To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

List of district-level subdivisions in Vietnam

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of district-level subdivisions (Vietnamese: đơn vị hành chính cấp huyện) of Vietnam. This level includes: district-level cities (thành phố thuộc Thành phố trực thuộc trung ương, thành phố thuộc Tỉnh), towns (thị xã), rural districts (huyện) and urban districts (quận). These subdivisions are further divided into communes () in rural areas (subdivisions under huyện, suburbans of towns and quận) and ward (phường) (subdivisions under cities and towns) in urban areas, and townships (thị trấn).

The urban areas (cities and towns) in the district-level are classified into 5 classes (from 1st to 2nd class urban area is recognized by Prime Minister of Vietnam, 3rd to 4th class is recognized by Ministry of Construction (Vietnam), 5th class is recognized by provincial-class People's Committee).

The district-level subdivisions are tabulated alphabetically:

No. Cities, towns,
districts
Province/Municipalities Notes
1 A Lưới Thừa Thiên-Huế
2 An Biên Kiên Giang
3 An Dương Hải Phòng
4 An Khê Gia Lai town
5 An Lão Hải Phòng urban district
6 An Lão Bình Định
7 An Minh Kiên Giang
8 An Nhơn Bình Định
9 An Phú An Giang
10 Anh Sơn Nghệ An
11 Ayun Pa Gia Lai town
12 Ân Thi Hưng Yên
13 Ba Bể Bắc Kạn
14 Ba Chẽ Quảng Ninh
15 Ba Đình Hà Nội urban district
16 Ba Tơ Quảng Ngãi
17 Ba Tri Bến Tre
18 Ba Vì Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
19 Bà Rịa Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu town
20 Bá Thước Thanh Hóa
21 Bác Ái Ninh Thuận
22 Bạc Liêu Bạc Liêu town
23 Bạch Long Vĩ Hải Phòng
24 Bạch Thông Bắc Kạn
25 Bảo Lạc Cao Bằng
26 Bảo Lâm Cao Bằng
27 Bảo Lâm Lâm Đồng
28 Bảo Lộc Lâm Đồng town
29 Bảo Thắng Lào Cai
30 Bảo Yên Lào Cai
31 Bát Xát Lào Cai
32 Bắc Bình Bình Thuận
33 Bắc Giang Bắc Giang city
34 Bắc Hà Lào Cai
35 Bắc Kạn Bắc Kạn town
36 Bắc Mê Hà Giang
37 Bắc Ninh Bắc Ninh city
38 Bắc Quang Hà Giang
39 Bắc Sơn Lạng Sơn
40 Bắc Trà My Quảng Nam
41 Bắc Yên Sơn La
42 Bến Cát Bình Dương
43 Bến Cầu Tây Ninh
44 Bến Lức Long An
45 Bến Tre Bến Tre town
46 Biên Hòa Đồng Nai city
47 Bỉm Sơn Thanh Hóa town
48 Bình Chánh Ho Chi Minh City
49 Bình Đại Bến Tre
50 Bình Gia Lạng Sơn
51 Bình Giang Hải Dương
52 Bình Liêu Quảng Ninh
53 Bình Long Bình Phước
54 Bình Lục Hà Nam
55 Bình Minh Vĩnh Long
56 Bình Sơn Quảng Ngãi
57 Bình Tân Ho Chi Minh City urban district
57 Bình Tân Vĩnh Long
58 Bình Thạnh Ho Chi Minh City urban district
59 Bình Thủy Cần Thơ urban district
60 Bình Xuyên Vĩnh Phúc
61 Bố Trạch Quảng Bình
62 Bù Đăng Bình Phước
63 Bù Đốp Bình Phước
64 Buôn Đôn Đắk Lắk
65 Buôn Ma Thuột Đắk Lắk city
66 Cà Mau Cà Mau city
67 Cai Lậy Tiền Giang
68 Cái Bè Tiền Giang
69 Cái Nước Cà Mau
70 Cái Răng Cần Thơ urban district
71 Cam Lâm Khánh Hòa
71 Cam Lộ Quảng Trị
72 Cam Ranh Khánh Hòa town
73 Can Lộc Hà Tĩnh
74 Càng Long Trà Vinh
75 Cao Bằng Cao Bằng town
76 Cao Lãnh Đồng Tháp city
77 Cao Lãnh Đồng Tháp rural district
78 Cao Lộc Lạng Sơn
79 Cao Phong Hòa Bình
80 Cát Hải Hải Phòng urban district
81 Cát Tiên Lâm Đồng
82 Cẩm Giàng Hải Dương
82 Cẩm Lệ Đà Nẵng urban district
83 Cẩm Mỹ Đồng Nai
84 Cẩm Phả Quảng Ninh town
85 Cẩm Thủy Thanh Hóa
86 Cẩm Xuyên Hà Tĩnh
87 Cần Đước Long An
88 Cần Giờ Ho Chi Minh City
89 Cần Giuộc Long An
90 Cầu Giấy Hà Nội urban district
91 Cầu Kè Trà Vinh
92 Cầu Ngang Trà Vinh
93 Châu Đốc An Giang town
94 Châu Đức Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu
95 Châu Phú An Giang
96 Châu Thành An Giang
97 Châu Thành Bến Tre
98 Châu Thành Đồng Tháp
99 Châu Thành Hậu Giang
100 Châu Thành Kiên Giang
101 Châu Thành Long An
102 Châu Thành Tây Ninh
103 Châu Thành Tiền Giang
104 Châu Thành Trà Vinh
105 Châu Thành A Hậu Giang
106 Chi Lăng Lạng Sơn
107 Chí Linh Hải Dương
108 Chiêm Hoá Tuyên Quang
109 Chợ Đồn Bắc Kạn
110 Chợ Gạo Tiền Giang
111 Chợ Lách Bến Tre
112 Chợ Mới Bắc Kạn
113 Chợ Mới An Giang
114 Chơn Thành Bình Phước
115 Chư Păh Gia Lai
116 Chư Prông Gia Lai
117 Chư Sê Gia Lai
118 Chương Mỹ Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
119 Con Cuông Nghệ An
120 Cô Tô Quảng Ninh
121 Côn Đảo Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu
122 Cồn Cỏ Quảng Trị
123 Cờ Đỏ Cần Thơ
124 Cù Lao Dung Sóc Trăng
125 Củ Chi Ho Chi Minh City
126 Cư Kuin Đắk Lắk
126 Cư Jút Đăk Nông
127 Cư M'gar Đắk Lắk
128 Cửa Lò Nghệ An town
129 Dầu Tiếng Bình Dương
130 Di Linh Lâm Đồng
131 Dĩ An Bình Dương
132 Diên Khánh Khánh Hòa
133 Diễn Châu Nghệ An
134 Duy Tiên Hà Nam
135 Duy Xuyên Quảng Nam
136 Duyên Hải Trà Vinh
137 Dương Kinh Hải Phòng urban district
137 Dương Minh Châu Tây Ninh
138 Đa Krông Quảng Trị
139 Đà Bắc Hòa Bình
140 Đà Lạt Lâm Đồng city
141 Đạ Huoai Lâm Đồng
142 Đạ Tẻh Lâm Đồng
143 Đại Lộc Quảng Nam
144 Đại Từ Thái Nguyên
145 Đắk Đoa Gia Lai
146 Đắk Pơ Gia Lai
147 Đan Phượng Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
148 Đắk Glei Kon Tum
149 Đăk Glong Đăk Nông
150 Đắk Hà Kon Tum
151 Đăk Mil Đăk Nông
152 Đăk R'Lấp Đăk Nông
153 Đăk Song Đăk Nông
154 Đắk Tô Kon Tum
155 Đầm Dơi Cà Mau
156 Đầm Hà Quảng Ninh
156 Đam Rông Lâm Đồng
157 Đất Đỏ Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu
158 Điện Bàn Quảng Nam
159 Điện Biên Điện Biên
160 Điện Biên Đông Điện Biên
161 Điện Biên Phủ Điện Biên city
162 Đình Lập Lạng Sơn
163 Định Hóa Thái Nguyên
164 Định Quán Đồng Nai
165 Đoan Hùng Phú Thọ
166 Đô Lương Nghệ An
167 Đồ Sơn Hải Phòng urban district
168 Đông Anh Hà Nội
169 Đông Giang Quảng Nam
170 Đông Hà Quảng Trị town
171 Đông Hải Bạc Liêu
172 Đông Hòa Phú Yên
172 Đông Hưng Thái Bình
173 Đông Sơn Thanh Hóa
174 Đông Triều Quảng Ninh
175 Đồng Hới Quảng Bình city
176 Đồng Hỷ Thái Nguyên
177 Đồng Phú Bình Phước
178 Đồng Văn Hà Giang
179 Đồng Xoài Bình Phước town
180 Đồng Xuân Phú Yên
181 Đống Đa Hà Nội urban district
182 Đơn Dương Lâm Đồng
183 Đức Cơ Gia Lai
184 Đức Hòa Long An
185 Đức Huệ Long An
186 Đức Linh Bình Thuận
187 Đức Phổ Quảng Ngãi
188 Đức Thọ Hà Tĩnh
189 Đức Trọng Lâm Đồng
190 Ea H'leo Đắk Lắk
191 Ea Kar Đắk Lắk
192 Ea Súp Đắk Lắk
193 Gia Bình Bắc Ninh
194 Gia Lâm Hà Nội
195 Gia Lộc Hải Dương
196 Gia Nghĩa Đăk Nông town
197 Gia Viễn Ninh Bình
198 Giá Rai Bạc Liêu
199 Giao Thủy Nam Định
200 Gio Linh Quảng Trị
201 Giồng Riềng Kiên Giang
202 Giồng Trôm Bến Tre
203 Gò Công Tiền Giang town
204 Gò Công Đông Tiền Giang
205 Gò Công Tây Tiền Giang
206 Gò Dầu Tây Ninh
207 Gò Quao Kiên Giang
208 Gò Vấp Ho Chi Minh City quận
210 Hà Đông Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province) city
211 Hà Giang Hà Giang town
215 Hà Quảng Cao Bằng
216 Hà Tiên Kiên Giang town
217 Hà Tĩnh Hà Tĩnh city
218 Hà Trung Thanh Hóa
212 Hạ Hòa Phú Thọ
213 Hạ Lang Cao Bằng
214 Hạ Long Quảng Ninh city
219 Hai Bà Trưng Hà Nội urban district
220 Hải Châu Đà Nẵng urban district
221 Hải Dương Hải Dương city
222 Hải Hậu Nam Định
223 Hải Lăng Quảng Trị
224 Hàm Tân Bình Thuận
225 Hàm Thuận Bắc Bình Thuận
226 Hàm Thuận Nam Bình Thuận
227 Hàm Yên Tuyên Quang
228 Hậu Lộc Thanh Hóa
229 Hiệp Đức Quảng Nam
230 Hiệp Hòa Bắc Giang
234 Hoa Lư Ninh Bình
231 Hòa An Cao Bằng
232 Hòa Bình Bạc Liêu
233 Hòa Bình Hòa Bình city
235 Hòa Thành Tây Ninh
236 Hòa Vang Đà Nẵng
237 Hoài Ân Bình Định
238 Hoài Đức Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
239 Hoài Nhơn Bình Định
240 Hoàn Kiếm Hà Nội urban district
242 Hoàng Mai Hà Nội urban district
148 Hoàng Sa Đà Nẵng island district
243 Hoàng Su Phì Hà Giang
244 Hoành Bồ Quảng Ninh
241 Hoằng Hóa Thanh Hóa
245 Hóc Môn Ho Chi Minh City
247 Hòn Đất Kiên Giang
246 Hội An Quảng Nam town
248 Hồng Bàng Hải Phòng urban district
249 Hồng Dân Bạc Liêu
250 Hồng Lĩnh Hà Tĩnh town
251 Hồng Ngự Đồng Tháp
252 Huế Thừa Thiên-Huế city
253 Hưng Hà Thái Bình
254 Hưng Nguyên Nghệ An
255 Hưng Yên Hưng Yên town
257 Hương Khê Hà Tĩnh
258 Hương Sơn Hà Tĩnh
259 Hương Thủy Thừa Thiên-Huế
260 Hương Trà Thừa Thiên-Huế
256 Hướng Hóa Quảng Trị
261 Hữu Lũng Lạng Sơn
262 Ia Grai Gia Lai
263 Ia Pa Gia Lai
264 K'Bang Gia Lai
265 Kế Sách Sóc Trăng
266 Khánh Sơn Khánh Hòa
267 Khánh Vĩnh Khánh Hòa
268 Khoái Châu Hưng Yên
270 Kiên Hải Kiên Giang
271 Kiên Lương Kiên Giang
269 Kiến An Hải Phòng urban district
272 Kiến Thụy District Hải Phòng
273 Kiến Xương Thái Bình
274 Kim Bảng Hà Nam
275 Kim Bôi Hòa Bình
276 Kim Động Hưng Yên
277 Kim Sơn Ninh Bình
278 Kim Thành Hải Dương
279 Kinh Môn Hải Dương
280 Kon Plông Kon Tum
281 Kon Rẫy Kon Tum
282 Kon Tum Kon Tum town
283 Kông Chro Gia Lai
284 Krông Ana Đắk Lắk
285 Krông Bông Đắk Lắk
286 Krông Buk Đắk Lắk
287 Krông Năng Đắk Lắk
288 Krông Nô Đăk Nông
289 Krông Pa Gia Lai
290 Krông Pắk Đắk Lắk
291 Kỳ Anh Hà Tĩnh
292 Kỳ Sơn Hòa Bình
293 Kỳ Sơn Nghệ An
294 La Gi Bình Thuận town
295 Lạc Dương Lâm Đồng
296 Lạc Sơn Hòa Bình
297 Lạc Thủy Hòa Bình
298 Lai Châu Lai Châu town
299 Lai Vung Đồng Tháp
300 Lang Chánh Thanh Hóa
301 Lạng Giang Bắc Giang
302 Lạng Sơn Lạng Sơn city
303 Lào Cai Lào Cai city
304 Lắk Đắk Lắk
305 Lâm Hà Lâm Đồng
306 Lâm Thao Phú Thọ
307 Lấp Vò Đồng Tháp
308 Lập Thạch Vĩnh Phúc
309 Lê Chân Hải Phòng urban district
310 Lệ Thủy Quảng Bình
311 Liên Chiểu Đà Nẵng urban district
312 Long Biên Hà Nội urban district
313 Long Điền Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu
314 Long Hồ Vĩnh Long
315 Long Khánh Đồng Nai town
316 Long Mỹ Hậu Giang
317 Long Phú Sóc Trăng
318 Long Thành Đồng Nai
319 Long Xuyên An Giang city
320 Lộc Bình Lạng Sơn
320 Lộc Hà Hà Tĩnh
321 Lộc Ninh Bình Phước
322 Lục Nam Bắc Giang
323 Lục Ngạn Bắc Giang
324 Lục Yên Yên Bái
325 Lương Sơn Hòa Bình
326 Lương Tài Bắc Ninh
327 Lý Nhân Hà Nam
328 Lý Sơn Quảng Ngãi island district
329 Mai Châu Hòa Bình
330 Mai Sơn Sơn La
331 Mang Thít Vĩnh Long
332 Mang Yang Gia Lai
333 M'Đrăk Đắk Lắk
334 Mèo Vạc Hà Giang
335 Mê Linh Vĩnh Phúc
336 Minh Hóa Quảng Bình
337 Minh Long Quảng Ngãi
338 Mỏ Cày Bến Tre
339 Móng Cái Quảng Ninh town
340 Mộ Đức Quảng Ngãi
341 Mộc Châu Sơn La
342 Mộc Hóa Long An
343 Mù Cang Chải Yên Bái
344 Mường Ảng Điện Biên
344 Mường Chà Điện Biên
345 Mường Khương Lào Cai
346 Mường La Sơn La
347 Mường Lát Thanh Hóa
348 Mường Lay Điện Biên town
349 Mường Nhé Điện Biên
350 Mường Tè Lai Châu
351 Mỹ Đức Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
352 Mỹ Hào Hưng Yên
353 Mỹ Lộc Nam Định
354 Mỹ Tho Tiền Giang city
355 Mỹ Tú Sóc Trăng
356 Mỹ Xuyên Sóc Trăng
357 Na Hang Tuyên Quang
358 Na Rì Bắc Kạn
359 Nam Đàn Nghệ An
360 Nam Định Nam Định city
361 Nam Đông Thừa Thiên-Huế
362 Nam Giang Quảng Nam
363 Nam Sách Hải Dương
364 Nam Trà My Quảng Nam
365 Nam Trực Nam Định
366 Năm Căn Cà Mau
367 Nga Sơn Thanh Hóa
368 Ngã Năm Sóc Trăng
369 Ngân Sơn Bắc Kạn
370 Nghi Lộc Nghệ An
371 Nghi Xuân Hà Tĩnh
372 Nghĩa Đàn Nghệ An
373 Nghĩa Hành Quảng Ngãi
374 Nghĩa Hưng Nam Định
375 Nghĩa Lộ Yên Bái town
376 Ngọc Hiển Cà Mau
377 Ngọc Hồi Kon Tum
378 Ngọc Lặc Thanh Hóa
379 Ngô Quyền Hải Phòng urban district
380 Ngũ Hành Sơn Đà Nẵng urban district
381 Nguyên Bình Cao Bằng
382 Nha Trang Khánh Hòa city
383 Nhà Bè Ho Chi Minh City
384 Nho Quan Ninh Bình
385 Nhơn Trạch Đồng Nai
386 Như Thanh Thanh Hóa
387 Như Xuân Thanh Hóa
388 Ninh Bình Ninh Bình city
389 Ninh Giang Hải Dương
390 Ninh Hải Ninh Thuận
391 Ninh Hòa Khánh Hòa
392 Ninh Kiều Cần Thơ urban district
393 Ninh Phước Ninh Thuận
394 Ninh Sơn Ninh Thuận
395 Nông Cống Thanh Hóa
396 Núi Thành Quảng Nam
397 Ô Môn Cần Thơ urban district
398 Pác Nặm Bắc Kạn
399 Phan Rang–Tháp Chàm Ninh Thuận city
400 Phan Thiết Bình Thuận city
401 Phong Điền Thừa Thiên-Huế
402 Phong Điền Cần Thơ
403 Phong Thổ Lai Châu
404 Phổ Yên Thái Nguyên
405 Phú Bình Thái Nguyên
406 Phú Giáo Bình Dương
407 Phú Hòa Phú Yên
408 Phú Lộc Thừa Thiên-Huế
409 Phú Lương Thái Nguyên
410 Phú Nhuận Ho Chi Minh City urban district
411 Phú Ninh Quảng Nam
412 Phú Quý Bình Thuận island district
413 Phú Quốc Kiên Giang
414 Phú Tân An Giang
415 Phú Tân Cà Mau
416 Phú Thiện Gia Lai
416 Phú Thọ Phú Thọ town
417 Phú Vang Thừa Thiên-Huế
418 Phú Xuyên Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
419 Phù Cát Bình Định
420 Phù Cừ Hưng Yên
421 Phù Mỹ Bình Định
422 Phù Ninh Phú Thọ
423 Phù Yên Sơn La
424 Phủ Lý Hà Nam town
425 Phúc Thọ Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
426 Phúc Yên Vĩnh Phúc town
427 Phục Hòa Cao Bằng
428 Phụng Hiệp Hậu Giang
429 Phước Long Bình Phước
430 Phước Long Bạc Liêu
431 Phước Sơn Quảng Nam
432 Pleiku Gia Lai city
433 Quận 1 Ho Chi Minh City
434 Quận 2 Ho Chi Minh City
435 Quận 3 Ho Chi Minh City
436 Quận 4 Ho Chi Minh City
437 Quận 5 Ho Chi Minh City
438 Quận 6 Ho Chi Minh City
439 Quận 7 Ho Chi Minh City
440 Quận 8 Ho Chi Minh City
441 Quận 9 Ho Chi Minh City
442 Quận 10 Ho Chi Minh City
443 Quận 11 Ho Chi Minh City
444 Quận 12 Ho Chi Minh City
445 Quan Hóa Thanh Hóa
446 Quan Sơn Thanh Hóa
447 Quản Bạ Hà Giang
448 Quang Bình Hà Giang
449 Quảng Điền Thừa Thiên-Huế
450 Quảng Hà Quảng Ninh
451 Quảng Ngãi Quảng Ngãi city
452 Quảng Ninh Quảng Bình
453 Quảng Trạch Quảng Bình
454 Quảng Trị Quảng Trị town
455 Quảng Uyên Cao Bằng
456 Quảng Xương Thanh Hóa
457 Quế Phong Nghệ An
458 Quế Sơn Quảng Nam
459 Quế Võ Bắc Ninh
460 Qui Nhơn Bình Định city
461 Quốc Oai Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
462 Quỳ Châu Nghệ An
463 Quỳ Hợp Nghệ An
464 Quỳnh Lưu Nghệ An
465 Quỳnh Nhai Sơn La
466 Quỳnh Phụ Thái Bình
467 Rạch Giá Kiên Giang city
468 Sa Đéc Đồng Tháp town
469 Sa Pa Lào Cai town
470 Sa Thầy Kon Tum
471 Sầm Sơn Thanh Hóa town
472 Si Ma Cai Lào Cai
473 Sìn Hồ Lai Châu
474 Sóc Sơn Hà Nội
475 Sóc Trăng Sóc Trăng city
476 Sông Cầu Phú Yên
477 Sông Công Thái Nguyên town
478 Sông Hinh Phú Yên
479 Sông Mã Sơn La
480 Sốp Cộp Sơn La
481 Sơn Động Bắc Giang
482 Sơn Dương Tuyên Quang
483 Sơn Hà Quảng Ngãi
484 Sơn Hòa Phú Yên
485 Sơn La Sơn La town
486 Sơn Tây Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province) city
487 Sơn Tây Quảng Ngãi
488 Sơn Tịnh Quảng Ngãi
489 Sơn Trà Đà Nẵng urban district
490 Tam Bình Vĩnh Long
491 Tam Dương Vĩnh Phúc
492 Tam Điệp Ninh Bình town
493 Tam Đường Lai Châu
494 Tam Kỳ Quảng Nam city
495 Tam Nông Đồng Tháp
496 Tam Nông Phú Thọ
497 Tánh Linh Bình Thuận
498 Tân An Long An city
499 Tân Biên Tây Ninh
500 Tân Bình Ho Chi Minh City urban district
501 Tân Châu An Giang
502 Tân Châu Tây Ninh
503 Tân Hiệp Kiên Giang
504 Ngã Bảy (formerly Tân Hiệp) Hậu Giang town
505 Tân Hồng Đồng Tháp
506 Tân Hưng Long An
507 Tân Kỳ Nghệ An
508 Tân Lạc Hòa Bình
509 Tân Phú Đồng Nai
510 Tân Phú Ho Chi Minh City urban district
510 Tân Phước Tiền Giang
510 Tân Sơn Phú Thọ
511 Tân Thành Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu
512 Tân Thạnh Long An
513 Tân Trụ Long An
514 Tân Uyên Bình Dương
515 Tân Yên Bắc Giang
516 Tây Giang Quảng Nam
517 Tây Hòa Phú Yên
517 Tây Hồ Hà Nội urban district
518 Tây Ninh Tây Ninh town
519 Tây Sơn Bình Định
520 Tây Trà Quảng Ngãi
521 Thạch An Cao Bằng
522 Thạch Hà Hà Tĩnh
523 Thạch Thành Thanh Hóa
524 Thạch Thất Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
525 Thái Bình Thái Bình city
526 Thái Nguyên Thái Nguyên city
527 Thái Thụy Thái Bình
528 Than Uyên Lai Châu
529 Thanh Ba Phú Thọ
530 Thanh Bình Đồng Tháp
531 Thanh Chương Nghệ An
532 Thanh Hà Hải Dương
533 Thanh Hóa Thanh Hóa city
534 Thanh Khê Đà Nẵng urban district
535 Thanh Liêm Hà Nam
536 Thanh Miện Hải Dương
537 Thanh Oai Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
538 Thanh Sơn Phú Thọ
539 Thanh Thủy Phú Thọ
540 Thanh Trì Hà Nội
541 Thanh Xuân Hà Nội urban district
542 Thạnh Hóa Long An
543 Thạnh Phú Bến Tre
544 Thạnh Trị Sóc Trăng
545 Tháp Mười Đồng Tháp
546 Thăng Bình Quảng Nam
547 Thiệu Hóa Thanh Hóa
548 Thọ Xuân Thanh Hóa
549 Thoại Sơn An Giang
550 Thông Nông Cao Bằng
551 Thống Nhất Đồng Nai
552 Thốt Nốt Cần Thơ
553 Thới Bình Cà Mau
554 Thủ Dầu Một Bình Dương town
555 Thủ Đức Ho Chi Minh City municipal city
556 Thủ Thừa Long An
557 Thuận An Bình Dương
558 Thuận Bắc Ninh Thuận
559 Thuận Châu Sơn La
560 Thuận Thành Bắc Ninh
561 Thủy Nguyên Hải Phòng
562 Thường Tín Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
563 Thường Xuân Thanh Hóa
564 Tiên Du Bắc Ninh
565 Tiền Hải Thái Bình
566 Tiên Lãng Hải Phòng
567 Tiên Lữ Hưng Yên
568 Tiên Phước Quảng Nam
569 Tiên Yên Quảng Ninh
570 Tiểu Cần Trà Vinh
571 Tĩnh Gia Thanh Hóa
572 Tịnh Biên An Giang
573 Trà Bồng Quảng Ngãi
574 Trà Cú Trà Vinh
575 Trà Lĩnh Cao Bằng
576 Trà Ôn Vĩnh Long
577 Trà Vinh Trà Vinh town
578 Trạm Tấu Yên Bái
579 Tràng Định Lạng Sơn
580 Trảng Bàng Tây Ninh
581 Trảng Bom Đồng Nai
582 Trấn Yên Yên Bái
583 Trần Văn Thời Cà Mau
584 Tri Tôn An Giang
585 Triệu Phong Quảng Trị
586 Triệu Sơn Thanh Hóa
587 Trùng Khánh Cao Bằng
588 Trực Ninh Nam Định
589 Trường Sa Khánh Hòa island district
590 Tủa Chùa Điện Biên
591 Tuần Giáo Điện Biên
591 Tu Mơ Rông Kon Tum
592 Tuy An Phú Yên
593 Tuy Đức Đăk Nông
594 Tuy Hòa Phú Yên city
595 Tuy Phong Bình Thuận
596 Tuy Phước Bình Định
597 Tuyên Hóa Quảng Bình
598 Tuyên Quang Tuyên Quang town
599 Tư Nghĩa Quảng Ngãi
600 Tứ Kỳ Hải Dương
601 Từ Liêm Hà Nội
602 Từ Sơn Bắc Ninh
603 Tương Dương Nghệ An
604 U Minh Cà Mau
604 U Minh Thượng Kiên Giang
605 Uông Bí Quảng Ninh town
606 Ứng Hòa Hanoi (formerly Hà Tây Province)
607 Vạn Ninh Khánh Hòa
608 Văn Bàn Lào Cai
609 Văn Chấn Yên Bái
610 Văn Giang Hưng Yên
611 Vãn Lãng Lạng Sơn
612 Văn Lâm Hưng Yên
613 Văn Quan Lạng Sơn
614 Văn Yên Yên Bái
615 Vân Canh Bình Định
616 Vân Đồn Quảng Ninh
617 Vị Thanh Hậu Giang town
618 Vị Thủy Hậu Giang
619 Vị Xuyên Hà Giang
620 Việt Trì Phú Thọ city
621 Việt Yên Bắc Giang
622 Vinh Nghệ An city
623 Vĩnh Bảo Hải Phòng
624 Vĩnh Châu Sóc Trăng
625 Vĩnh Cửu Đồng Nai
626 Vĩnh Hưng Long An
627 Vĩnh Linh Quảng Trị
628 Vĩnh Long Vĩnh Long town
629 Vĩnh Lộc Thanh Hóa
630 Vĩnh Lợi Bạc Liêu
631 Vĩnh Thạnh Bình Định
632 Vĩnh Thạnh Cần Thơ
633 Vĩnh Thuận Kiên Giang
634 Vĩnh Tường Vĩnh Phúc
635 Vĩnh Yên Vĩnh Phúc city
636 Võ Nhai Thái Nguyên
637 Vũ Quang Hà Tĩnh
638 Vũ Thư Thái Bình
639 Vụ Bản Nam Định
640 Vũng Liêm Vĩnh Long
641 Vũng Tàu Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu city
642 Xín Mần Hà Giang
643 Xuân Lộc Đồng Nai
644 Xuân Trường Nam Định
645 Xuyên Mộc Bà Rịa-Vũng Tàu
646 Ý Yên Nam Định
647 Yên Bái Yên Bái city
648 Yên Bình Yên Bái
649 Yên Châu Sơn La
650 Yên Dũng Bắc Giang
651 Yên Định Thanh Hóa
652 Yên Hưng Quảng Ninh
653 Yên Khánh Ninh Bình
654 Yên Lạc Vĩnh Phúc
655 Yên Lập Phú Thọ
656 Yên Minh Hà Giang
657 Yên Mô Ninh Bình
658 Yên Mỹ Hưng Yên
659 Yên Phong Bắc Ninh
660 Yên Sơn Tuyên Quang
661 Yên Thành Nghệ An
662 Yên Thế Bắc Giang
663 Yên Thủy Hòa Bình

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/5
    Views:
    300 656
    7 796
    37 392
    11 084
    1 774
  • Uncharted Territory: David Thompson on the Columbia Plateau
  • Decolonizing Language Revitalization
  • Ames Moot Court Competition 2017
  • The Saskatoon Police Service - Never the Same Day Twice
  • Think Indigenous 11 Dr Pam Palmater_March 20 2015

Transcription

MAPS. KNOWING WHERE WE ARE ON THIS EARTH. POWERFUL INFORMATION THAT OPENS UP NEW WORLDS. 200 YEARS AGO, CANADIAN EXPLORER, FUR TRADER AND SURVEYOR DAVID THOMPSON MAPPED THE UNCHARTED VAST INTERIOR OF WESTERN NORTH AMERICA. HE RETRACED THOUSANDS OF ANCIENT TRIBAL TRAILS. "HE'S AS MUCH A MAPMAKER OF THE CANADIAN IMAGINATION AS HE IS A SURVEYOR AND CARTOGRAPHER." THOMPSON WAS LIKE A HUMAN MAP-QUEST. ARMED WITH A SEXTANT, HE SPENT DECADES IN THE WILDERNESS TRAVELING 55,000 MILES BY SNOWSHOE, HORSEBACK, DOGSLED, AND CANOE, USING THE STARS TO MAP ONE FIFTH OF THE CONTINENT, 1.5 MILLION SQUARE MILES. "THERE WERE TIMES WHEN IT WAS 20-30 DEGREES BELOW ZERO" "HIS MIND, WAS THIS BIG COMPLEX MIND WORKING ON A LOT OF CYLINDERS" IN SALISH, HIS NAME WAS KOO KOO SINT, THE MAN WHO LOOKS AT STARS. "THERE'S SOMETHING REALLY SPECIAL AND UNIQUE ABOUT USING A SEXTANT, LOOKING AT THE STARS, LOOKING TO THE HEAVENS TO FIND YOUR WAY ON EARTH." THOMPSON MAPPED AS FAR NORTH AS ATHABASCA, SOUTH TO THE MISSOURI, FROM HUDSON BAY. TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN. EVEN LEWIS AND CLARK USED ONE OF THOMPSON'S MAPS. THOMPSON, SOME THINK, WAS THE GREATEST LAND "WHETHER IT'S THOMPSON SKETCHING MAPS OR WHETHER IT'S THOMPSON SKETCHING MOUNTAINS, OR THOMPSON SKETCHING THESE WONDERFUL SUCCINCT POETIC STATEMENTS ABOUT THE PEOPLE AND THEIR LANGUAGES AND THEIR INTERACTIONS, HE'S VERY RELEVANT" IN 1807, THOMPSON CROSSED THE CONTINENTAL DIVIDE INTO UNCHARTED TERRITORY. HE WAS SEARCHING FOR THE COLUMBIA RIVER, THE INLAND NORTHWEST PASSAGE FROM THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS TO THE SEA. FOR FIVE YEARS, THOMPSON EXPLORED THE COLUMBIA PLATEAU, ITS RIVERS, AND THE UNIQUE PEOPLE WHO LIVED THERE. OUR STORY CENTERS ON THIS UNIQUE TIME. ♪ ♪ VOYAGEURS SINGING IT'S A COLD MAY MORNING ON THE NORTH SASKATCHEWAN RIVER. BATTLING HEADWINDS, THE 2008 DAVID THOMPSON BRIGADE IS RETRACING A RIVER HIGHWAY FROM THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS TO LAKE SUPERIOR. "THESE RIVER HIGHWAYS LED TO CANADA AS WE KNOW IT. AND, IT'S POSSIBLE TO GO FROM THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS ALL THE WAY TO THE ATLANTIC, ALL THE WAY TO THE HUDSON BAY" THE FUR TRADE WAS BUILT ON THESE RIVER HIGHWAYS. TRADE GOODS WERE BROUGHT IN, FURS WERE BROUGHT OUT, ALMOST ALL BY WATER. IN ENGLAND, HIGH FASHION FELT HATS, WERE MADE OUT OF THE BEAVER FURS. EXTREMELY VALUABLE AND OFTEN PASSED FROM FATHER TO SON. THE VOYAGEURS, PRIMARILY FRENCH CANADIAN, WERE THE BACKBONE OF THE FUR TRADE. THE VOYAGEURS WRE LABORERS, THE HEAVY LIFTERS EXPECTED TO WORK 16 HOURS A DAY, PADDLING 55 STOKES PER MINUTE. THE BIRCH BARK CANOE WAS THE TRANSPORTATION OF CHOICE. "IT WAS THE SEMI TRAILER OF THE DAY, THERE'S JUST NO QUESTION ABOUT IT. WE'RE TALKING ABOUT A 25' BOAT, FOUR FEET ACROSS THE BEAM, IT WAS ABLE TO CARRY A TON AND A HALF OF TRADE CARGO". THE NORTH AMERICAN FUR TRADE WAS BOOMING THE YEAR DAVID THOMPSON WAS BORN. BORN IN LONDON IN 1770, DAVID THOMPSON WAS RAISED BY HIS WIDOWED MOTHER IN THE TOUGH PART OF WESTMINSTER. AT SEVEN, HE ENTERED THE GREY COAT CHARITY SCHOOL, DEDICATED TO EDUCATING POOR CHILDREN. "IF YOU WERE SMART YOU GOT YOU GOT ON A HONOR'S TRACK, SO HE WAS TAKING TRIGONOMETRY WHEN HE WAS 12, 13 YEARS OLD AND GETTING GOOD AT IT. " THOMPSON LEARNED THE BASICS OF PRACTICAL NAVIGATION, THE USE OF A QUADRANT AND CROSS STAFF AND STANDARD METHODS FOR DETERMINING LATITUDE. "THE HUDSON'S BAY CO. KNEW ABOUT THESE CHARITY SCHOOLS AS DID THE BRITISH NAVY AND THEY WERE LOOKING FOR PEOPLE WITH SURVEYING SKILLS. " IN 1784, TWO STUDENTS WERE APPRENTICED TO THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY FOR SEVEN YEARS, TO WORK IN THE NORTH AMERICAN FUR TRADE. ONE RAN AWAY. THE OTHER WAS 14 YEAR OLD DAVID THOMPSON. "IT MUST HAVE BEEN PRETTY SHOCKING TO LAND ON THE SHORE OF HUDSON BAY, WHICH ALONE IS A PRETTY RUGGED PLACE, LET ALONE THE KIND OF PEOPLE HE WAS SURROUNDED BY" ".BEING THRUST INTO AN ALIEN LANDSCAPE WHILE STILL AN ADOLESCENT. LEARNING CREE, LEARNING PIEGAN, LEARNING FRENCH, COMING TO KNOW THE LANDS OF THE PEOPLE OF WESTERN NORTH AMERICA FIRST HAND. " WITHIN MONTHS THE ALIEN LANDSCAPE FROZE. "THERE WERE PEOPLE THAT FOLDED UP UNDER THE PRESSURE OF BEING ABOVE THE TREE LINE. HE NEVER COMPLAINED ABOUT BEING COLD. HE GOES OUT AND LEARNS HOW TO HUNT POLAR BEARS, AND PTARMIGAN AND FISH AND LOOKS AT MOSQUITOES, AND I MEAN HIS BOUNDLESS CURIOSITY DEVELOPED AT THE GREY COAT SCHOOL IS GIVEN A WHOLE CONTINENT TO FLOURISH. " THE FUR TRADE WAS BOTH A NATIVE AND EUROPEAN WORLD. "WE MAKE A MISTAKE IN THINKING THAT WE LIVE IN A MULTICULTURAL AGE, BECAUSE IF WE LOOK BACK AT THE WORLD OF THE WEST, IN THE LATE 18TH AND EARLY 19TH CENTURIES, WE HAVE THE ABORIGINAL PRESENCE AND THERE IS SO MUCH DIVERSITY ALREADY JUST WITHIN THAT WORLD. SO YOU'RE HEARING ALL THE NATIVE LANGUAGES, YOU'RE HEARING ENGLISH, GAELIC, FRENCH, IT'S JUST SUCH A FANTASTIC TAPESTRY OR MOSAIC OF CULTURES. " AT 17, THOMPSON WAS SENT WEST TO WINTER WITH THE BLACKFEET AT A WINTERING CAMP NEAR CALGARY, ALBERTA. " AND THAT'S WHERE HE MET SAUKAMAPPEE AND KOOTENAI APPE, THE GREAT WAR CHIEF, AND SOKATOW THE CIVIL CHIEF. SO, HE FORMED A RELATIONSHIP WITH THE PIEGAN, HE LEARNED THEIR LANGUAGE" "THERE'S 5 WHITE GUYS IN A WINTER CAMP OF ABOUT 25 HUNDRED BLACKFEET, BUT THE BLACKFEET ARE VERY HOSPITABLE TO THEM, AND THEY TAKE THIS YOUNG TEENAGER AND PUT HIM IN THE TENT OF AN ELDER WHICH WAS VERY GRACIOUS THING TO DO SO HE COULD LEARN SOMETHING DURING THE WINTER" DAVID THOMPSON JOURNAL: WE WERE LODGED IN THE TENT OF AN OLD MAN. HE WAS FULL SIX FEET IN HEIGHT, ERECT, AND OF A FRAME THAT SHOWED STRENGTH AND ACTIVITY. I SAT AND LISTENED WITHOUT BEING IN THE LEAST TIRED" THE ELDER WAS A CREE NAMED SAUKAMAPPEE. NIGHT AFTER NIGHT, THOMPSON LISTENED TO SAUKEMAPPE TELL STORIES. "SAUKAMAPPEE LIVED A LIFE PROBABLY AS INTERESTING AS THOMPSON'S. HE WITNESSED THE INTRODUCTION OF THE HORSE TO THE PLAINS. THE INTRODUCTION OF FIREARMS TO PLAINS WAR WARFARE. HE WITNESSED THE SMALLPOX EPIDEMIC. AND HE WAS ABLE TO RELATE ALL THAT TO THOMPSON AND THOMPSON IN TURN COULD RELATE IT TO US. " "IT'S REALLY EASY TO SEE HIS EDUCATION TO WESTERN NORTH AMERICA BEGINNING IN THAT TENT. " "DAVID THOMPSON HAD THE MISFORTUNE TO BREAK HIS LEG AND IT WAS SO SWELLED THAT I FOUND IT A DIFFICULT MATTER TO SET IT. WHATEVER THE CONSEQUENCE MAY BE IS YET UNCERTAIN,. . BUT SHALL HOPE FOR THE BEST. --- WILLIAM TOMISON HUDSON BAY COMPANY 1789" THOMPSON LEARNED PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY WHILE RECUPERATING FROM A BROKEN LEG WHEN HE WAS 19. HE STUDIED UNDER PHILIP TURNOR, THE BEST GEOGRAPHER IN THE NEW WORLD AT THE TIME. "BUT IF YOU GO THROUGH HIS JOURNALS, THEY'RE FILLED WITH ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS AND TAKEN DOWN IN THE MOST METICULOUS MANNER. IT WAS A LABOR OF LOVE FOR HIM. HE WOULD GET UP IN THE MIDDLE OF THE NIGHT TO LOOK AT THE STARS. I MEAN YOU REALLY HAVE TO BE COMMITTED TO SOMETHING TO DO THAT. AND HE WOULD TAKE READINGS AGAIN AND AGAIN, OF A SINGLE PLACE AND THEN AVERAGED THEM OUT TO TRY TO PINPOINT THAT ONE SPOT ON THE SURFACE OF THE GLOBE. IT'S ALMOST SOMETHING IT SEEMS HE WAS COMPELLED TO DO. " IT'S A VERY SMALL WORLD OF PEOPLE WHO HAD THIS SKILL, AND THOMPSON, WHO IS COMING FROM NOWHERE IS IN IT, AND HE CAN DO IT AS GOOD AS ANYBODY" DENNY DEMEYER IS A LAND SURVEYOR AND A MEMBER OF THE SURVEYOR'S HISTORICAL SOCIETY. "THE EARLIEST DEFINITION OF SURVEYING WAS CALLED PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY, SO WE WERE ALL PRACTICAL ASTRONOMERS ONCE UPON A TIME" DEMEYER COLLECTS 200 YEAR OLD SURVEYING EQUIPMENT. "THIS IS A 10 INCH LATTICE WORK SEXTANT OF THE TYPE USED BY DAVID THOMPSON, IT WAS MANUFACTURED IN LONDON. SEXTANTS WERE USED TO MEASURE THE ANGLES BETWEEN CELESTIAL OBJECTS AND THE HORIZON TO LOCATE ONES POSITION ON THE GLOBE. "THE LARGE PROBLEM EVERYONE HAD WAS ESTABLISHING LONGITUDE. LATITUDE WAS FAIRLY EASY TO ESTABLISH AND THEY HAD BEEN DOING THAT SINCE THE 1500S, BUT LONGITUDE, HOW FAR EAST AND WEST YOU WERE, WAS INCREDIBLY DIFFICULT TO DETERMINE. " THOMPSON USED MERCURY POURED INTO A TRAY TO CREATE AN ARTIFICIAL HORIZON. OTHER TOOLS INCLUDED A FOUR FOOT ACHROMATIC DOLLOND TELESCOPE, A WATCH, A THERMOMETER, THE LATEST EDITION OF THE NAUTICAL ALMANAC, AND OTHER REFERENCE TABLES. AFTER THOMPSON'S APPRENTICESHIP, HE CONTINUED TO WORK FOR THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY. BUT AT AGE 27, THOMPSON ABRUPTLY LEFT THEIR EMPLOY. AFTER 13 YEARS OF SERVICE, HE WALKED TO THE NEAREST NORTH WEST COMPANY POST AND SIGNED ON WITH THE COMPETITION. "HE FELT HE WASN'T GETTING ENOUGH ENCOURAGEMENT TO GO ON SURVEYS. THAT THE HUDSON'S BAY CO. HAD A MEAN AND SELFISH POLICY, WHERE THE NORTHWEST CO WERE MORE LIBERAL MINDED. " "THOMPSON DID NOT GIVE HUDSON'S BAY A YEAR NOTICE AND THAT WAS CONSIDERED VERY BAD FORM" "WILLIAM TOMISON WROTE THAT IF HE EVER MET DAVID THOMPSON, HE WOULD BE TEMPTED TO PULL HIS EARS OFF, SO THERE CERTAINLY WERE PEOPLE WITHIN THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY THAT WERE VERY ANGRY WHEN DAVID THOMPSON LEFT." UNLIKE THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY, THAT WAS CONTROLLED FROM AFAR IN LONDON, THE NORTH WEST COMPANY WAS BASED OUT OF MONTREAL. THE PARTNERS, USUALLY SCOTS, SHARED IN THE PROFITS. THOMPSON'S FIRST ASSIGNMENT WAS AN AMBITIOUS ONE,. SURVEYING TRADING POSTS FROM THE GREAT LAKES TO NORTH DAKOTA. IN 10 MONTHS HE COVERED 4,000 MILES. ON THAT JOURNEY, THOMPSON TOOK THE FIRST ACCURATE LONGITUDE OF AN IMPORTANT MANDAN VILLAGE TRADING CENTER IN NORTH DAKOTA. HE INTERVIEWED ELDERS, GATHERING IMPORTANT TRIBAL KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE UPPER MISSOURI. " HE'S COMBINING TRIBAL INFORMATION AND OUTDOOR SKILLS THAT HE'S LEARNED IN HIS APPRENTICESHIP WITH EUROPEAN STYLE WRITING AND MAP MAKING AND IT'S QUITE AN ENGAGING MIX. AND HE GOES BACK AND MAKES A MAP OF WHAT HE CALLS THE BEND OF THE MISSOURI" THOMPSON'S ' BEND OF THE MISSOURI' MAP ENDS UP IN THE HANDS OF THOMAS JEFFERSON. " JEFFERSON MAKES SOME HANDWRITTEN NOTES ON THIS MAP OF THOMPSON AND ITS NOW IN OUR LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. THE TWO NOTES THAT JEFFERSON WRITES ON THERE ARE MR. THOMPSON'S LONGITUDE FOR THESE VILLAGES IS, AND HE KNOWS THAT'S IMPORTANT, AND THAT IS WHERE LEWIS & CLARK END UP SPENDING THEIR FIRST WINTER, IT'S THE PERFECT STOPPING POINT AND THEN ON THE OTHER SIDE IN REVERSE IT SAYS THIS MAP BELONGS TO CAPT. LEWIS. " "ON THIS DAY I MARRIED CHARLOTTE SMALL ... DAVID THOMPSON, JUNE 10, 1799" AT 29, THOMPSON MARRIED CHARLOTTE SMALL AT ILE A LA CROSSE , A TRADING POST ON THE CHURCHILL RIVER. OF MIXED BLOOD, CHARLOTTE'S MOTHER WAS NAHATHAWAY CREE AND HER FATHER, A SCOTTISH FUR TRADER. "THEY KNEW THAT THESE KINDS OF RELATIONSHIPS THAT THEY FORMED WITH NATIVE WOMEN, WOULD NOT QUALIFY AS MARRIAGES. THERE WERE NO MINISTERS AROUND, THERE WAS NO CHURCH. THEY DIDN'T VIEW THEM AS MARRIAGES IN THEIR EYES" "THE FUR TRADE DOESN'T WORK WITHOUT THEM. THOMPSON ALWAYS TRAVELS WITH WOMEN. HE IS DEPENDING ON THEM. AND HE HAS A MIXED BLOOD WIFE JUST LIKE EVERYBODY ELSE DOES. " "MY LOVELY WIFE IS OF THE BLOOD OF THESE PEOPLE, SPEAKING THEIR LANGUAGE AND WELL EDUCATED IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, WHICH GIVES ME A GREAT ADVANTAGE. " "THE TRADERS ALWAYS RECOGNIZED THAT THESE CONNECTIONS WERE IMPORTANT, THAT THEY NEEDED CONNECTIONS IF THEY WERE GOING TO SURVIVE. " "BECAUSE YOUR MOST LIKELY TO TRADE WITH YOUR BROTHER IN LAW OR YOUR SON IN LAW THAN YOU ARE GOING TO A COMPETITION WHERE YOU DON'T HAVE ANY KINSHIP TIES. " IN FALL OF 1800, THOMPSON AND HIS NEW WIFE, CHARLOTTE, ARRIVED AT ROCKY MOUNTAIN HOUSE. THE POST, BUILT A YEAR EARLIER, STOOD UPSTREAM FROM A STRING OF POSTS ON THE UPPER SASKATCHEWAN. ALTHOUGH THE MOUNTAINS WERE BARELY IN VIEW, THE INTENTION WAS CLEAR. THE FUR TRADE WAS MOVING WEST, HEADING FOR THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. THE NOR'WESTERS WANTED TO ATTRACT THE TRADE OF THE KOOTENAI, A TRIBE ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE MOUNTAINS. "THE KOOTENAI ARE THIS REALLY COMPLEX TRIBE AND ONE OF THE FEW TRIBES THAT'S LIVING BOTH PLAINS CULTURE AND PLATEAU CULTURE TOGETHER, WHERE UPPER KOOTENAI PEOPLE GO BACK AND FORTH ACROSS THE MOUNTAINS. " THE KOOTENAI ARE AN ANCIENT PEOPLE, WHO'VE LIVED ON THE COLUMBIA PLATEAU FOR OVER 10,000 YEARS. " OUR LANGUAGE IS AN ISOLATE LANGUAGE, THE KOOTENAI LANGUAGE, THERE IS NO OTHER LANGUAGE ON THE FACE OF THE EARTH THAT IS LIKE IT. " "WE'RE ALL UPNUCKANICK, THAT'S THE TRUE TERM OF WHO WE ARE UPNUCKANICK" AT THAT TIME, THE PIEGAN, BLOOD AND BLACKFEET DOMINATED THE NORTHERN PLAINS. "THE PIEGAN FOR GENERATIONS HAVE BEEN SAVVY ABOUT PROTECTING THEIR INTERESTS". THEY ACTED AS MIDDLEMEN BETWEEN THE FUR TRADERS AND TRIBES WEST OF THE MOUNTAINS. " I WATCHED AS THE KOOTENAIS SWAPPED THEIR BEST HORSES AND DRESS FURS TO THE PIEGAN FOR OLD KETTLES AND BROKEN TOOLS. PETER FIDLER, HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY 1792" " THE PIEGAN AND THEIR ALLIES THE BLACKFOOT AND BLOOD DIDN'T REALLY LIKE THE FACT THAT THOMPSON WANTED TO MOVE THROUGH THEM AND TRADE DIRECTLY WITH GROUPS LIKE THE SALISH THE KOOTENAI AND ALL THOSE TRIBES ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE MOUNTAINS. " " THEY SEE EUROPEANS IN MUCH THE SAME WAY AS THEY WERE ACCUSTOMED TO SEEING OTHER FIRST NATIONS, NOT NECESSARILY AS FRIENDS OR FOES, BUT AS POTENTIAL THREATS, OR AS POTENTIAL OPPORTUNITY. " WHEN THE KOOTENAI TRIED TO TRADE DIRECTLY WITH THE EUROPEANS, THE PIEGAN HARASSED THEM AND TRIED TO STEAL THEIR HORSES. DAVID THOMPSON JOURNAL: OCTOBER 16, 1800 " I CAN NOT HELP BUT ADMIRE THOSE BRAVE UNDAUNTED KOOTENAI. WHEN THE YOUNG PIEGAN MEN SEIZED THE HEADS OF THEIR HORSES, THEY ALL ACTED AS IF BY ONE SOUL, BENT THEIR BOWS,. AND PREPARED TO MAKE THEIR OPPRESSORS QUIT THEIR HORSES OR SELL THEIR LIVES DEARLY" THE KOOTENAI WANTED THE FUR TRADERS TO BUILD A TRADING POST IN THEIR HOMELAND. ANXIOUS TO TAP THIS NEW SOURCE OF FURS, THE NORTH WEST COMPANY DECIDED TO EXPAND THEIR BUSINESS ACROSS THE ROCKIES IN 1806. THOMPSON, RECENTLY NAMED A PARTNER IN THE COMPANY, WAS PLACED IN CHARGE OF THE EXPEDITION. "MR. DAVID THOMPSON IS MAKING PREPARATIONS FOR AN ATTEMPT TO CROSS THE MOUNTAINS, PASS THROUGH THE COUNTRY AND FOLLOW THE COLUMBIA RIVER TO THE SEA. .. JAMES BIRD, HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY 1807" THE COURSE WOULD FOLLOW AN ANCIENT KOOTENAI TRAIL, UP THE SASKATCHEWAN, OVER THE ROCKIES INTO KOOTENAI COUNTRY. IT'S TODAY'S HOWSE PASS. THOMPSON WAS NOW 36, CHARLOTTE 21, WITH THREE CHILDREN UNDER THE AGE OF SIX. THIS EXPEDITION WAS CAREFULLY PLANNED. AN ADVANCE PARTY, LED BY JACO FINLEY, WAS DISPATCHED TO IMPROVE THE KOOTENAI TRAIL ACROSS THE DIVIDE. "IT'S DESCRIBED AS LEADING AN EXPEDITION OVER, BUT YET THERE'S ALREADY PEOPLE OVER THERE, AND THERE'S PEOPLE BRINGING UP HORSES BEHIND THEM TO KEEP THEM SUPPLIED. IT'S THIS LONG STUTTERED SEQUENCE OF CACHING MATERIALS AND WAITING FOR THE SNOW TO MELT AND GETTING THE GUIDES HE WANTED IN PLACE. IT'S MUCH MORE LIKE AN ASCENT ON MT. EVEREST WHERE YOU HAVE BASE CAMPS AND YOU HAVE STUFF COMING UP AND YOU HAVE PEOPLE WHO KNOW THAT THEY AREN'T GOING TO SUMMIT, BUT THEY'RE PART OF THE TEAM. " BY THE FIRST WEEK OF MAY, THE ICE WAS BREAKING UP ON THE SASKATCHEWAN. EIGHT VOYAGEURS WERE PICKED FOR THE EXPEDITION. TWO SEPARATE GROUPS TRAVELED TOWARD THE ROCKIES. CLERK FINAN MCDONALD WITH FIVE VOYAGEURS, HEADED UPSTREAM IN THEIR PACKED CANOE. THOMPSON AND THE REMAINING THREE RODE THROUGH THE WOODED FORESTS, LEADING A STRING OF PACKHORSES. CHARLOTTE AND THE CHILDREN, ALSO RODE OVERLAND ALONG WITH TWO OTHER FAMILIES, TRAILED BY A BUNCH OF CAMP DOGS. "AND HIS CREW IS SO STEADY, THAT YOU SORT OF DEVELOP THIS AFFINITY AND GET THIS FEELING THAT IT'S NOT JUST THOMPSON. SO AGAIN, HE'S SORT OF THIS ROLLING TRAVELING CIRCUS. " THOMPSON'S DAILY WEATHER REPORT SEEMED TO REFLECT HIS OPTIMISM FOR THE JOURNEY. "A FINE DAY", "A VERY FINE DAY", "A DAY WITH FLYING CLOUDS" THOMPSON: "I HAD A VERY EXTENSIVE VIEW OF THE COUNTRY. HILLS AND ROCKS RISING ONE BEHIND ANOTHER, HIGHER AND HIGHER TO THE SNOWY SUMMITS OF THE MOUNTAINS. NEVER BEFORE DID I BEHOLD SO PERFECT A RESEMBLANCE TO THE WAVES OF THE OCEAN IN THE WINTRY STORM. " FOLLOWING JOCKO FINLEY'S MARKED PATH UP THE OLD KOOTENAI TRAIL, THE PARTY CLIMBED TO THE CONTINENTAL DIVIDE,. WHICH THOMPSON CALLED THE "HEIGHT OF LAND. " " THE ROCKIES ARE VERY INTIMIDATING, AND HE'S NOT A MOUNTAIN GUY. HE'S CUT HIS TEETH IN THE PRAIRIE. AND IT'S JUST SO DISORIENTING TO GET UP INTO HIGH MOUNTAINS. " JUNE 15, 1807 "THE SNOWS ARE NOW RUSHING DOWN WITH THE NOISE THAT WE CAN HARDLY PERSUADE OURSELVES IT IS NOT THUNDER - WE HEAR IT AT LEAST EVERY HOUR. " "IF YOU'VE EVER BEEN IN THE ROCKIES DURING SPRING RUNOFF, IT'S EXCITING. THERE'S A LOT OF NOISE, THERE'S A LOT OF STUFF COMING DOWN, THERE'S A LOT OF WATER RUNNING, IT'S HARD TO DO ANYTHING. EXCEPT STAND THERE AND BE IN AWE OF IT" THE TRAIL UP WAS RELATIVELY EASY, BUT GOING DOWN THE WEST SLOPE OF THE ROCKIES WAS A DIFFERENT MATTER ALTOGETHER. DAVID THOMPSON: "THE HORSES ROLLED DOWN SO OFTEN, AND RECEIVED SUCH VIOLENT SHOCKS FROM THE TREES AS TO DEPRIVE THEM FOR A TIME OF MOTION. " DURING THE STEEP DESCENT, THE NOR'WESTERS WERE FORCED BACK AND FORTH ACROSS THE RAGING BLAEBERRY RIVER, WILD WITH RUNOFF. " AND HE'S GOT VOYAGEURS THAT ARE SWIMMING ACROSS HOLDING ON TO HORSES MANES OR TAILS, WHO HE'S WORRIED ABOUT BECAUSE NONE OF THEM CAN EVER SWIM. HE NEVER MENTIONS CHARLOTTE, HIS WIFE OR HIS KIDS AGED 5, 3, AND 1. I MEAN IT'S REALLY HARD TO IMAGINE HOW THEY'RE GETTING ACROSS WITHOUT BEING IN DANGER. " THE DENSE TRAIL, POORLY CLEARED BY JACO FINLEY AND HIS MEN THE SUMMER BEFORE, WAS PRACTICALLY IMPASSABLE. THOMPSON WAS FURIOUS WITH JACO, HIS MEN EXHAUSTED. THOMPSON REPORT: "THE ROAD WAS NOWHERE CLEARED ANY MORE THAN JUST TO PERMIT JACO AND HIS FAMILY TO SQUEEZE THROUGH IT WITH THEIR LIGHT BAGGAGE, AND IT IS OF THE OPINION OF EVERY MAN WITH ME, THAT JACO OUGHT TO LOSE AT LEAST HALF HIS WAGES" IN LATE JUNE, THOMPSON'S PARTY REACHED THE BANKS OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER, NEAR GOLDEN, BRITISH COLUMBIA. "HE HITS THE COLUMBIA AT A VERY BEAUTIFUL PLACE WHERE THE BLAEBERRY COMES INTO IT. IT'S THIS WIDE VALLEY, WITH LOTS OF WETLANDS" SINCE THE HEADWATERS OF THE COLUMBIA RUN NORTH FOR 300 MILES BEFORE CURVING SOUTH, THOMPSON HAD NO IDEA HE'D FOUND THE HIGHLY SOUGHT AFTER GREAT RIVER OF THE WEST THE REMAINING LINK TO A NORTHWEST PASSAGE. THOMPSON'S FIRST PRIORITY WAS TO FIND THE TRIBES AND ESTABLISH TRADE. HE MOVED HIS PARTY SOUTH, UPSTREAM, LOOKING FOR THE KOOTENAI, BUT THEY WERE NOT THERE TO MEET HIM. TO MAKE MATTERS WORSE, THERE'S NO FOOD, AND THE BIRCH BARK IS TOO THIN FOR BUILDING CANOES. "HE KNOWS THE RULES HAVE CHANGED BUT HE DOESN'T UNDERSTAND HOW. HE DOESN'T UNDERSTAND WHAT THE NEW RULES ARE. " "CROSSING OVER THE MOUNTAINS, IT'S A DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEM. IT'S TIED TO THE PACIFIC AS OPPOSED TO THE ATLANTIC. YOU'RE NOT DEALING WITH CULTURES DEPENDENT ON THE BISON OR THE CARIBOU AS HE KNEW. " THOMPSON JOURNALS: JULY 19, 1807 "THE COUNTRY IS EXTREMELY POOR IN PROVISIONS, NOTHING LARGER THAN A CHEVERUIL, AND WE ARE IN ALL 17 MOUTHS TO FEED" " AT THE TIME, IF YOU'RE LIVING ON THE PRAIRIE, THERE'S 50 MILLION BUFFALO AND 50 MILLION PRONG HORN ANTELOPE. SO HE HAS A VERY STEEP LEARNING CURVE" THOMPSON JOURNALS: "THE MEN WERE NOW SO WEAK, THAT HOWEVER WILLING, THEY ACTUALLY HAD NOT THE STRENGTH TO WORK. " " I THINK IT'S IMPORTANT TO SEE THOMPSON FLIPPED FROM THIS THIS HYPER COMPETENT INDIVIDUAL TO SOMEONE WHO NOW IS FACING STARVATION ON A REGULAR BASIS. ALL OF A SUDDEN, NOW HE HAS TO STEP BACK AND BECOME THE STUDENT ." A BAND OF KOOTENAI FINALLY ARRIVED. THOMPSON JOURNALS: "THE KOOTENAI SAW OUR FAMISHED LOOKS AND ASKING NO QUESTIONS, GAVE EVERYONE A SUFFICIENCY TO EAT, WHICH WAS MOST GRATEFULLY ACCEPTED. " THOMPSON BUILT THE FIRST TRADE POST AT THE SOURCE LAKES OF THE COLUMBIA, JUST ABOVE LAKE WINDERMERE. HE NAMED IT KOOTENAI HOUSE. TODAY, PARKS CANADA ARCHEOLOGIST BILL PERRY AND HIS CREW, DIG FOR 200 YEAR OLD ARTIFACTS AT THE HISTORIC KOOTENAI HOUSE SITE. "DAVID THOMPSON WAS IN THE MIDDLE OF A FUR TRADE SO HE WAS TRADING WITH A LOT OF NATIVES SO WE'RE EXPECTING A LOT OF NATIVE CAMP SITE ACTIVITIES OVER HERE" KOOTENAI HOUSE CONSISTED OF THREE BUILDINGS WITH PALISADE WALLS FOR PROTECTION. THOMPSON'S JOURNAL: " 30 PIEGAN MEN ARE ON THERE WAY HERE. " THEY HAVE IT IN THEIR POWER TO BE VERY TROUBLESOME TO US AND EVEN TO CUT US OFF;" THE PIEGANS ARE HIGHLY JEALOUS OF THE KOOTENAIS HAVING A POST FOR TRADE AMONG THEM. " "THE LAST THING THE PIEGANS WANT TO HAVE IS GUNS IN THE HANDS OF THE KOOTENAI. WHEN THOMPSON STARTS LOOKING TO CROSS THE MOUNTAINS AND TRADE GUNS DIRECTLY TO THE KOOTENAI, THE PIEGAN SEE HIM AS AN ARMS DEALER. YOU ASKED A MOMENT AGO, WHY DIDN'T THEY KILL HIM, THEY THOUGHT ABOUT IT, DON'T THINK IT DIDN'T CROSS THEIR MINDS, BUT IT IS A COMPLICATED SITUATION YOU SEE, BECAUSE THE PEOPLE THAT EMPLOY THOMPSON ARE THE SAME PEOPLE THAT PROVIDE THE PIEGAN WITH THE BLANKETS AND THE COPPER POTS AND THE GLASS BEADS AND THE GUNS " IN TRUTH, THOMPSON TRADED FEW GUNS AND NO ALCOHOL WEST OF THE MOUNTAINS. "BECAUSE HE KEEPS TRACK OF EVERYTHING. HE'S ALWAYS COUNTING WHAT HE HAS. AND IF YOU LOOK AT THOSE TRADE LISTS THERE ARE HARDLY ANY FIRE ARMS INVOLVED. I MEAN THERE ARE JUST TINY NUMBERS BECAUSE THEY ARE SO HEAVY TO CARRY AND HE HAS TO CARRY EVERYTHING FROM LAKE SUPERIOR. MOST OF THE TRADE GOODS WERE DIRECTED TOWARD WOMEN; AWLS FOR PUNCHING HOLES, FLINT AND STEEL FOR STARTING FIRES, COPPER POTS, SEWING NEEDLES, WOOL BLANKETS AND LINEN SHIRTS. IN EARLY FALL, 1807, THOMPSON WAS READY TO EXPLORE, OR WHAT HE CALLED, "GOING ON DISCOVERY". "THE ELDERS THAT HE'S DEALING WITH, THEY SAY YOU CAN'T GO. WELL, HE SAYS, WHY CAN'T I GO, YOU'VE GOT TO WAIT FOR UGLY HEAD FOR HE'S THE GUIDE WITH THE POLITICAL SKILLS AND THE LANGUAGE SKILLS AND THE INTEGRITY TO SHOW YOU AROUND. I MEAN, YOU CAN'T JUST GO FROM ONE NATION TO ANOTHER. " UGLY HEAD, IS A KOOTENAI CHIEF, SO NAMED BECAUSE OF HIS UNUSUAL HEAD OF CURLY HAIR. "THERE ARE ALL THESE DOORS AND UGLY HEAD IS THE GUY THAT HAS ALL THE KEYS AND IS GOING TO OPEN THE DOOR THAT HE WANTS TO. " "THEY'RE GIVING HIM INFORMATION ON A PIECE BY PIECE BASES, A LITTLE BIT AT A TIME, HE HAS TO EARN THAT TRUST" CHIEF UGLY HEAD AND HIS WIFE TOOK THOMPSON ON HIS FIRST REAL "DISCOVERY" OF THE AREA. " AND THEY START RIDING UPSTREAM ON THE COLUMBIA, AND THEY RIDE ACROSS THE CANAL FLATS PORTAGE, WHICH IS A ONE-MILE PORTAGE THAT TAKES YOU TO KOOTENAY RIVER, AND THOMPSON IS JUST SORT OF BLOWN AWAY. IT'S FABULOUSLY BEAUTIFUL COUNTRY AND THEY GO DOWN TO THE ST. MARY'S RIVER, AND UGLY HEAD GOES "WELL I LIVE IN BONNERS FERRY I WANT TO TAKE THIS SHORT CUT OVER THE MOUNTAINS TO GET THERE, LET'S GO"... AND HE POINTS TO THESE MOUNTAINS THAT ARE ALREADY COVERED WITH SNOW AND SAYS IT WILL JUST TAKE A FEW WEEKS. THOMPSON IS INTIMIDATED BY THE MOUNTAINS FOR SURE. HE'S WORRIED ABOUT CHARLOTTE AND THE KIDS BACK AT KOOTENAI HOUSE BECAUSE SO FAR THERE HAVE BEEN MORE BLACKFEET THAN KOOTENAIS AT KOOTENAI HOUSE THOMPSON RETURNED TO SPEND HIS FIRST WINTER ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE MOUNTAINS AT KOOTENAI HOUSE. " BOTH CANADIANS AND INDIANS OFTEN INQUIRED OF ME WHY I PASSED WHOLE NIGHTS WITH MY INSTRUMENTS LOOKING AT THE MOON AND STARS. I TOLD THEM IT WAS TO DETERMINE THE DISTANCE AND DIRECTION FROM THE PLACE I OBSERVED TO OTHER PLACES, NEITHER THE CANADIANS NOR THE INDIANS BELIEVED ME; FOR BOTH ARGUED THAT IF WHAT I SAID WAS TRUTH, I OUGHT TO LOOK TO THE GROUND, AND OVER IT; AND NOT TO THE STARS "NOT ONLY NATIVE PEOPLE BUT HIS OWN FRENCH-CANADIAN EMPLOYEES WOULD COME TO HIM AND ASK HIM TO SOMEHOW CONTROL NATURE FOR THEM. RAISE A WIND FOR US, MAKE THE GAME COME TO US. THEY ALL THOUGHT THAT WHAT HE WAS DOING WHEN HE WAS OBSERVING THE SKIES WAS SOMEHOW SEEING WHAT WAS HAPPENING FAR AWAY, OR SEEING INTO THE FUTURE" THOMPSON FOUND TIME TO WORK ON HIS MAPS DURING THE WINTER. HE'D DRAW NUMEROUS SMALL CHARTS, USING COORDINATES AND COMPASS COURSES FROM HIS SURVEY NOTEBOOKS. LATER THE CHARTS WERE LINED-UP AND CONNECTED, FITTING TOGETHER LIKE TILES ON A FLOOR. THOMPSON'S FIRST YEAR WEST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS WAS CLOSE TO BEING HIS LAST. THE SMALL NUMBER OF FURS COLLECTED CAST DOUBT ON THE COMMERCIAL VALUE OF THE COLUMBIA. THOMPSON, FRUSTRATED, WROTE LETTERS BACK TO HIS PARTNERS SAYING THE KOOTENAI DID NOT UNDERSTAND COMMERCIAL LEVEL TRAPPING. "TO HIM, HE WANTS EVERY FAMILY TO GET A PACK OR TWO PACKS OF FURS, THAT'S BETWEEN 60 AND OVER 100 BEAVER, EVERY WINTER FROM NOW ON FOREVER. THEY CAN'T UNDERSTAND THAT. THAT'S ONE OF THOSE CULTURAL DISJUNCTS THAT DON'T MAKE ANY SENSE. WHY WOULD YOU TRAP THAT MANY BEAVER? " THE PLATEAU TRIBES TRADITIONALLY GAMBLED, DANCED AND SPIRITUALLY RESTORED THEMSELVES IN THE WINTER. "HE IS ALWAYS GOING CRAZY HARANGUING THEM TO GO TRAP, IT'S WINTER, THE PELTS ARE PRIME, WHY AREN'T YOU TRAPPING? AND THEY GO, OH WE CAN'T. WE HAVE TO SPIRITUALLY RESTORE OURSELVES, THIS IS WHAT WE DO IN THE WINTER. WE WORK ALL YEAR SO THAT WE CAN NOW DO THE THINGS THAT ARE IMPORTANT TO US. AND HE SEES THIS DEEP SPIRITUALITY AS AN ESSENTIAL PART OF THEIR CULTURE. " IN SPRING 1808, THOMPSON AND FOUR VOYAGEURS RETRACED HIS SHORT TRIP OF THE PREVIOUS FALL AND CONTINUED SOUTH, DOWN STEAM ON THE KOOTENAY RIVER. THIS TIME, THOMPSON RODE IN A CANOE WITH A COMPASS, RECORDING EACH SMALL CHANGE OF DIRECTION WHILE ESTIMATING THE DISTANCE IN FRACTIONS OF MILES. THE PARTY CROSSED THE 49TH PARALLEL IN WHAT IS NOW NORTHWESTERN MONTANA. TO BRING IN MORE BEAVER PACKS, THOMPSON PLANNED TO RENDEZVOUS WITH A GROUP OF KOOTENAI GUIDES, THEN MOVE SOUTH TO OPEN TRADE WITH THE FLATHEAD IN MONTANA. BUT WHEN HIS GUIDES DID NOT APPEAR, THE NOR'WESTERS CONTINUED DOWNSTREAM ALONE, CROSSING OVER THE STEEP DANGEROUS PORTAGE OF KOOTENAI FALLS. 23 YEAR OLD DAN BLACKBURN, A PROFESSIONAL KAYAKER, GREW UP ON THE KOOTENAI RIVER. "WHEN I STARTED KAYAKING THAT WAS MY MAIN GOAL IS TO GO OVER KOOTENAI FALLS, BECAUSE I HEARD PEOPLE COULD DO IT. IT'S A MILE AND A HALF OF WORLD CLASS WHITE WATER" TODAY, KOOTENAI FALL'S WATER LEVEL IS CONTROLLED BY LIBBY DAM, IN MONTANA. BUT IN THOMPSON'S DAY THE WATER WAS FREE FLOWING; MUCH STRONGER THAN IT IS TODAY THREE HUNDRED FEET ABOVE THE RIVER, OVER SHARP ROCKS, BLACKBURN WITH A FRIEND PORTAGE KOOTENAI FALLS, FOLLOWING THE SAME TRIBAL TRAIL THAT THOMPSON'S PARTY USED SO MANY YEARS AGO. DAN BLACKBURN: "WE'RE BASICALLY SEEING THE SAME THINGS, IT'S A REALLY COOL FEELING TO THINK BACK THAT FAR, PRETTY HUMBLING. " THOMPSON: MAY 6, 1808 "OUR HEIGHT AT TIMES WAS ABOUT 300 FEET ABOVE THE RIVER, THE LEAST SLIP WOULD HAVE BEEN INEVITABLE DEATH. EACH MAN HAD TWO PAIRS OF SHOES ON HIS FEET, BUT THEY WERE CUT TO PIECES. " THAT MAY, THE NOR'WESTERS ARRIVED AT BONNER'S FERRY, IDAHO; THE HOME OF UGLY HEAD'S PEOPLE. IN THE SUMMER OF 2008, TRIBAL LEADERS AND HISTORIANS SET UP AN ENCAMPMENT NEAR THE SPOT THE KOOTENAI AND THOMPSON SHARED IN THE SPRING OF 1808. "I HAD THIS VISION ABOUT AN ENCAMPMENT AND THE INFLUENCE THAT DAVID THOMPSON HAD ON THE KOOTENAI PEOPLE AND VICE VERSA, AND HERE WE ARE. " TIM RYAN AND OTHER TRIBAL MEMBERS SHARE THEIR KNOWLEDGE. "THE NATURAL WORLD OUT THERE, THE FORESTS ARE KIND OF LIKE OUR CHURCHES. " RYAN MAKES ITEMS USED BY HIS NATIVE ANCESTORS WITH THE SAME MATERIALS AND HAND-MADE TOOLS. " MY PRIORITY IS TO LEARN THESE SKILLS AND ASSURE THAT THESE SKILLS ARE STILL PRESENT WITHIN OUR CULTURE AND THAT THEY'RE STILL PRACTICED" THOMPSON USED BONNER'S FERRY AS A BASE AND PADDLED NORTH TOWARD KOOTENAY LAKE, THE HOME OF THE FLAT BOW BAND. "KOOTENAY LAKE USED TO BE THE HEARTBEAT OF OUR PEOPLE, THE FLAT BOW AND ALL THE STREAMS AND RIVERS THAT FLOWED INTO KOOTENAY LAKE, IT WAS LIKE ARTERIES" FOR GENERATIONS, WAYNE LOUIS'S FAMILY HAS LIVED NEAR KOOTENAY LAKE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA. " WHEN IT USED TO FLOOD, IN THE OLD DAYS BEFORE DAMS WERE PUT IN, THIS USED TO BECOME ONE BIG DELTA, THIS WHOLE VALLEY. THIS WHOLE VALLEY ONE BIG DELTA TO NAVIGATE THE DELTA, THE KOOTENAI DESIGNED THE DISTINCTIVE STURGEON-NOSED CANOE. "THE ELDERS USED TO SAY WHEN YOU GOT TO THIS STAGE THIS RESEMBLED A SKELETON OF A STURGEON. IT DOES BECAUSE THE SNOUTS THERE, HERE'S RIBS AND BONES. AT HIGH WATER TIME WHEN THE BULL RUSHES WERE UP, THESE CANOES USED TO BE ABLE TO NAVIGATE THROUGH THE BULL RUSHES. " THOMPSON ADMIRED THE STURGEON-NOSED CANOES. "WHEN DAVID THOMPSON CAME UP HERE, HE CAME UP HERE IN MAY. THAT WAS THE HIGH WATER TIME,. ..AND HE TRAVELED THE ROUTE UP HERE, THE RIVER, AND HE WENT ALL THE WAY UP TO THE HISTORIC WATER LEVEL, IT'S CALLED KOOTENAY LANDING. " NEAR THAT POINT, THE KOOTENAY RIVER HEADS WEST JOINING THE COLUMBIA. THOMPSON DID NOT INVESTIGATE FURTHER, BUT INSTEAD HURRIED BACK TO A FLOODED BONNER'S FERRY HOPING TO TRADE WITH A GROUP OF FLATHEAD WHO WERE SUPPOSEDLY ON THEIR WAY TO THE KOOTENAI ENCAMPMENT. MAY 17, 1808 "HERE WE RECEIVED THE DISAGREEABLE NEWS OF THE FLAT HEADS BEING UNABLE TO COME HERE ON ACCOUNT OF THE FLOODING OF THE COUNTRY, THUS ALL MY FINE HOPES ARE RUINED" IN A LETTER, THOMPSON EXPRESSED HIS FRUSTRATION AT BEING CUT OFF FROM THE TRIBES BY WINTER SNOW AND SPRING FLOODS. THOMPSON JOURNAL MAY 17, 1808: "THE FLATHEADS WERE ONLY 12 DAY'S MARCH FROM US LAST WINTER AND THE LAKE INDIANS ONLY 6 DAYS AND YET BOTH ARE COMPLETELY SHUT UP BY MOUNTAINS AS IF THEY WERE ON THE OTHER SIDE, AND THE WATERS RISING IN THE SUMMER HAVE NEARLY THE SAME EFFECT. THOMPSON COULD WAIT NO LONGER FOR THE FLATHEADS. HE HAD A LONG TRADE RUN TO MAKE BACK TO LAKE SUPERIOR. AFTER RECROSSING HOWSE PASS, HE DROPPED CHARLOTTE AND THE KIDS OFF WITH RELATIVES AT BOGGY HALL, AND THEN CONTINUED DOWN THE SASKATCHEWAN. PERHAPS BECAUSE OF THE PIEGAN THREAT, CHARLOTTE NEVER AGAIN TRAVEL WEST OF THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS. IN THE SUMMER OF 1809, THOMPSON DECIDED TO BUILD A TRADE POST MORE CENTRALLY LOCATED TO THE PLATEAU TRIBES. HE CLOSED UP KOOTENAI HOUSE AND MOVED HIS ENTIRE PARTY DOWN THE KOOTENAI RIVER, SOUTH OVER THE GREAT ROAD TO THE FLATHEADS,. TO A LARGE TRIBAL ENCAMPMENT ON LAKE PEND OREILLE. THOMPSON JOURNAL: SEPTEMBER 9, 1809 "THEY ALL SMOKED, 54 FLAT HEADS, 23 POINTED HEARTS, AND 4 KOOTANAIS - IN ALL ABOUT 80 MEN. THEN THEY MADE US A HANDSOME PRESENT OF DRIED SALMON AND OTHER FISH WITH BERRIES" "THEY TAKE HIM TO THIS AMAZING MIXED TRIBAL ENCAMPMENT NEAR HOPE, IDAHO WHERE EVERYBODY IS, ALL THE FLATHEADS AND KOOTENAIS AND KALISPEL, BUT ALSO OKANOGAN AND SANDPOINT AND COEUR D'ALENE AND NEZ PERCE, I MEAN EVERYBODY'S THERE" THE ENCAMPMENT WAS LOCATED AT A PLACE CALLED INDIAN MEADOWS ON THE BANKS OF LAKE PEND OREILLE. THOMPSON BUILT KULLYSPELL HOUSE, NAMED AFTER THE KALISPEL PEOPLE THAT LIVED THERE. THE KALISPEL WERE ALSO CALLED THE PEND OREILLE BY THE TRADERS. THE KALISPEL, ARE ONE OF MANY SALISH SPEAKING TRIBES. " THE ENTIRE NORTHWEST CONSISTS OF THE SALISH SPEAKING PEOPLE, WHO OUR ELDERS SAY CAME FROM ONE LARGE GROUP AT ONE TIME. THOSE DIFFERENT BANDS THAT ARE LOCATED IN OTHER AREAS ARE OTHER TRIBES NOW. WE REFER TO THEM AS THE KALISPEL, THE SPOKANES, THE COEUR D'ALENE, THE OKANOGANS, SUSHWA" DAVID THOMPSON JOURNALS: " I SPENT MUCH OF THE DAY TRADING WITH THE INDIANS WHO BROUGHT ABOUT 130 SKINS. SIXTEEN CANOES OF POINTED HEARTS PASSED US AND CAMPED WITH OTHER FLATHEADS". BUSINESS WAS BOOMING. AT TIMES, ENTIRE DAYS HAD TO BE SET ASIDE FOR TRADING. IN THE MIDST OF ALL THIS ACTIVITY, THOMPSON DECIDED TO 'GO ON DISCOVERY' AND TRACE THE PEND OREILLE'S COURSE TO THE COLUMBIA. HE RODE WEST, FOLLOWING THE PEND OREILLE RIVER TO A KALISPEL VILLAGE, NEAR CUSICK, WASHINGTON. " THE OLDEST MAN ACCORDING TO CUSTOM MADE A SPEECH AND A PRESENT OF 2 CAKES OF ROOT BREAD,. " THE ROOT BREAD WAS MADE FROM CAMAS OR EETOWOY. ON HIS LATER MAPS, THOMPSON LABELED THIS AREA EETOWOY PLAINS. TRYING TO FIND A SUITABLE TRADE ROUTE TO THE COLUMBIA PROVED DIFFICULT. THOMPSON BORROWED A KALISPEL CANOE AND HEADED DOWN RIVER,. ..ONLY TO BE STOPPED BY THE STEEP CLIFFS OF BOX CANYON. " AND THOMPSON INSTEAD OF PUSHING ON THROUGH AND GETTING TO THE COLUMBIA, WHICH WOULD HAVE BEEN A COUPLE DAYS WALK, TURNS AROUND AND GOES BACK. " THOMPSON LEFT A CREW TO WINTER AT KULLYSPELL HOUSE, THEN FOLLOWED THE CLARK FORK RIVER UPSTREAM TO THE OPEN COUNTRY WHERE MANY SALISH BANDS WINTERED. THERE HE BUILT SALEESH HOUSE, NEAR THOMPSON FALLS, MONTANA, AND SPENT THE WINTER. " AND IT'S REALLY A REMARKABLE WINTER, THAT'S WHEN HE DOES HIS SALISH WORD LIST" THOMPSON DEVOTED 26 PAGES OF HIS JOURNAL LISTING 1,000 ALPHABETIZED ENGLISH WORDS HE WANTED TO LEARN IN SALISH. "THEY TELL A LOT MORE ABOUT THOMPSON THAN THEY TELL ABOUT THE SALISH INDIANS. JUST IN THE "A"S, ITS LIKE ABANDONMENT, AMBUSH, ANXIETY, ANXIOUS. IT'S A VERY FUNNY LIST THOMPSON WAS ABLE TO GATHER 400 SALISH EQUIVALENTS. IN MAY 1810, THOMPSON DISPATCHED JACO FINLEY TO BUILD A NEW POST AMONG THE SPOKANE PEOPLE. SPOKANE HOUSE WOULD COMPLETE A CIRCLE OF TRADE IN WHAT THOMPSON CALLED THE BETTER PART OF THE COUNTRY. LEAVING FINAN MCDONALD IN CHARGE OF SALEESH HOUSE, THOMPSON TOOK THE FURS TO LAKE SUPERIOR, EXPECTING TO REMAIN IN THE EAST FOR A YEAR. THOMPSON LETTER TO SIMON FRASER: DECEMBER 21, 1810 " MY DEAR FRASER. I AM GETTING TIRED OF SUCH CONSTANT HARD JOURNEYS; FOR THE LAST 20 MONTHS I HAVE SPENT ONLY BARELY TWO MONTHS UNDER THE SHELTER OF A HUT, ALL THE REST HAS BEEN IN MY TENT, AND THERE IS LITTLE LIKELIHOOD THE NEXT 12 MONTHS WILL BE MUCH OTHERWISE" "HE'S BEEN IN THE WOODS FOR A LONG TIME NOW AND HE'S HOPING TO TAKE A YEAR OFF, WHICH IS WHAT YOU ARE ALLOWED AS A PARTNER AND GET UP WITH HIS FAMILY AND JUST RELAX. " BUT, THOMPSON DID NOT GET HIS SABBATICAL. THOMPSON LETTER TO FRASER: DEC. 21, 1810, "THE AMERICANS, IT SEEMS, WERE AS USUAL DETERMINED TO BE BEFOREHAND WITH US IN THE COLUMBIA IN SHIP NAVIGATION. THE AMERICAN WAS JOHN JACOB ASTOR, A NEW YORK ENTREPRENEUR. HE'D STARTED THE PACIFIC FUR COMPANY, AND WAS TRYING TO ENTER THE WESTERN FUR TRADE. HIS SHIP, THE TONQUIN, WAS SAILING AROUND THE HORN TO THE MOUTH OF THE COLUMBIA, WHILE A SECOND OVERLAND PARTY WAS RETRACING LEWIS AND CLARK'S ROUTE TO THE WEST. "JOHN JACOB ASTOR IS LIKE DONALD TRUMP. HE'S GOT BUSINESS DEALS ALL OVER WITH EVERYBODY. INCLUDING THE NORTH WEST CO." A YEAR EARLIER, ASTOR HAD OFFERED THE NORTH WEST COMPANY, ONE THIRD INTEREST IN HIS PACIFIC VENTURE. " AND IT SOUNDS LIKE A PARTNERSHIP BUT IT'S SO, CONVOLUTED THAT YOU CAN TELL IT MIGHT NOT WORK" WITH THE AMERICANS INVOLVED, THOMPSON COULD WAIT NO LONGER TO COMPLETE HIS EXPLORATIONS DOWN THE COLUMBIA RIVER AND DETERMINE WHETHER IT WAS NAVIGABLE TO THE SEA. HE NEEDED TO GET BACK WEST. BUT THE PIEGAN HAD OTHER IDEAS. THEY HAD SET UP A BLOCKADE AT HOWES PASS. "THE PEIGAN THREATENED DURING THE BLOCKADE, THAT THEY'RE GOING TO KILL ANY WHITE MAN THEY FIND WEST OF THE MOUNTAIN, AND THEY'RE GOING TO MAKE DRIED MEAT OUT OF THEM. BELIEVE ME, THE HUDSON'S BAY CO, THE NW CO. TOOK THAT THREAT SERIOUSLY" ALEXANDER HENRY - ROCKY MOUNTAIN HOUSE: " THIS AFFAIR OF HIS CANOES BEING STOPPED BY THE PIEGANS HAS INDUCED HIM TO ALTER HIS ROUTE AND ENDEAVOR TO OPEN A NEW ROAD. AND IN SUCH RUGGED COUNTRY THE BLACKFEET INDIANS WOULD NEVER DARE TO ENTER. ALEXANDER HENRY-ROCKY MOUNTAIN HOUSE-1811" THOMPSON HAD BEEN SEEKING AN ALTERNATE ROUTE ACROSS THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS FOR SOME TIME. HE'D HEARD PROMISING REPORTS OF A CROSSING AT THE HEADWATERS OF THE ATHABASCA RIVER. BUT A WINTER CROSSING OVER ATHABASCA PASS, WOULD BE DIFFICULT,. REQUIRING DOG SLEDS AND SNOWSHOES. "THE PROBLEM FOR HIM REALLY IS THAT BY GOING FROM THE SASKATCHEWAN TO THE ATHABASCA HE'S IN A NEW FUR TRADE DISTRICT AND THE VOYAGERS WHO HE TAKES WITH HIM AREN'T USED TO WORKING FOR HIM. SO ALL THE OLD FAMILIAR NAMES AND THE GUIDES HE'S GONE BACK AND FORTH WITH ALL THESE YEARS ARE NO LONGER WITH HIM. AND THESE NEW GUYS THINK THAT HE'S CRAZY, AND NONE OF THEM HAVE BEEN ACROSS THE PASS BEFORE, AND HE WORKS THEM TOO HARD, AND HE'S MAKING A WINTER CROSSING. SO THERE ARE ALL THESE REASONS FOR THINGS TO GO WRONG" THOMPSON JOURNALS: "DU NORD THREW HIS LOAD ASIDE , SAYING HE WOULD NOT HAUL IT ANY MORE ALTHOUGH HE HAS ONLY 80 POUNDS AND TWO GOOD DOGS, IN MY OPINION HE IS A POOR SPIRITLESS WRETCH. " "THESE GUYS ARE SCARED AND THERE'S A TREMENDOUS AMOUNT OF SNOW, AND THE TEMPERATURE WARMS UP FROM 30 BELOW TO 30 ABOVE IN ABOUT 36 HOURS. THE SLEDS START TO SINK, THEY CAN'T FIND ANY FOOD, THE VOYAGERS ARE BEATING THE DOGS TO DEATH." THOMPSON JOURNALS JANUARY 14, 1811 -: "THE COURAGE OF PART OF MY MEN IS SINKING FAST. THEY SEE NOTHING IN ITS PROPER COLOR, FEAR GATHERS ON THEM FROM EVERY OBJECT." CANADIAN OUTFITTER WENDY BUSH HAS BEEN DRIVING DOG TEAMS IN THE BACK COUNTRY MOST OF HER LIFE. "SLED DOGS," BUSH SAYS, "ARE A STRONG PART OF HER CANADIAN HERITAGE. " " EVERY FAMILY HAD A DOG AND THEY HOOKED THAT DOG UP AND PULLED THEIR TOBOGGANS WITH FIREWOOD OR WHATEVER CHORES THEY HAD TO DO SO IT WAS A VERY CANADIAN THING TO DO FOR HUNDREDS OF YEARS, TO USE YOUR SLED DOG" IN THOMPSON'S TIME, DOG DRIVERS DIDN'T RIDE, BUT RAN BESIDE THE DOGS, HELPING TO DIRECT THE TOBOGGAN OVER SNOW AND ICE. " SO HE MADE HIS OWN SNOW SHOES AND HIS TOBOGGAN. THAT'S PRETTY TOUGH GOING TO BUILD YOUR OWN GEAR" TO CELEBRATE THE CENTENNIAL OF CANADIAN NATIONAL PARKS, BUSH, USING HER OWN SLED DOGS, RETRACED THOMPSON'S HISTORIC 1811 CROSSING OF ATHABASCA PASS. "WE HAD BEEN TRAVELING IN THE BACK COUNTRY OF JASPER NATIONAL PARKS FOR A NUMBER OF YEARS SO WE WERE IN GOOD SHAPE AND OUR DOGS WERE WELL TRAINED AND WE HAD LOTS OF MODERN EQUIPMENT. THOUGH REGARDLESS OF MODERN EQUIPMENT, THERE ARE HAZARDS OUT THERE AND YOU CAN STILL FALL IN THE WATER IF YOU MAKE A MISSTEP AND DRAG YOUR DOG TEAM WITH YOU" THOMPSON JOURNAL: "THE DESCENT WAS SO STEEP THAT THE DOGS COULD NOT GUIDE THE SLEDS, AND OFTEN CAME ACROSS THE TREES WITH SOME FORCE, THE DOGS ON ONE SIDE AND THE SLED ON THE OTHER" BY THIS TIME, FOUR OF HIS MEN HAD PLAINLY HAD ENOUGH OF THOMPSON, AND THE FEELING WAS MUTUAL. THOMPSON JOURNAL: "DU NORD WITH THE FORT DE PRAIRIE MEN, HAVING LONG BEEN DISPIRITED AND USELESS AS OLD WOMEN, TOLD ME HE WOULD RETURN, AND I WAS HEARTILY TIRED OF SUCH WORTHLESS FELLOWS" " EARLY HISTORIANS REPRESENTED THAT AS A MUTINY AND EVERYBODY LEAVING. BUT IN HIS JOURNAL, WHICH HE'S KEEPING AT THE TIME, HE SAYS, I'M GLAD TO BE RID OF THESE GUYS, I DON'T LIKE THE WAY THEY TREAT THE DOGS, THEY'RE EATING TOO MUCH, THEY'RE JUST A PAIN. GIVE ME THESE GUYS THAT ARE DEPENDABLE" THOMPSON JOURNAL: "ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MOUNTAINS THE TREES WERE SMALL, THERE WE WERE MEN, BUT ON THE WEST SIDE WE WERE PIGMIES, IN SUCH FORESTS WHAT COULD WE DO WITH AXES OF TWO POUND WEIGHT? THOMPSON, AND HIS REMAINING THREE MEN, DUG IN FOR WINTER AT THE TOP BEND OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER; AT A PLACE THOMPSON NAMED BOAT ENCAMPMENT. FROM THIS VANTAGE POINT, THOMPSON COULD HAVE TRAVELED DOWNSTREAM TO THE PACIFIC. BUT, HE HAD A LARGE LOAD OF TRADE GOODS TO DISTRIBUTE TO HIS POSTS ON THE COLUMBIA PLATEAU. "SO HE SPENDS SIX WEEKS BUILDING A NEW KIND OF CANOE THAT IS SPLIT CEDAR PLANKS SEWN TO A REGULAR FRAME WITH SPRUCE ROOT WATAP, AND HE JUST DOES A BEAUTIFUL JOB OF IT. " AT HIS HOME OVERLOOKING LAKE PEND OREILLE, BOAT BUILDER BILL BRUSSTAR IS BUILDING A REPLICA OF DAVID THOMPSON'S CEDAR PLANK CANOE. ON THE WEST SIDE OF THE MOUNTAINS, THE NOR'WESTERS HAD STRUGGLED TO BUILD CANOES, BECAUSE THE BIRCH BARK WAS SO THIN. BUT THOMPSON DESIGNED SOMETHING NEW. " BUT HE STARTED OUT WITH A BOTTOM BOARD, THE KEEL BOARD, THAT WAS 17 INCHES WIDE. HE WANTED TO BUILD THE WHOLE BOAT IN ONE BOARD ALMOST, 17 INCHES WIDE IS REALLY WIDE AND HE BROKE IT IN HALF. FOR TWO DAYS AFTER THAT THERE IS NOTHING BUT NUMBERS, THAT'S ALL HE DID WAS TOOK NUMBERS AND HELD IT INSIDE. DAVID THOMPSON: " WE WORKED AT THE BOTTOM OF THE CANOE, BUT SPIT IN TWO LIFTING IT UP BEING TOO THIN TO SUPPORT IT'S OWN WEIGHT AND WAS THUS SPOILT. " "HE ENDED UP WITH A BOARD SIX INCHES IN THE MIDDLE AND HE NARROWED IT DOWN TO THE BOW AND STERN TO TWO INCHES AND HE CURVED THAT BOW ALL THE WAY UP TO A TWO FOOT ARC. A TWO FOOT ARC FOR THE BOW AND A TWO FOOT ARC FOR THE STERN. SO, HE USED ONE SINGLE BOARD. HE HAD TO SPLIT THE ENDS OF THEM IN HALF, SO HE HAD A TWO INCH BOARD LIKE THAT AND HE CUT IT IN HALF, SO IT WOULD TAKE THAT BEND. " BRUSSTAR SEEMS TO BE LEARNING AS MUCH ABOUT THE MAN AS THE CANOE. "YOU GET A MUCH CLOSER IDEA OF WHAT ACTUALLY WAS GOING ON IN THOSE DAYS, 'CAUSE THE PROBLEMS I HAD, HE HAD THE SAME. " OVER THE NEXT 12 MONTHS, THOMPSON WOULD BUILD AT LEAST NINE CEDAR PLANK CANOES, CONTINUALLY IMPROVING ON HIS DESIGN. MEANWHILE, A THOUSAND MILES DOWNSTREAM, THE SAILING SHIP THE TONQUIN WAS ANCHORED AT THE MOUTH OF THE COLUMBIA. ASTOR'S MEN HAD ALREADY STARTED BUILDING FORT ASTORIA. MARK WEADICK, AND HIS GROUP OF FUR TRADE RE-ENACTORS, PADDLE AROUND THE CONFLUENCE OF THE LITTLE SPOKANE AND SPOKANE RIVERS. BETWEEN THE TWO RIVERS, ON THIS FLAT, TRIANGLE SHAPED PENINSULA, SPOKANE HOUSE WAS BUILT BY JACO FINLEY IN 1810. BY THE TIME THOMPSON ARRIVED, THE POST HAD BEEN UP AND RUNNING FOR A YEAR. FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS, THE SPOKANE HAD GATHERED HERE TO CATCH AND DRY FISH. "SPOKANE HOUSE WAS ON THE MIDDLE SPOKANE PEOPLES CAMPGROUND, IT WAS IN THERE AREA, AND IT WAS WITH THEIR PERMISSION THAT JACKO FINLAY AND HIS CREW IN 1810 WERE ABLE TO CONSTRUCT THE FIRST SPOKANE HOUSE. THERE WAS IN THOSE DAYS A TREMENDOUS CHINOOK SALMON FISHERY THAT CAME UP THE FALLS" THOMPSON CALCULATED THE LONGITUDE OF SPOKANE HOUSE AND RECORDED IT IN HIS JOURNAL. IT WOULD BE THE FIRST EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT IN THE STATE OF WASHINGTON. AFTER A TWO MONTH DETOUR, THOMPSON WAS FINALLY FREE TO EXPLORE THE MIDDLE AND LOWER COLUMBIA. HIS PARTY TRAVELED NORTH ON THE ILTHKOYAPE ROAD, TO KETTLE FALLS ON THE COLUMBIA RIVER, WHERE A LARGE NUMBER OF THE ILTHKOYAPE OR COLVILLE WERE FISHING. THOMPSON JOURNALS: "THE SALMON ARE FROM 15 TO 30 POUNDS WEIGHT HERE, THEIR FLESH IS RED AND THEY ARE EXTREMELY WELL MADE. " AFTER YEARS OF EFFORT, ON JULY 3RD, 1811 THOMPSON WITH HIS CREW AND TWO SANPOIL SET OFF FROM KETTLE FALLS ON THEIR VOYAGE DOWN THE COLUMBIA TO THE SEA. DAVID THOMPSON TRAVELS: "IMAGINATION CAN HARDLY FORM AN IDEA OF THE WORKING OF THIS IMMENSE BODY OF WATER UNDER SUCH COMPRESSION, RAGING AND HISSING, AS IF ALIVE. " "IGNUS, THE IROQUOIS, WHO HE HIRED TO BE THE STEERSMAN GOT BOUNCED RIGHT OUT OF THE CANOE. IT WAS THAT POWERFUL, AND NONE OF THESE GUYS CAN SWIM. SO THEY DO THIS CRAZY FRENETIC RESCUE AND GET IGNUS ON SHORE AND SQUEEZE ALL THE WATER OUT OF HIM" AT THE TIME, ABOUT THREE HUNDRED AND FIFTY MILES OF THE COLUMBIA HAD BEEN CHARTED. BY THE END OF THE SUMMER, THOMPSON WILL HAVE SURVEYED THE REMAINING NINE HUNDRED MILES. DAVID THOMPSON: "THE COLUMBIA PRESENTED MUCH STEEP ROCK, OFTEN IN STEP LIKE STAIRS OF 20 TO 30 FEET PERPENDICULAR. " TRAVELING WITH THE CURRENT, IT TOOK THOMPSON JUST TEN DAYS TO GET TO THE PACIFIC. "IT'S ABOUT 700 RIVER MILES. HE STOPS AT EVERY VILLAGE ALONG THE WAY AND DOES HIS LITTLE RAP, I'M COMING TO TRADE YOU KNOW. YOU SHOULD TRAP BEAVER, I'LL BUILD A TRADE HOUSE HERE. HE SAYS THAT AT EVERY VILLAGE THAT HE COMES TO AND HE STILL MAKES IT IN 10 DAYS. " THOMPSON MET 150 FAMILIES OF SANPOIL,. NEAR THE SANPOIL RIVER. "THEY ALL, FORMED A LINE IN AN ELLIPSIS; THEY DANCED WITH THE SUN IN A MINGLED MANNER, ALL THEIR DANCES ARE A KIND OF RELIGIOUS PRAYER" HE MET METHOW, JUST BEYOND THE OKANAGAN RIVER, AND, 120 FAMILIES OF SINKAUSE, AT ROCK ISLAND NEAR WENATCHEE. "THE WOMEN ADVANCED ALL ORNAMENTED WITH FLLETS AND SMALL FEATHERS, THEY SMOKED WITH THE MEN" THOMPSON SMOKED WITH 62 SAHAPTIN SPEAKING MEN, THE WANAPUM, NEAR PRIEST RAPIDS. AND THERE WERE THE YAKIMA. THOMPSON JOURNAL: "THESE PEOPLE, ARE MAKING USE OF THE SEINE NET, WHICH IS WELL MADE FROM WILD HEMP, WHICH GROWS ON THE RICH LOW GROUNDS. " AT THE DALLES CULTURE PATTERNS CHANGED FROM PLATEAU TO COASTAL. THE THREE HUNDRED FAMILIES CAMPED THERE WERE SPEAKING BOTH SAHAPTIAN AND CHINOOKAN LANGUAGES. DAVID THOMPSON JOURNAL: "THE CHIEF CAME AND INVITED ME TO HIS HOUSE,. THE INSIDE CLEAN AND WELL ARRANGED HAD SEPARATE BED PLACES FASTENED TO THE WALLS THAT RAISED ABOUT 3 FEET ABOVE THE FLOOR" THOMPSON FELT STRONGLY THAT THE LANDS OF THE COLUMBIA THAT HE HAD SURVEYED BELONGED TO GREAT BRITAIN. WHAT THOMPSON CALLED A 'SATISFACTORY BOUNDARY' FOR CANADA, INCLUDED MUCH OF TODAY'S AMERICAN NORTHWEST. THOMPSON JOURNAL: "HERE I ERECTED A SMALL POLE WITH A HALF SHEET OF PAPER WELL TIED AROUND IT, ...KNOW HEREBY THAT THIS COUNTRY IS CLAIMED BY GREAT BRITAIN AS PART OF ITS TERRITORIES" ON JULY 15, 1811, THOMPSON'S PARTY ARRIVED AT THE MOUTH OF THE COLUMBIA RIVER, AT FORT ASTORIA. ALEXANDER ROSS, A SCOT CLERK FOR THE PACIFIC FUR COMPANY "WE WERE RATHER SURPRISED AT THE UNEXPECTED ARRIVAL OF A NORTH WEST PROPRIETOR AT ASTORIA. MR. THOMPSON. HE CAME DASHING DOWN THE COLUMBIA IN A LIGHT CANOE MANNED WITH EIGHT IROQUOIS AND AN INTERPRETER. " THE ASTORIANS FOUND THEMSELVES IN AN ODD SITUATION. THOMPSON CLAIMED THEY WERE PARTNERS, BUT TO THEIR KNOWLEDGE, NO JOINT AGREEMENT HAD TAKEN PLACE. THEY DANCED AROUND EACH OTHER NOT KNOWING WHETHER THEY WERE FRIEND OR FOE. LATER, THE PARTNERSHIP DID INDEED FALL APART. BY THE END OF THE SUMMER, THOMPSON HAD SURVEYED THE ENTIRE COLUMBIA RIVER FROM ITS HEADWATERS TO ITS MOUTH. ONE OF HIS MOST MEMORABLE CONTRIBUTIONS. PADDLING HARD ON LAKE SUPERIOR, THE 2008 DAVID THOMPSON BRIGADE WILL SOON COMPLETE THE FINAL LEG OF THEIR JOURNEY TO FORT WILLIAM. THOMPSON TOO, RETURNED EAST, CROSSING THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS FOR HIS FINAL TIME, AND RETIRING FROM THE FUR TRADE IN 1812. FOR THE NEXT TWO YEARS, THOMPSON WORKED ON HIS MAPS OF WESTERN NORTH AMERICA. IT WAS AN ENORMOUS UNDERTAKING, USING HIS SURVEYS AND DISCOVERIES FROM THE LAST 20 YEARS. "HE STARTS WORKING ON HIS GREAT MAPS. SORT OF MAGNUM OPUS TO SHOW IN ONE GRAND CANVAS WHAT HE'S BEEN DOING WITH ALL OF HIS LIFE. " ONE OF THOMPSON'S WALL SIZE MAPS WAS HUNG IN THE DINING ROOM AT FORT WILLIAM TO BE USED BY TRAVELERS HEADING WEST FOR THE NEXT FOUR DECADES. "HE LIVED DURING A TIME THAT REALLY SAW THE TRANSFORMATION OF WESTERN NORTH AMERICA. SO WHEN HE WAS BORN IN 1770, EUROPEAN PEOPLE KNEW VERY LITTLE ABOUT WHAT WAS SOUTH AND WEST OF HUDSON'S BAY. BY THE TIME HE DIED IN 1857, THE WEST WAS BEING PREPARED FOR EUROPEAN SETTLEMENT. SO, HE'S A FIGURE WHO EXPERIENCED ALL THAT, AND IN SOME SENSES WAS THE AGENT OF THAT. " HIS EXPLORATIONS OPENED WHAT WOULD BECOME THE PRIMARY TRADE ROUTE ACROSS THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS TO THE PACIFIC. THIS INLAND NORTHWEST PASSAGE WAS THE LAST LINK OF A FUR TRADE HIGHWAY CONNECTING A CONTINENT FROM SEA TO SEA. HIS TIRELESS MAP WORK REALIZED THE DREAM THAT HE EXPRESSED IN A LETTER TO A FRIEND AFTER HIS FIRST WINTER AT THE SOURCE LAKES OF THE COLUMBIA. DAVID THOMPSON'S LETTER: I WISH TO HEAVEN YOU COULD BE TRANSPORTED BY SOME GENIIS TO SEE HOW THIS COUNTRY IS FORMED. ♪ ♪

External links

This page was last edited on 21 July 2021, at 08:58
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.