plowing, guarding, racing, draft, pack, mount, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets
Donkey 1 arp 750px.jpg
Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity and as feral populations, wild relatives critically endangered 1e Other mammals
Domestic duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) Common mallard (Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos) 4000 BCE China meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, pest control, weed control, ornamental, show, pets
Pekin Ducks cropped.jpg
Considerable physical changes Common in captivity, but more abundant in the wild 2a Anseriformes
Domestic water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)[3] Wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee) 4000 BCE India, China, the Philippines meat, milk, horns, dung, working, plowing, fighting, racing, draft, mount, lawn mowing, show
Water Buffalo, Phayao Lake.jpg
Mainly unchanged from the wild animal Common in captivity, endangered in the wild 1b Bovidae
Dromedary or Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius)[33] 4000 BCE Arabia, the Horn of Africa meat, milk, urine, racing, hunting, pack, mount, show, pets
Camelcalf-feeding.jpg
Tame, few physical changes Moderately common in captivity, small feral population in original range, significant feral population in Australia, truly wild dromedaries may be extinct 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Domestic horse (Equus caballus) Extinct unknown population of the wild horse (Equus ferus), possibly the tarpan or European wild horse (E. f. ferus)†[34] 3500 BCE[35] Kazakhstan milk, meat, hair, manure, working, plowing, fighting, racing, servicing, guiding, draft, pack, mount, execution, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets
Nokota Horses cropped.jpg
Tame, some physical changes, mainly in colouration Common in captivity, very rare in the wild, feral populations common 1e Other mammals
Domestic silkmoth (Bombyx mori) Wild silkmoth (Bombyx mandarina) 3000 BCE China silk, animal feed, pets
Silkworms3000px.jpg
Tame/held in captivity, some physical changes Fairly common in captivity, extent of status in the wild unclear 6b Other insects
Domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) Rock dove (Columba livia) 3000 BCE the Mediterranean Basin meat, manure, racing, messenger, ornamental, show, pets
Homing pigeon.jpg
Artificially selected and bred into many varieties including meat breeds, racing/messenger breeds and fancy plumage breeds Relatively common in captivity, very common in the wild, feral populations extremely abundant 2c Columbiformes
Domestic goose and domestic swan goose (Anser anser domesticus and Anser cygnoides domesticus) Greylag goose (Anser anser) and swan goose (A. cygnoides) 3000 BCE for A. anser, date uncertain for A. cygnoides[36] Egypt (A. anser), China (A. cygnoides) meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, alarming, pest control, weed control, show, pets
Neugierige Hausgans.JPG
Considerable physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Domestic yak (Bos grunniens)[3] Wild yak (Bos mutus) 2500 BCE Tibet, Nepal meat, milk, fiber, horns, dung, working, plowing, guarding, fighting, racing, pack, mount, show, pets
The Yak.jpg
Tame, slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity; threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
Domestic Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus) Wild Bactrian camel (Camelus ferus) 2500 BCE Central Asia (Afghanistan) meat, milk, hair, dung, pack, mount, show, pets
Temee.jpg
Tame, few physical changes Moderately common in captivity, critically endangered in the wild 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Llama (Lama glama)[3] Guanaco (Lama guanicoe cacsilensis)[37] 2400 BCE[38] Peru, Bolivia meat, fiber, manure, working, guarding, racing, draft, pack, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets
Pack llamas posing near Muir Trail.jpg
Slight physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Alpaca (Lama pacos)[3] Vicuña (Lama vicugna mensalis)[37] 2400 BCE[38] Peru, Bolivia meat, milk, fiber, manure, guarding, lawn mowing, weed control, show, pets
Corazon Full.jpg
Considerable physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Domestic guineafowl (Numida meleagris domesticus) West African helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris galeatus) 2400 BCE[39] Africa meat, eggs, manure, guarding, alarming, pest control, show, pets
Domesticated Guineafowl - geograph.org.uk - 543901.jpg
Mainly unaltered from the wild population Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Fuegian dog or Yaghan dog (Lycalopex culpaeus)† Culpeo or Andean fox (Lycalopex culpaeus) date uncertain[40] Argentina, Chile hunting, guarding, warmth, pets
Fuegian dog (1863).jpg
Tame, slight physical changes Extinct in captivity, but common in the wild 1c Carnivora
Domestic ferret (Mustela furo) European polecat (Mustela putorius) 1500 BCE[41] Roman North Africa hunting, racing, pest control, show, pets
Ferret 2008.png
Tame, slight physical changes Common in captivity, somewhat common in the wild, feral populations rare 1c Carnivora
Domestic Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata domestica) Wild Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata sylvestris) 700–600 BCE[38] South America meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, pest control, show, pets
MuscovyDuck.jpg
Tame, some physical changes Common in captivity, feral populations rare 2a Anseriformes
Barbary dove or ringed turtle dove (Streptopelia risoria) African collared dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea) 500 BCE North Africa meat, show, pets
Feral Barbary Dove.jpg
Slight physical changes Common in both captivity and feral populations 2c Columbiformes
Bali cattle (Bos domesticus) Javan banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus) date uncertain Bali, Indonesia meat, milk, horns, dung, working, plowing, draft, show
Banteng Domesticated Bali Bull.PNG
Slight physical changes Common in captivity, endangered in the wild 1b Bovidae
Gayal (Bos frontalis)[3] Gaur (Bos gaurus) date uncertain Southeast Asia, Northeast India meat, milk, horns, dung
Bos gaurus (Gayal) male.JPG
Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity, threatened in the wild 1b Bovidae
Domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo domesticus) South Mexican wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo gallopavo) 180 CE[38] Mexico meat, eggs, feathers, manure, guarding, pest control, show, pets
White turkeys.jpg
Considerable physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2b Galliformes
Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio) 300 CE to 400 CE China racing, pest control, ornamental, show, pets
Gullfiskur.jpg
Tame/held in captivity, significant physical changes Very common and abundant in captivity, extent of status in the wild unclear 5a Cyprinidae
Domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus) Iberian rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus)[42] 600 CE[43] Europe meat, fiber, pelts, manure, racing, lawn mowing, weed control, research, show, pets
EnglishSpotRabbitChocolate1(cropped).jpg
Tame, significant physical changes Common in captivity, rare in native habitat, common in introduced range 1e Other mammals
Koi (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) Amur carp (Cyprinus rubrofuscus) the 11th century CE Japan ornamental, show, pets
Ojiya Nishikigoi no Sato ac (3).jpg
Tame/held in captivity, considerable physical changes Fairly common in captivity, threatened in the wild 5a Cyprinidae
Domestic canary (Serinus canaria domestica) Wild canary (Serinus canaria canaria) the 15th century CE the Canary Islands, Europe coal mining, fighting, research, show, pets
Zwei Kanarienvögel.JPG
Slight physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Society finch or Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata domestica) White-rumped munia or striated finch (Lonchura striata swinhoei) with some contribution from the Indian silverbill or white-throated munia (Euodice malabarica) unknown, may have been introduced to Japan sometime around the early 18th century CE[44] Japan pets, show, research
Rbruni.JPG
Slight physical changes Fairly common in captivity; no longer exists in the wild 2d Passeriformes
Fancy mouse a.k.a. laboratory mouse (Mus musculus domestica) Western European house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) 1100 BCE (China), then the 17th century CE (Europe)[45] China animal feed, racing, research, show, pets
Minimouse.jpg
Tame, significant physical changes Common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) including subspecies German (A. m. mellifera), Italian (A. m. iigustica), Carniolan (A. m. carnica), Caucasian (A. m. caucasia), Greek (A. m. cecropia), Saharan (A. m. sahariensis) and Egyptian honey bees (A. m. lamarckii) - 4000 BCE (the modern era for A. m. mellifera, the 1880s for A. m. ligustica, uncertain for A. m. carnica, A. m. caucasia, A. m. cecropia, A. m. sahariensis and A. m. lamarckii) Europe, Asia, Africa honey, wax, propolis, bee brood, royal jelly, venom, pollen, pollination, research
Bee-apis.jpg
Very common in captivity, feral populations common, extent of status in the wild unclear; see Western honey bee for details Some physical and behavioral changes, actual domestication status is still a point of contention[46] 6a Hymenoptera
Fancy rat a.k.a. laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus domestica) Brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) the 19th century CE[47] the United Kingdom animal feed, research, show, pets
Ratte-Vache.jpeg
Tame, some physical and psychological changes Common in the wild and in captivity 1d Rodentia
Domestic mink (Neovison vison domesticus)[48] American mink (Neovison vison) the 19th century CE North America fur, hunting, pest control, pets Some physical and psychological changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1c Carnivora
Domesticated silver fox (Vulpes vulpes amicus) Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) the 1950s the Soviet Union, Russia fur, pelts, research, pets
Silberfuchs 08.jpg
Tame, some physical changes Very small domestic population, wild relatives fairly common 1c Carnivora
Domesticated hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris, A. algirus, Hemiechinus auritus and H. collaris) Four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), Algerian hedgehog (A. algirus), long-eared hedgehog (Hemiechinus auritus), and Indian long-eared hedgehog (H. collaris) the 1980s Central and Eastern Africa pets
Baxter flower.jpg
Slight physical changes Common in the wild, somewhat rare in captivity 1e Other mammals
Domesticated striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) the 19th century CE North America pelts, pest control, pets
Zoo des 3 vallées - Mouffette rayée - 2015-01-02 - i3441.jpg
Tame when captive-bred, significant physical changes Somewhat common in the wild and in captivity 1c Carnivora

Tame and partially domesticated animals

Due to the somewhat unclear outlines of what precisely constitutes domestication, there are some species that may or may not be fully domesticated. There are also some species that are extensively used or kept as pets by humans, but are not significantly altered from wild-type animals. Most animals on this second table are at least somewhat altered from wild-type animals due to their extensive interactions with humans, albeit not to the point that they are regarded as distinct forms (therefore, no separate wild ancestors are noted). Many of them could not be released into the wild, or are in some way dependent on humans.

Species and subspecies Wild ancestor Date Location of origin Purpose Image Degree and type of domestication Extent in the wild vs. captivity Taxon group
Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) including subspecies Sri Lankan (E. m. maximus), Indian (E. m. indicus), Sumatran (E. m. sumatranus), Bornean (E. m. borneensis) and formerly Syrian elephants (E. m. asurus)†[49][50][51] - 2000 BCE (uncertain for E. m. maximus, E. m. sumatranus, E. m. borneensis and E. m. asurus)† India, Sri Lanka, Sumatra, Nepal, Borneo, China, Indochina, formerly Iran dung, working, hunting, fighting, racing, transportation, mount, patrol, worship, show
IndianElephant.jpg
Semi-domesticated (captured from the wild and tamed) Syrian subspecies extinct in the wild and in captivity; other subspecies somewhat common in captivity, but endangered in the wild[52][53] 1e Other mammals
Domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus domesticus) - 3000 BCE Fennoscandia, western Russia (possibly eastern Russia),[54] China, Mongolia meat, milk, leather, hides, antlers, transportation, mount, pets
Caribou using antlers.jpg
Semi-domesticated 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Gemsbok (Oryx gazella)[55] - date uncertain Southern Africa meat, hides, horns
Spiessbock-Etosha-01.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Arabian ostrich or Syrian ostrich (Struthio camelus syriacus)†[56] - date uncertain Mesopotamia meat, eggs, feathers, sacrifices
Arabian Ostrich hunt.jpg
Extinct in the wild and in captivity 2f Palaeognathae
Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) - date uncertain the Middle East, Egypt meat, horns
Reem-Lavan001.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas)[57] - date uncertain Egypt meat, hides, horns, pets
Gazella dorcas.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana)[58] - date uncertain Egypt meat, horns
PikiWiki Israel 4287 Capra.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) - 2320–2150 BCE Egypt meat, hides, horns, sacrifices
Scimitar oryx1.jpg
Held/tame in captivity Small captive population, but nearly extinct in the wild 1b Bovidae
Serval (Leptailurus serval)[59] - date uncertain Egypt pest control, pets
Serval in Tanzania.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Caracal (Caracal caracal)[60] - date uncertain Egypt, India, Southern Africa hunting, pest control, pets
Caracl (01), Paris, décembre 2013.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) including subspecies Southeast African (A. j. jubatus), Northeast African (A. j. soemmeringii) and Asiatic cheetahs (A. j. venaticus)[61][62] - date uncertain Egypt, India, the Middle East, South Africa hunting, tourism, pets
Gepard soemmeringii.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Bubal hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus buselaphus)† - date uncertain Egypt meat, hides, horns, sacrifices
Bubalhartebeest-londonzoo.jpg
Extinct in the wild and in captivity 1b Bovidae
Wood duck (Aix sponsa) - date uncertain North America meat, pest control, ornamental, pets
Male Aix sponsa portrait.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) - pre-modern China (date uncertain) China pest control, ornamental, pets
Aix galericulata - Zürich - Hafen Riesbach 2011-01-14 15-58-32.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Egyptian goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) - date uncertain Egypt meat, eggs, feathers, guarding, ornamental, pets
Alopochen-aegyptiacus.jpg
Held/tame in captivity Common in the wild and in captivity, feral populations very common 2a Anseriformes
Bar-headed goose (Anser indicus) - date uncertain Central Asia, South Asia meat, eggs, feathers, guarding, ornamental, pets
Bar-headed Goose - St James's Park, London - Nov 2006.jpg
Held/tame in captivity Common in the wild and in captivity, feral populations somewhat common 2a Anseriformes
Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) - ancient Egypt (date uncertain) Egypt pest control, pets
Herpestes ichneumon Египетский мангуст, или фараонова крыса, или ихневмо́н.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis)[citation needed] - 5000 BCE China pest control, pets
Bengalkatze.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Common (Genetta genetta),[63] Cape (G. tigrina), pardine (G. pardina) and rusty-spotted genets (G. maculata) - date uncertain Africa pest control, pets
Genetta genetta felina (Wroclaw zoo).JPG
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Eastern honey bee (Apis cerana) including subspecies Chinese (A. c. cerana), Indian (A. c. indica) and Japanese honey bees (A. c. japonica) - date uncertain South Asia, Thailand, Japan, China honey, wax, pollination
Apis cerana, Asiatic honey bee - Khao Yai National Park.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 6a Hymenoptera
Common fallow (Dama dama) and Persian fallow deer (D. mesopotamica)[64] - 1000 BCE the Mediterranean Basin, the Levant meat, hides, antlers, pets
Fallow deer in field.jpg
Semi-domesticated 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis)[65][66] - 800 BCE Europe, Asia bloodletting, surgery, therapy, research, saliva, pets
Svømmende blodigle.JPG
Captive-bred 7b Annelida
Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) - 700–500 BCE[38] Chile, Peru, Mexico dye
Dactylopius coccus (Barlovento) 04 ies.jpg
Held/tame in captivity Very common in the wild 6b Other insects
Indian (Pavo cristatus) and green peafowl (P. muticus) - 500 BCE (uncertain for P. muticus) India, Java meat, feathers, ornamental, guarding, pest control, pets
Indian Peahens I IMG 9647.jpg
Held/tame in captivity Fairly common in the wild 2b Galliformes
Common hill myna (Gracula religiosa) - kept in ancient Greece, date of captive breeding uncertain Greece pets, talking bird
Beo-2.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri) including subspecies African (P. k. krameri) and Indian rose-ringed parakeets (P. k. manillensis) - classical antiquity (date uncertain) West Africa, India pets, talking bird
Rose-ringed Parakeet I IMG 9797.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Red deer (Cervus elaphus)[67][68] including subspecies Caspian (C. e. maral), Norwegian (C. e. atlanticus) and Scottish red deer (C. e. scoticus) - ~0 CE China, Russia, Europe (including the United Kingdom), Iran meat, milk, leather, hides, antlers, velvet, pets
Deer Stag AdF.jpg
Captive-bred 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Roman (Helix pomatia) and Turkish snails (H. lucorum) - 100 CE (uncertain for H. lucorum) Europe meat, eggs, shells, slime, pets
Helix pomatia 89a.jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Stingless bees (Melipona beecheii), (M. scutellaris), (M. bicolor), (M. quadrifasciata) and (M. subnitida) - 180 CE Mexico, the Amazon Basin honey, wax, propolis, pollination, pets
M. scutellaris Hive.jpg
Semi-domesticated 6a Hymenoptera
White cockatoo (Cacatua alba) - the Tang Dynasty (618–907 CE) China, Indonesia pets, show
Cacatua alba -pet-8a.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) including subspecies Triton (C. g. triton) and Eleonora cockatoos (C. g. eleonora) - date uncertain Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea pets, show
Cacatua galerita Tas 2.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Great (Phalacrocorax carbo), Japanese (P. capillatus) and neotropic cormorants (P. brasilianus) - 960 CE (uncertain for P. brasilianus) China, Japan, Peru fishing
Phalacrocorax carbo ja01.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Mute swan (Cygnus olor) - 1000-1500 CE Europe (including the United Kingdom) meat, feathers, ornamental, guarding, pets
CygneVaires.jpg
Semi-domesticated 2a Anseriformes
House cricket (Acheta domesticus) - the 12th century CE Southwestern Asia, China, Japan meat, animal feed, fighting, pets
Acheta domesticus, adultes Weibchen.jpg
Held in captivity Somewhat common in captivity, very common in the wild 6b Other insects
Common (Coturnix coturnix) and Japanese quails (C. japonica) - 1100–1900 CE Eurasia, Japan meat, eggs, research, pets
Japanese Quail.jpg
Domesticated in captivity 2b Galliformes
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) - 1200–1500 CE Europe, Asia meat, eggs, pets
LakePowellCarp5437.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Siamese fighting fish or betta (Betta splendens); Akar (B. akarensis), giant (B. anabantoides), slim (B. bellica), Toba (B. rubra), spotted (B. picta), Krabi mouth-brooding (B. simplex), Penang (B. pugnax), peaceful (B. imbellis), emerald green (B. smaragdina), spotfin (B. macrostoma), and Howong bettas (B. unimaculata) - the 19th century CE (uncertain for B. akarensis, B. anabantoides, B. bellica, B. rubra, B. picta, B. simplex, B. pugnax, B. imbellis, B. smaragdina, B. macrostoma and B. unimaculata) Thailand, Malaysia, Borneo fighting, show, pets
HM Orange M Sarawut.jpg
Held/tame in captivity, very significant physical and slight behavioral changes Common in captivity 5b Other fish
Java sparrow (Lonchura oryzivora) - the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644 CE) China pets
Buberel Lonchura oryzivora 3.jpg
Non-wild coloration pied and fancy colored Java sparrows from long Asian captivity lines are hand tamable Threatened in the wild 2d Passeriformes
Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) including subspecies masked bobwhite (C. v. ridgwayi) - date uncertain the United States, Sonora meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Virginiawachtel 2007-06-16 065.jpg
Captive-bred, plumage changes 2b Galliformes
European goldfinch (Carduelis carduelis) - date uncertain Europe pets, singing
Carduelis carduelis close up.jpg
Captive-bred 2d Passeriformes
Red-billed leiothrix (Leiothrix lutea) - date uncertain China, Japan pets, singing
Leiothrix lutea -Chester Zoo, Cheshire, England-8a.jpg
Captive-bred 2d Passeriformes
Indian grey mongoose (Urva edwardsii) - date uncertain India pest control, fighting, pets
Herpestes edwardsii at Hyderaba.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Gambian pouched (Cricetomys gambianus), southern giant pouched (C. ansorgei), and Emin's pouched rats (C. emini) - at least 1997,[69] but possibly the early 1990s (uncertain for C. emini and C. ansorgei) Sub-Saharan Africa meat, landmine detection, tuberculosis detection, pest control, pets
Food Reward.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Indian palm squirrel (Funambulus palmarum) - date uncertain India pets
Indian Palm Squirrel Bangalore 2009.jpg
Easy to tame 1d Rodentia
Black (Francolinus francolinus) and grey francolins (F. pondicerianus) - date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, fighting, pets
Black Francolin.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Golden (Chrysolophus pictus) and Lady Amherst's pheasants (C. amherstiae) - date uncertain China ornamental, pest control, pets
Male Golden Pheasant DC.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Common (Phasianus colchicus) and green pheasants (P. versicolor) - date uncertain Asia, Japan meat, eggs, ornamental, pest control, pets
Pheasant.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Sika deer (Cervus nippon)[70] - date uncertain China, Taiwan, Japan meat, hides, antlers, tourism, pets
Sikahjort.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Common eland (Taurotragus oryx) including subspecies East African (T. o. pattersonianus) and Livingstone's elands (T. o. livingstonii) - date uncertain Zimbabwe, South Africa, Kenya meat, milk, leather, hides, horns
Taurotragus oryx.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) [71] - date uncertain the southeastern United States meat, hides, teeth, blood, pets
American Alligator.jpg
Captive-bred Both species once uncommon in the wild; captive breeding has led to the American species recovering across and repopulating much of its range, while the Chinese species is nearly extinct in the wild 3d Other reptiles
Eurasian elk or moose (Alces alces)[72] including subspecies Alaskan moose (A. a. gigas) - date uncertain Russia, Finland, Sweden, Alaska meat, milk, hides, antlers, working, draft, mount, transportation, research, pets
Milkmaid-and-Moose-Cow-hp4080.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Masai ostrich (S. c. massaicus) - date uncertain North Africa, West Africa, East Africa meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, mount, racing, guarding, pets
Yaen001.jpg
Semi-domesticated 2f Palaeognathae
South African ostrich (Struthio camelus australis) - the 19th century CE Southern Africa meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, mount, racing, guarding, pets
Ostrich (Struthio camelus) male (13994461256).jpg
Semi-domesticated 2f Palaeognathae
Somali ostrich (Struthio molybdophanes) - date uncertain Kenya meat, eggs, feathers, mount, racing, guarding, pets
Somali ostrich.jpg
Semi-domesticated 2f Palaeognathae
Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) - the 1850s Australia pets, show, talking bird
Melopsittacus undulatus -Zoo Atlanta-8a.jpg
Plumage changes, some breeds are physically larger Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) - the 1870s Australia pets, show, talking bird
Nymphicus hollandicus -garden-8.jpg
Held/tame in captivity Common in the wild and in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Tian Shan wapiti (Cervus canadensis songaricus) - date uncertain Russia, China meat, leather, hides, antlers, velvet, pets
Rocky Mountain Bull Elk.jpg
Captive-bred 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
European mink (Mustela lutreola) - the 1800s Europe, Russia fur
Mink1.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Coypu or nutria (Myocastor coypus) - the late 19th to the early 20th century CE Argentina meat, fur, aquatic weed control, pets
Ratao do banhado 1 REFON.jpg
Captive-bred 1d Rodentia
Guppy (Poecilia reticulata);[73] Cauca (P. caucana), Amazon (P. formosa), sailfin (P. latipinna), shortfin (P. mexicana), liberty (P. salvatoris), common (P. sphenops), and Yucatan mollies (P. velifera); Endler's livebearer (P. wingei) Guppy (Poecilia reticulata); Cauca (P. caucana), Amazon (P. formosa), sailfin (P. latipinna), shortfin (P. mexicana), liberty (P. salvatoris), common (P. sphenops), and Yucatan mollies (P. velifera); Endler's livebearer (P. wingei) date uncertain Barbados, Brazil, El Salvador, Guyana, Mexico, Venezuela bait, pest control, research, pets
Guppy coppia gialla.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 5b Other fish
Common fruit fly or vinegar fly (Drosophila melanogaster) - the 1910s Australia, South Africa research, animal feed
Drosophila melanogaster - side (aka).jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Chinese hamster (Cricetulus griseus) - the 1920s China research, biotechnology, pets
Chinesedsaffa.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Rosy-faced (Agapornis roseicollis), yellow-collared (A. personatus), Fischer's (A. fischeri), black-cheeked (A. nigrigenis), black-winged (A. taranta), and red-headed lovebirds (A. pullarius) - the 1920s (uncertain for A. roseicollis, A. lilianae, A. nigrigenis, A. taranta, A. pullarius and A. canus) Africa, Madagascar pets
Agapornis fischeri -Ueno Zoo, Japan -three-8a-4c.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Rainbowfish (Melanotaeniidae; various species and subspecies) - the 1920s northern and eastern Australia, New Guinea, islands in Cenderawasih Bay and the Raja Ampat Islands in Indonesia pest control, pets
Red m boesemani.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 5b Other fish
Golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) - the 1930s Syria, Turkey pets, research
Golden hamster front 1.jpg
Domesticated 1d Rodentia
Turkish hamster (Mesocricetus brandti) - the 20th century CE Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Russia, Turkey pets, research
Turkish hamster.jpg
Domesticated 1d Rodentia
Long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) - the 1930s the Andes fur, research, pets
Chinchilla lanigera1.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Short-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla chinchilla) - the 1930s the Andes fur
Chinchilla brevicaudata.jpg
Raised in captivity Critically endangered in the wild 1d Rodentia
Water flea (Daphnia magna) - the 1930s North America, Eurasia, Africa research, animal feed
Daphnia magna-female adult.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 6c Other arthropods
African (Xenopus laevis) and western clawed frogs (X. tropicalis) - the 1950s (uncertain for X. tropicalis) Southern Africa, West Africa research, pets
Xenopus laevis 1.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Sea-monkey (Artemia nyos) - the 1950s the United States pets, research
SeaMonkiesInAquarium.JPG
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Ball (Python regius), Borneo (P. breitensteini), Sumatran short-tailed (P. curtus) and Brongersma's short-tailed pythons (P. brongersmai) - the 1960s (uncertain for P. breitensteini, P. curtus and P. brongersmai) Africa, India, Sumatra, Borneo, Malaysia pets
Ball python lucy.JPG
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Burmese python (Python bivittatus) including subspecies dwarf Burmese python (P. b. progschai)[74][75] - date uncertain Myanmar, Thailand, Bali, Java, Sulawesi meat, skins, medicine, pets
Python bivittatus тигровый питон.jpg
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Campbell's dwarf (Phodopus campbelli), winter white dwarf (P. sungorus) and Roborovski dwarf hamsters (P. roborovskii) - the 1960s Mongolia, Russia, China pets, research
Phodopus roborovskii side.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum); tiger (A. tigrinum) and barred tiger salamanders (A. mavortium) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for A. tigrinum and A. mavortium) Mexico, the United States research, pets
Ambystoma mexicanum at Vancouver Aquarium.jpg
Slight physical changes Critically endangered in the wild 4b Other amphibians
Palm cockatoo (Probosciger aterrimus) - date uncertain Australia, Papua New Guinea pets
Probosciger aterrimus-20030511.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Common leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) including subspecies Afghan leopard gecko (E. m. afghanicus) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for E. m. afghanicus) Pakistan, Afghanistan pets
Male Leopard Gecko.JPG
Slight physical modification Somewhat common in captivity 3b Lacertilia
American bison (Bison bison) including subspecies wood bison (B. b. athabascae) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for B. b. athabascae) North America meat, leather, hides, fiber, horns, guarding, pets
Tatanka.jpg
Semi-domesticated 1b Bovidae
Companion parrot (Psittaciformes; various species and subspecies)[76][77] - the 1980s and 1990s Australia, Africa, Asia, North America, Central America, South America, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, New Caledonia, Fiji pets, show, talking bird, ornamental, guarding, education, therapy
Congo African Grey pet on a perch.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Turqoise (Neophema pulchella), blue-winged (N. chrysostoma), and scarlet-chested parrots (N. splendida) - the 20th century CE (uncertain for N. chrysostoma and N. splendida) Australia pets, show
Neophema pulchella -Rainbow Jungle -Australia-8a.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Green and black (Dendrobates auratus) and yellow-banded poison dart frogs (D. leucomelas) - the mid- to late 20th century CE Guyana, Suriname, Brazil, French Guiana, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela pets
Dendrobates tinctorius - Karlsruhe Zoo 05.jpg
Slight physical changes; loss of toxicity 4a Anura
Common kingsnake (Lampropeltis getula) including subspecies eastern (L. g. getula), California (L. g. californiae), Florida (L. g. floridana), Mexican black (L. g. nigrita), and Brooks' kingsnakes (L. g. brooksi) - date uncertain Arizona, Florida, Mexico, California pets
Lampropeltis getula getula.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 3a Serpentes
Grey-banded kingsnake (Lampropeltis alterna) - date uncertain Mexico, Guatemala, Arizona, Texas, California pest control, pets
Serpent roi bandes grises 01.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 3a Serpentes
Thayer's kingsnake (Lampropeltis mexicana thayeri) - date uncertain Mexico pets
Lampropeltis mexicana mexicana 01.jpg
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Milk snake or house snake (Lampropeltis triangulum) including subspecies eastern (L. t. triangulum), Andean (L. t. andesiana), Mexican (L. t. annulata), Pueblan (L. t. campbelli), black (L. t. gaigeae), Honduran (L. t. hondurensis), Nelson's (L. t. nelsoni), and Sinaloan milk snakes (L. t. sinaloae) - date uncertain Guatemala, Mexico, Honduras, Colombia, Puebla, Panama, Sonora, Florida, Iowa, Alabama, Indiana, Tennessee pets
Lampropeltis-triangulum-sinaloae-013.jpg
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Corn (Pantherophis gutttatus), western rat (P. obsoletus), and grey rat snakes (P. spiloides) - the 1960s (uncertain for P. alleghaniensis, P. bairdi, P. emoryi, P. gloydi, P. obsoletus,P. slowinskii, P. spiloides and P. vulpinus) the United States pets
Kornnatter.jpg
Slight physical changes Somewhat common in captivity, common in the wild 3a Serpentes
Muskox (Ovibos moschatus)[78] - the 1960s the United States meat, milk, wool, horns
Ovibos moschatus qtl3.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Siberian chipmunk (Eutamias sibiricus)[79] - the 1960s Russia pest control, pets
Tamias sibiricus.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Madagascar hissing (Gromphadorhina portentosa) and wide-horned hissing cockroaches (G. oblongonota) - the 1960s (uncertain for G. oblongonota) Madagascar pets
Female Madagascar hissing cockroach.JPG
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Eastern (Pogona barbata) and western bearded dragons (P. minor) - date uncertain Australia pets
Eastern-Bearded-Dragon-2.2,-Vic,-3.1.2008.jpg
Slight physical changes 3b Lacertilia
Central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) - the 1970s Australia pets
Bartagame fcm.jpg
Slight physical changes 3b Lacertilia
Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)[80] - the 1970s China meat, algae control
Hypophthalmichthys molitrix Hungary.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) - the 1980s Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands pets
Eclectus roratus-20030511.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Salmon-crested (Cacatua moluccensis), blue-eyed (C. ophthalmica), red-vented (C. haematuropygia) and Solomons cockatoos (C. ducorpsii); long-billed (C. tenuirostris), western (C. pastinator), little (C. sanguinea) and Tanimbar corellas (C. goffiniana) - the 1980s (uncertain for C. ophthalmica, C. haematuropygia, C. durcopsii, C. tenuirostris, C. pastinator, C. sanguinea and C. goffiniana) the Maluku Islands, Papua New Guinea, Australia, the Tanimbar Islands, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands pets, show, talking bird
Cacatua moluccensis - closeup of head.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Yellow-bellied glider (Petaurus australis) - date uncertain Australia pets
Petaurus australis.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps)[81] - the 1980s Australia pest control, pets
Petaurus breviceps 1.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Rankin's dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) - the 1980s Australia pets
Pogona henrylawsoni.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 3b Lacertilia
Buff-tailed (Bombus terrestris) and common eastern bumblebees (B. impatiens) - the 1980s (uncertain for B. impatiens) Europe (including the United Kingdom), North America wax, pollination
Bumblebee October 2007-3a.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 6a Hymenoptera
Greater (Rhea americana) and Darwin's rheas (R. pennata)[82] - the 1990s (uncertain for R. pennata) South America meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, pets
Rhea side profile.jpg
Semi-domesticated 2f Palaeognathae
Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) - the 1990s Australia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, oil, guarding, pets
Emu-wild.jpg
Semi-domesticated 2f Palaeognathae
Giant eland (Taurotragus derbianus) - date uncertain West Africa meat, milk, leather, hides, horns
Houston Giant Eland.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Common beisa (Oryx beisa beisa)[83] and fringe-eared oryxes (O. b. callotis) - date uncertain Kenya meat, leather, hides, horns
Beisa, Tsawo-Wes, Tanzanië.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Common degu (Octodon degus) - the 1990s the Chilean Andes pets, research
Octodon degus -Heidelberg Zoo, Germany-8a.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus); Persian (M. persicus), Libyan (M. libycus), Shaw's (M. shawi), Tristram's (M. tristrami) and Sundevall's jirds (M. crassus) - the 1990s (uncertain for M. persicus, M. libycus, M. shawi, M. tristrami and M. crassus) Mongolia, Algeria, Iran, Libya, Turkey, Egypt pets, research
Golden Agouti Male 4-1-05.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Green (Iguana iguana) and Lesser Antillean iguanas (I. delicatissima) - the 1990s (uncertain for I. delicatissima) South America, the Lesser Antilles meat, leather, pets
St Thomas Marriott Iguana 9 cropped.jpg
Captive-bred 3b Lacertilia
Carpet python (Morelia spilota) including subspecies diamond python (M. s. spilota); coastal (M. s. mcdowelli), inland (M. s. metcalfei), Darwin (M. s. variegata) and jungle carpet pythons (M. s. cheynei) - date uncertain Indonesia, Australia, New Guinea pets
Australian-Carpet-Python.jpg
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Green tree (Morelia viridis), southwestern (M. imbricata), rough-scaled (M. carinata) and Bredl's pythons (M. bredli) - the mid-1990s (uncertain for M. carinata and M. bredli) Indonesia, Australia, New Guinea pets
Morelia-viridis.jpg
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Red-tailed black (Calyptorhynchus banksii), yellow-tailed black (C. funereus) and glossy black cockatoos (C. lathami) - the late 1990s (uncertain for C. funereus and C. lathami) Australia pets, education
Red tailed Black Cockatoo in flight.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Pin-tailed (Erythrura prasina), tricolored (E. tricolor), tawny-breasted (E. hyperythra), blue-faced (E. trichroa), red-eared (E. coloria), red-throated (E. psittacea) and Fiji parrotfinches (E. pealii) - date uncertain Malaysia, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, Timor, Australia, the Philippines, New Caledonia, Fiji and Thailand pets
Erythrura prasina 228.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Gouldian finch (Chloebia gouldiae) - the late 1990s Australia pets, show
Male adult Gouldian Finch.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Australian green (Ranoidea caerulea), orange-eyed (R. chloris), leaf green (R. phyllochroa), mountain stream (R. barringtonensis), magnificent (R. splendida), Blue Mountains (R. citropa) and dainty green tree frogs (R. gracilenta); growling grass frog (R. raniformis) - the late 20th century CE (uncertain for R. chloris, R. phyllochroa, R. barringtonensis, R. splendida, R. citropa, R. gracilenta and R. raniformis) Australia research, pets
Litoria caerulea - Darwin NT.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Argentine (Ceratophrys ornata), Brazilian (C. aurita), Venezuelan (C. calcarata), Surinam (C. cornuta), Caatinga (C. joazeirensis), Pacific (C. stolzmanni) and Cranwell's horned frogs (C. cranwelli) - the late 20th century CE (uncertain for C. aurita, C. calcarata, C. cornuta, C. joazeirensis, C. stolzmanni and C. cranwelli) Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname, Ecuador pets
Argentine Horned Frog (Ceratophrys ornata)1.JPG
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Crucian (Carassius carassius), Japanese white crucian (C. cuvieri) and Prussian carp (C. gibelio); ginbuna (C. langdorfii) [84] - the 2000s (uncertain for C. cuvieri, C. gibelio and C. langdorfii) England, Russia, Japan meat, research, pets
Carassius carassius Prague Vltava 2.jpg
Domesticated 5a Cyprinidae
King quail (Excalfactoria chinensis) - date uncertain Asia, Australia pets
Excalfactoria chinensis (aka).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Small-billed tinamou (Crypturellus parvirostris) - date uncertain South America meat, eggs
Crypturellus parvirostris 2.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2f Palaeognathae
Red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens)[85] - date uncertain South America meat, eggs
Rhynchotus rufescens -Parque das Aves-8a.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2f Palaeognathae
Common (Corvus corax), white-necked (C. albicollis) and Australian ravens (C. coronoides); carrion (C. corone), hooded (C. cornix), American (C. brachyrhynchos), pied (C. albus) and house crows (C. splendens); rook (C. frugilegus)[86][87][88][89][90][91][92] - date uncertain Europe, Africa, India, Australia, North America pest control, research, show, pets
Corvus albus -Etosha National Park, Namibia-8.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Southern ground (Bucorvus leadbeateri) and Abyssinian ground hornbills (B. abyssinicus) - date uncertain South Africa, Ethiopia pest control, show, pets
Southern Ground-hornbill (Bucorvus leadbeateri) (21152325325).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster)[93] - date uncertain India fishing
Oriental darter (Anhinga melanogaster) 21-Mar-2007 6-10-09 AM.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Southern (Chauna torquata) and northern screamers (C. chavaria) - date uncertain South America guarding
Southern screamer (Chauna torquata).JPG
Held/tame in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Horned screamer (Anhima cornuta)[94] - date uncertain South America guarding
Anhima cornuta -near Manu Wildlife Center, Manu National Park, Peru -three-8.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2a Anseriformes
Red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata) - date uncertain South America guarding
Red-legged Seriema RWD1.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Black-legged seriema (Chunga burmeisteri) - date uncertain South America guarding
Blacklegged.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Golden (Aquila chrysaetos),[95]eastern imperial (A. heliaca), Spanish imperial (A. adalberti), wedge-tailed (A. audax), steppe (A. nipalensis), tawny (A. rapax), Bonelli's (A. fasciata) and Verreaux's eagles (A. verreauxii); African hawk-eagle (A. spilogaster) - date uncertain Europe, North America, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Africa, Australia falconry, intercepting, pest control, show, pets
Aquila chrysaetos Flickr.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Bald (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)[96][97] and white-tailed eagles (H. albicilla); African fish eagle (H. vocifer); white-bellied sea (H. leucogaster) and Steller's sea eagles (H. pelagicus) - date uncertain North America, Europe, Russia, Africa, Australia falconry, intercepting, pest control, show, pets
Weisskopf Seeadler haliaeetus leucocephalus 2 amk.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus harrisi)[98] - date uncertain the United States falconry, pest control, show, pets
Harris Hawk 1b (5087160692).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Northern (Accipiter gentilis),[99] crested (A. trivirgatus) and African goshawks (A. tachiro); Cooper's (A. cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus); Eurasian (A. nisus), Ovambo (A. ovampensis), collared (A. cirrocephalus), Japanese (A. gularis) and black sparrowhawks (A. melanoleucus); besra (A. virgatus); shikra (A. badius) - date uncertain Europe, Asia, Africa, North America falconry, pest control, show, pets
Accipiter gentilis -owned by a falconer in Scotland -upper body-8a.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo)[100] including subspecies western Siberian (B. b. sibiricus), eastern Siberian (B. b. yenisseensis) and Turkmenian eagle-owls (B. b. omissus) - date uncertain Europe, Russia, Turkmenistan pest control, show, pets
Uhu-muc.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) including subspecies northern great horned owl (B. v. subarcticus) - date uncertain Canada pest control, show, pets
Great-horned Owl RWD at CRC1.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Tawny owl (Strix aluco)[101] - date uncertain Europe (including the United Kingdom) pest control, show, pets
Tawny Owl.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Glossy ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) - date uncertain Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia, the Atlantic and Caribbean regions of the Americas meat, eggs, pest control
Plegadis falcinellus (aka) background blurred.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Puna ibis (Plegadis ridgwayi) - date uncertain Peru meat, eggs, pest control
Plegadis ridgwayi -Huacarpay Lakes, near Cusco, Peru-8.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Wild boar (Sus scrofa)[102][103] including subspecies Indian wild boar (S. s. cristatus) - date uncertain Europe (including the United Kingdom), Thailand meat, leather, hides, tusks, pets
Wild Boar Habbitat 3.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Celebes warty pig (Sus celebensis) - date uncertain Sulawesi meat, tusks, pets
Sus celebensis.png
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Red-necked (Macropus rufogriseus),[104] tammar (M. eugenii) and Parma wallabies (M. parma) - the 2000s (uncertain for M. eugenii and M. parma) Tasmania, South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales lawn mowing, research, tourism, pets
Red-necked wallaby.gk.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Red kangaroo (Osphranter rufus)[105] - date uncertain Australia meat, leather, tourism, pets
Red kangaroo - melbourne zoo.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1e Other animals
Tiger (Dasyurus maculatus), eastern (D. viverrinus), western (D. geoffroii) and northern quolls (D. hallucatus)[106][107][108][109] - date uncertain Australia pest control, pets
Dasyurus maculatus.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata)[110] - date uncertain Bangladesh fishing, pets
Smooth-coat-otter.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Beech (Martes foina),[111][112] and yellow-throated martens (M. flavigula); sable (M. zibellina) - date uncertain Europe, Russia, India fur, pest control, pets
Steinmarder (cropped).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Fisher or Pennant's marten (Pekania pennanti) - date uncertain North America fur, pest control, research, pets
Fisher-face-snow - West Virginia - ForestWander.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Least (M. nivalis), Siberian (Mustela sibirica)[113]and yellow-bellied weasels (M. kathiah); European polecat (M. putorius)[114][115] - date uncertain Europe, Russia, India pest control, pets
Mustela sibirica dd winter 2002.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Greater (Galictis vittata) and lesser grisons (G. cuja) - date uncertain South America hunting, pest control, pets
Greater grison.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon patagonicus) - date uncertain Argentina, Chile pest control, pets
Lyncodon patagonicus1.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Northern raccoon (Procyon lotor)[116] - date uncertain North America pest control, show, pets
Procyon lotor 7 - am Wasser.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
South American (Nasua nasua)[117] and white-nosed coati (N. narica) - date uncertain South America, Costa Rica pest control, show, pets
Nasua nasua.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Ringtail (Bassariscus astutus) and cacomistle (B. sumichrasti)[118] - date uncertain North America, Central America pest control, pets
Squaw-ringtail-28073.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Southern (Tamandua tetradactyla) and northern tamanduas (T. mexicana)[119][120] - date uncertain South America, Central America pest control, pets
Southern Tamandua and Young - Sunshine international aquarium, Tokyo, Japan.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Lowland (Cuniculus paca) and mountain pacas (C. taczanowskii) - date uncertain Mexico, Argentina, Ecuador meat, pets
Cuniculus paca.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Malayan (Hystrix brachyura),[121]Sunda (H. javanica), Indian crested (H. indica), African crested (H. cristata), Cape (H. africaeaustralis) and Philippine porcupines (H. pumila) - date uncertain Vietnam, China, Indonesia, the Philippines, India, Africa meat, quills, pets
Hystrix brachyura, Malayan porcupine.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Chinese bamboo (Rhizomys sinensis) and large bamboo rats (R. sumatrensis) - date uncertain China meat, pets
Rhizomys sinensis - Kunming Natural History Museum of Zoology - DSC02460.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Lesser bamboo rat (Cannomys badius)[122] - date uncertain China, Laos meat, pets
Lesser bamboo rat.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Desmarest's hutia (Capromys pilorides) - date uncertain Cuba meat, pest control, pets
Capromys pilorides.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Steppe lemming (Lagurus lagurus) - date uncertain the Eurasian steppe pets
Lagurus lagurus.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Norway lemming (Lemmus lemmus) - the 20th century CE northern Fennoscandia pets
Tunturisopuli Lemmus Lemmus.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Lesser Egyptian (Gerbillus gerbillus), greater Egyptian (G. pyramidum), pale (G. perpallidus) and pleasant gerbils (G. amoenus) - date uncertain Egypt, Libya pets
Perpallidus.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Eurasian harvest mouse (Micromys minutus)[123] - date uncertain Europe pest control, pets
Micromysminutus1.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1d Rodentia
Northeastern (Ctenosaura acanthura), black (C. similis), and Mexican spiny-tailed iguana (C. pectinata) - date uncertain Mexico, Central America meat, pets
Tolok.jpg
Captive-bred 3b Lacertilia
Chinese cobra (Naja atra)[124] - date uncertain China venom, skins, pets
Naja atra juvenile.jpg
Captive-bred 3a Serpentes
Crimson rosella (Platycercus elegans) including subspecies Adelaide (P. e. adelaidae) and yellow rosellas (P. e. flaveolus) - date uncertain Australia pets
Platycercus elegans Wilsons Prom.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Western (Platycercus icterotis), green (P. caledonicus), pale-headed (P. adscitus) and northern rosellas (P. venustus) - date uncertain Australia pets
Platycercus icterotis1.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Eastern rosella (Platycercus eximius) including subspecies golden-mantled rosella (P. e. elecica) - date uncertain Australia pets
Eastern Rosella (36884763426).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2e Psittaciformes
Hispaniolan (Trachemys decorata), Colombian (T. callirostris), Cuban (T. decussata), D'Orbigny's (T. dorbigni), Nicaraguan (T. emolli), ornate (T. ornata), Jamaican (T. terrapen) and Meso-American sliders (T. venusta) - date uncertain Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Colombia, Cuba, Brazil, Uruguay, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Mexico, Jamaica pets
Trachemys decorata.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Pond slider (Trachemys scripta) including subspecies yellow-bellied (T. s. scripta), red-eared (T. s. elegans) and Cumberland sliders (T. s. troostii) - date uncertain the south-central and southeastern United States meat, pets
Sheldonbasking.JPG
Easy to tame Fairly common in captivity, common in the wild 3c Testudines
Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis)[125] - date uncertain China meat, pets
E8976-Namdaemun-Turtles-sold-in-ginseng-shop.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Chinese pond (Mauremys reevesii) and yellow pond turtles (M. mutica)[126] - date uncertain China meat, pets
Chinemys reevesii 02.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina)[127] - date uncertain Florida meat, pets
Common Snapping Turtle.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Golden coin turtle (Cuora trifasciata) - date uncertain China meat, pets
Cuora trifasciata.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Wattle-necked softshell turtle (Palea steindachneri) - date uncertain China meat, pets
Palea steindachneri.jpeg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Keeled box turtle (Cuora mouhotii)[128] - date uncertain China meat, medicine, pets
Mouhotii.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Arrau turtle (Podocnemis expansa)[129] - date uncertain Brazil meat, pets
Podocnemis expansa INPA.jpg
Captive-bred 3c Testudines
Saltwater (Crocodylus porosus), Nile (C. niloticus), West African (C. suchus), mugger (C. palustris), American (C. acutus), Cuban (C. rhombifer), Morelet's (C. moreletii), Orinoco (C. intermedius), freshwater (C. johnsoni), Siamese (C. siamensis), Philippine (C. mindorensis) and New Guinea crocodiles (C. novaeguineae)[130][131][132][133][134][135] - date uncertain Florida, Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, Africa, Iran, India, Thailand, Myanmar, Sumatra, Borneo, the Philippines, Australia, Papua New Guinea meat, hides, teeth, blood, fat, guarding, tourism, show, pets
Nilecroc100.jpg
Captive-bred 3d Other reptiles
Crimson (Neochmia phaeton), and red-browed finches (N. temporalis) - date uncertain New Guinea, Australia pets, show
Neochmia phaeton -Middle Point, Northern Territory, Australia-8.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Star finch (Bathilda ruficauda) - date uncertain Australia pets, show
Neochmia ruficauda.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Plum-headed finch (Aidemosyne modesta) - date uncertain Australia pets, show
Plum-headed Finch-Neochmia modesta.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Grey partridge (Perdix perdix) - date uncertain Hungary, the United Kingdom meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Perdix perdix (Marek Szczepanek).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Red-legged (Alectoris rufa), chukar (A. chukar), Philby's (A. philbyi), Arabian (A. melanocephala) and Barbary partridges (A. barbara) - date uncertain France, Afghanistan, North Africa, Yemen, Oman meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Perdrix rouge.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Chinese bamboo (Bambusicola thoracicus) and mountain bamboo partridges (B. fytchii) - date uncertain China, India meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Bambusicola thoracicus1.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Himalayan monal (Lophophorus impejanus) - date uncertain Nepal meat, eggs, feathers, ornamental, pets
Lophophorus impejanus Zoo DU 2.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Kalij (Lophura leucomelanos), Swinhoe's (L. swinhoii), Salvadori's (L. inornata), silver (L. nycthemera) and Edwards's pheasants (L. edwardsi); Siamese fireback (L. diardi) - date uncertain Nepal, Taiwan, Vietnam, Sumatra, China, Thailand meat, eggs, feathers, ornamental, pets
Swinhoe's Pheasant 0673.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Red (Gallus gallus), green (G. varius), grey (G. sonneratii) and Sri Lankan junglefowl (G. lafayettii) - date uncertain India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Java meat, eggs, feathers, ornamental, pets
Red Junglefowl - Thailand.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Scaled (Callipepla squamata), elegant (C. douglasii), Gambel's (C. gambelii) and California quails (C. californica) - date uncertain Mexico, Utah, California meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata) (20164244389).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) - date uncertain California meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Oreortyx pictus.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Montezuma quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae) - date uncertain Mexico meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Montezuma Quail (Cyrtonyx montezumae).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Vulturine guineafowl (Acryllium vulturinum) - date uncertain Ethiopia meat, pest control, pets
Acryllium vulturinum -Tsavo East National Park, Kenya-8.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Harlequin (Coturnix delegorguei), rain (C. coromandelica) and stubble quails (C. pectoralis) - date uncertain Africa, India, Australia meat, eggs, feathers, pets
Harlequin Quail (Coturnix delegorguei) (6035291347).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2b Galliformes
Edible-nest swiftlet (Aerodramus fuciphagus)[136] - date uncertain Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore nests
AerodramusFuciphagus.LipKee.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 2g Other birds
Tarantulas (Theraphosidae, various species and subspecies)[137] - date uncertain North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Australia research, venom, pets
Brachypelma smithi 2009 G09.jpg
Captive-bred Common in captivity, becoming rare in the wild 6c Other arthropods
Crested (Correlophus ciliatus) and suras geckos (C. sarasinorum) - date uncertain New Caledonia pets
Gekkoninae Rhacodactylus ciliatus tete.png
Captive-bred Somewhat common in captivity, nearly extinct in the wild 3b Lacertilia
Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris)[138] - date uncertain Florida meat
Florida Manatee FWS 20.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Roan (Hippotragus equinus)[139] and sable antelopes (H. niger)[140] - date uncertain South Africa meat, horns
Sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) adult male.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros),[141] nyala (T. angasii),[142] and Cape bushbuck (T. sylvaticus) - date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns, pets
Male greater kudu.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Blue (Connochaetes taurinus)[143] and black wildebeest (C. gnou)[144] - date uncertain South Africa, Kenya meat, leather, hides, horns, pets
Blue Wildebeests (Connochaetes taurinus) (6451904975).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Bontebok (Damaliscus pygargus pygargus) including subspecies blesbok (D. p. phillipsi)[145] - date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns
Blesbok at NC zoo.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus)[146] - date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, hides, horns, pets
Nilgauantilope Boselaphus tragocamelus Tierpark Hellabrunn-10.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Scaly-breasted munia (Lonchura punctulata) - date uncertain Southeast Asia pets, research
Lonchura punctulata (Nagarhole, 2004).jpg
Slight physical changes Fairly common in the wild and in captivity 2d Passeriformes
Blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra) - date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, hides, horns, pets
Blackbuck male female.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Chinkara (Gazella bennettii) - date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, horns, pets
Chinkara Ranthambhore National Park.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis)[147] - date uncertain South Africa meat, hides, horns, pets
Springbok etosha.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia)[148] - date uncertain North Africa meat, horns
BarbarySheep4.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
African buffalo (Syncerus caffer)[149][150] - date uncertain South Africa meat, leather, horns
African Buffalo.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 1b Bovidae
Collared peccary (Pecari tajacu)[151] - date uncertain Brazil meat, pets
Collared peccary02 - melbourne zoo.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
South African giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa) - date uncertain South Africa tourism, pets
South African Giraffes, fighting.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Thorold's deer (Cervus albirostris)[152] - date uncertain China meat, antlers
CervusAlbirostris2.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
White-tailed (Odocoileus virginianus)[153] and mule deer (O. hemionus) - date uncertain Virginia, West Virginia, Florida, Montana, Canada, Colombia meat, hides, antlers, pets
White-tailed deer.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Chital or axis deer (Axis axis) - date uncertain India meat, hides, antlers, pets
Chital Stag.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Water deer (Hydropotes inermis) - date uncertain China meat, tusks, pets
Hydropotes inermis male.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Dwarf (Moschus berezovskii), alpine (M. chrysogaster), white-bellied (M. leucogaster) and Siberian musk deer (M. moschiferus)[154][155][156] - date uncertain China, India, Russia meat, hides, tusks, musk
Moschustier.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Guanaco (Lama guanicoe)[157] - date uncertain Peru fiber, guarding, pets
Crazy Guanaco (5464058504).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)[158] - date uncertain Peru fiber, pets
Vicunacrop.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1a Artiodactyla except Bovidae
Southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum)[159] - date uncertain South Africa horns
Ceratotherium simum Kruger Park 02.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)[160] - date uncertain South Africa horns
Muddy Rhino (377658490).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1e Other mammals
Fishing (Prionailurus viverrinus) and rusty-spotted cats (P. rubiginosus)[161][162] - date uncertain India pest control, pets
Rostkatze Zoo Berlin.JPG
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta)[163][164][165][166] - date uncertain South Africa, Ethiopia, Nigeria hunting, guarding, waste management, tourism, show, pets
Spotted Hyena, Ngorongoro.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Common (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and Japanese raccoon dogs (N. viverrinus) - date uncertain China, Japan fur, pest control, pets
Nyctereutes procyonoides 4 (Piotr Kuczynski).jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnvora
Red (Vulpes vulpes), Arctic (V. lagopus), swift (V. velox), kit (V. macrotis), fennec (V. zerda),[167] corsac (V. corsac) and pale foxes (V. pallida) - date uncertain Europe, North America, North Africa, Sudan, Central Asia fur, pest control, pets
Polarfuchs 1 2004-11-17.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Grey (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and island foxes (U. littoralis)[168] - date uncertain the eastern United States, the Channel Islands, California pelts, pest control, pets
Urocyon littoralis pair.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) - date uncertain Africa pest control, show, pets
Otocyon megalotis - Etosha 2014.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous)[169] - date uncertain South America pest control, pets
Cerdocyon thous MG 9503.jpg
Easy to tame 1c Carnivora
Eurasian (C. l. lupus), Iberian (C. l. signatus), steppe (C. l. campestris), Mongolian (C. l. chanco), Arabian (C. l. arabs), Indian (C. l. pallipes), Arctic (C. l. arctos), Greenland (C. l. orion) and northwestern wolves (C. l. occidentalis)[170][171][172][173][174][175][176][177][178][179] - date uncertain Europe, Russia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, the Middle East, Canada, Greenland hunting, guarding, pest control, draft, research, education, therapy, tourism, show, pets
Alba-European-Wolf.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Coyote (Canis latrans)[180] - date uncertain North America pest control, pets
Canis latrans.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Side-striped jackal (Lupulella adusta)[181] - date uncertain South Africa pest control, pets
Canis adustus Kidepo National Park.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Meerkat or suricate (Suricata suricatta)[182][183] - date uncertain South Africa pest control, research, education, therapy, tourism, show, pets
Meerkat feb 09.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Common kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus) - date uncertain West Africa pets, pest control
Cusimanse.jpg
Captive-bred 1c Carnivora
Ruddy (Urva smithii)[184]and Javan mongoose (U. javanicus)[185] - date uncertain India, Southeast Asia pest control, pets
Ruddy-mongoose.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 1c Carnivora
Kissing gourami (Helostoma temminckii) - date uncertain Thailand, Indonesia meat, pets
Kissfish.jpg
Domesticated 5b Other fish
Giant (Osphronemus goramy),[186][187] giant red tail (O. laticlavius) and elephant ear gouramis (O. exodon) - date uncertain Southeast Asia meat, weed control, pets
Osphronemus Gourami (better).png
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Red-bellied (Pygocentrus nattereri), piraya (P. piraya) and black spot piranha (P. cariba) - date uncertain South America meat, teeth, research, pets
Gregory Moine - Red bellied Piranha (by).jpg
Semi-domesticated Fairly common in captivity, common in the wild 5b Other fish
Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus), Pacific bluefin (T. orientalis), southern bluefin (T. maccoyii), yellowfin (T. albacares) and bigeye tunas (T. obesus); albacore or longfin tuna (T. alalunga)[188][189] - date uncertain Europe, East Asia, Australia, Hawaii, North America meat, eggs
Pacific bluefin tuna.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
European sea (Acipenser sturio), white (A. transmontanus), shortnose (A. brevirostrum), Persian (A. persicus), Siberian (A. baerii), Adriatic (A. naccarii) and starry sturgeons (A. stellatus)[190][191][192][193] - date uncertain Europe, Alaska, California, Canada, Iran, Russia, Albania, the Aegean Sea meat, eggs, pets
4803 white sturgeon swart odfw (4455050144).jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Malabar (Epinephelus malabaricus), giant (E. lanceolatus), greasy (E. tauvina), areolate (E. areolatus), dusky (E. marginatus), wavy-lined (E. undulosus), six-bar (E. sexfasciatus) and orange-spotted groupers (E. coioides)[194][195][196] - date uncertain Asia, Australia, Fiji, South Africa, Italy, the Indo-Pacific meat
Epinephelus malabaricus in UShaka Sea World 1098.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) - date uncertain Europe, Asia, North America meat, eggs
Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (cropped).jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou) including subspecies amago (O. m. macrostomus) - date uncertain Russia, Japan, Korea meat
Oncorhynchus masou in Aquarium 2011-09-11.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) - date uncertain Europe (including the United Kingdom), Alaska, Canada, Chile, Russia, Australia, Tasmania meat, eggs
Salmo salar-Atlantic Salmon-Atlanterhavsparken Norway.JPG
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Barramundi (Lates calcarifer),[197] Japanese lates (L. japonicus) and Nile perch (L. niloticus)[198] - date uncertain the United Kingdom, Poland, the United States, India, Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Australia, Japan, Africa meat, pets
Barramundi.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) - date uncertain the United States, Asia, Panama, Mexico meat
Cobia fingerlings.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
European bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) - date uncertain Europe meat
Dicentrarchus labrax01.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Milkfish (Chanos chanos)[199] - date uncertain the Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia meat
Chanidae - Chanos chanos.JPG
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Northern pike (Esox lucius)[200] - date uncertain Europe meat, eggs, research, pets
Esox lucius ZOO 1.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Alligator (Atractosteus spatula), Cuban (A. tristoechus) and tropical gars (A. tropicus)[201][202][203] - date uncertain North America, Cuba, Costa Rica meat, pets
Alligator Gar 10.JPG
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) - date uncertain China meat, weed control
Ctenopharyngodon idella 01 Pengo.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) - date uncertain China meat, pest control, medicine
Mylopharyngodon piceus.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) - date uncertain China meat
Hypophthalmichthys-nob.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Giant barb (Catlocarpio siamensis)[204] - date uncertain Vietnam meat, pets
Giant Barb.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 5a Cyprinidae
Arapaima (Arapaima gigas)[205][206] - date uncertain the Amazon Basin meat, pets
Arapaima gigas at Beijing aquarium.JPG
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Wels catfish (Silurus glanis)[207] - date uncertain Europe meat
European Catfish (Silurus glanis) (13532570755).jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Iridescent shark (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) and Mekong giant catfish (P. gigas)[208] - date uncertain Southeast Asia meat, pets
Iridescent shark.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus)[209] - date uncertain California, Colorado meat
Mugil cephalus Minorca.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Green (Etroplus suratensis)[210]and orange chromides (E. maculatus); Canara pearlspot (E. canarensis) - date uncertain India meat, pets
Etroplus suratensis.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Yellowtail snapper (Ocyurus chrysurus) - date uncertain the Caribbean Sea meat, tourism
2006-10-06 18 - Yellowtail Snapper.JPG
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Northern red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus)[211] - date uncertain the Gulf of Mexico meat, research
Red snapper 2.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Greater (Seriola dumerili), Japanese (S. quinqueradiata) and yellowtail amberjacks (S. lalandi); longfin yellowtail (S. rivoliana)[212][213] - date uncertain the Mediterranean Sea, Japan, Chile, Hawaii meat
Seriola dumerili by NPS.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Southern (Paralichthys lethostigma) and olive flounders (P. olivaceus)[214] - the 1980s (uncertain for P. lethostigma) the United States, Japan, China, Korea meat
Paralichthys lethostigma.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
European (Anguilla anguilla), Japanese (A. japonica), American (A. rostrata), short-finned (A. australis) and New Zealand longfin eels (A. dieffenbachii[215][216][217][218] - date uncertain Europe, Asia, North America, Australia, New Zealand meat, research, medicine, pets
Anguilla anguilla.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Sugarbag bee (Tetragonula carbonaria) and Indian stingless bee (T. iridipennis) - date uncertain Australia, India honey, wax, propolis, pollination
Sugarbag bee.jpg
Held/tame in captivity 6a Hymenoptera
Dubia roach (Blaptica dubia) - date uncertain Central America, South America animal feed, pets
Dubia-cockroach-female-near-ruler.jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Mealworm (Tenebrio molitar) and superworm (Zophobas morio) - date uncertain Europe meat, animal feed, research
Zophobas morio larva - top (aka).jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) - date uncertain the United States research
Tribolium castaneum.jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens)[219] - date uncertain the United States meat, animal feed, pollination, decomposing
Hermetiaillucens.jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Waxworms (Achroia grisella and Galleria mellonella) - date uncertain Europe? meat, bait, animal feed, research
Achroia grisella caterpillars kleine wasmot rupsen (1).jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Mopane moth (Gonimbrasia belina)[220] - date uncertain Southern Africa meat, silk
Mopane Worm by Arne Larsen.jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)[221] - date uncertain North America meat, medicine, pets
American-cockroach.jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Pacific beetle cockroach (Diploptera punctata)[222][223][224][225] - date uncertain Hawaii research
Diploptera punctata adult.jpg
Captive-bred 6b Other insects
Flame jellyfish (Rhopilema esculentum)[226] - date uncertain China meat, medicine, pets
Rhopilema esculentum at Monterey Bay Aquarium.jpg
Captive-bred 7c Other animals
Giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini)[227] - date uncertain Japan, Korea meat, research, pets
Enteroctopus dolfeini.jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Common (Octopus vulgaris), common Sydney (O. tetricus), big blue (O. cyanea), Mexican four-eyed (O. maya), California two-spot (O. bimaculoides), Gould's (O. mimus), long arm (O. minor), Caribbean reef (O. briareus), Caribbean dwarf (O. mercatoris) and East Pacific red octopuses (O. rubescens)[228][229][230][231][232][233] - date uncertain Europe, Asia, North America, Western Australia, Hawaii, the Caribbean Sea meat, ink, research, pets
Octopus vulgaris 2.jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Webfoot (Amphioctopus fangsiao)[234] and coconut octopus (A. marginatus) - date uncertain South Korea, Sulawesi meat, research, pets
Ocellated octopus.jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Common periwinkle (Littorina littorea) - date uncertain Europe meat, shells
Littorina littorea 001.jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Garden snail (Cornu aspersum) - date uncertain Europe meat, eggs, shells, slime, pets
Snail1web.jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Giant Ghana African snail (Achatina achatina)[235] - date uncertain Ghana, Kenya meat, eggs, shells, slime, pets
Giant tiger land snail (Achatina achatina).jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Giant East African (Lissachatina fulica)[236] and African land snails (L. albopicta) - date uncertain East Africa meat, shells, slime, education, pets
Snail in Ubud, Bali, 2010 (1).jpg
Captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Pacific (Eptatretus stoutii) and inshore hagfishes (E. burgeri)[237][238] - date uncertain the United States, South Korea, Japan meat, skins, slime
Eptatretus stoutii 1.jpg
Captive-bred 5b Other fish
Mangrove horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda)[239] - date uncertain Asia meat, eggs, blood, pets
Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (mangrove horseshoe crab).jpg
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) - date uncertain North America meat, blood, research, pets
Limulus polyphemus (aq.).jpg
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Japanese (Tachypleus tridentatus) and Indo-Pacific horseshoe crabs (T. gigas) - date uncertain Japan, China, India meat, blood, pets
Tachypleus tridentatus.jpg
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Mud crab (Scylla serrata) - date uncertain Asia meat, pets
Scylla serrata Mud Crab.jpg
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Flower crab (Portunus armatus)[240][241] - date uncertain Australia meat
Portunus pelagicus male.jpg
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
Spanner crab (Ranina ranina)[242] - date uncertain Australia meat
Ranina ranina.jpg
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
European (Homarus gammarus) and American lobsters (H. americanus)[243][244][245] - date uncertain Europe, the United States meat
KreeftbijDenOsse.jpg
Captive-bred 6c Other arthropods
American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), northern leopard frog (L. pipiens) and wood frog (L. sylvaticus) - date uncertain North America meat, education, research, pets
North-American-bullfrog1.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Northern green frog (Lithobates clamitans melanota) - date uncertain North America pets
Male Green Frog - Hunterdon County, NJ.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Pool (Pelophylax lessonae) and marsh frogs (P. ridibundus)[246] - date uncertain Europe meat, pets
RanaLessonae1.JPG
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Pig frog (Lithobates grylio) - date uncertain North America meat, pets
Rana grylio.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Crab-eating frog (Fejervarya cancrivora) - date uncertain Java meat
Fejer cancri 050403 002 tdp.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Chinese edible frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus) and Indus Valley bullfrog (H. tigerinus) - date uncertain China, Thailand meat, pets
Hoplobatrachus rugulosus 2.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Chinese spiny frog (Quasipaa spinosa) - date uncertain China meat
Quasipaa spinosa.jpg
Captive-bred 4a Anura
Edible dormouse (Glis glis)[247] - classical antiquity (date uncertain) Europe meat, fat, fur, pets
Glis glis 0738.JPG
Captured in the wild and fattened for food Extended in the wild, no longer kept in captivity 1d Rodentia
Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) - the 14th century CE Europe meat
Blue mussel Mytilus edulis.jpg
Captured in the wild or captive-bred Extended in the wild and in captivity 7a Mollusca
New Zealand green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus) - the 1970s New Zealand meat
Green Lipped Mussel (314300764).jpg
Captured in the wild and captive-bred 7a Mollusca
Purple dye murex (Bolinus brandaris) - classical antiquity (date uncertain) the central and western Mediterranean Sea Tyrian purple, meat
Brandhorn Bolinus brandaris 2.jpg
Captive-bred No longer bred 7a Mollusca
Banded dye-murex (Hexaplex trunculus) - classical antiquity (date uncertain) the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean near the Mediterranean Sea purple dye, meat
Stumpfte Stachelschnecke-Hexaplex trunculus.jpg
Captive-bred No longer bred 7a Mollusca

Taxonomical groupings

The categories used in the Taxon group column are:

See also

References

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