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List of defunct and relocated Major League Baseball teams

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Throughout the history of Major League Baseball, numerous franchises have moved or become defunct. Many of these franchises played in the National League (NL) and the American League (AL), the two existing major leagues, but other franchises played in one of the eleven major leagues that ultimately went defunct. The classification of the major leagues is based on Major League Baseball's recognition of historical leagues.

Major league baseball emerged in the 1870s, and four major leagues, including the NL, played at least one season of baseball in the nineteenth century. During this period, dozens of franchises were founded, but most went defunct, leaving just twelve NL franchises by the 1892 season. After four of the twelve NL franchises went defunct following the 1899 season, the American League emerged in 1901 with several newly founded franchises. The Federal League (FL) challenged the primacy of the American League and the National League for two seasons, but the FL and all of its franchises went defunct after the 1915 season. Numerous negro leagues operated during the first half of the twentieth century; seven leagues that operated from 1920 to 1948 were later recognized as major leagues by Major League Baseball.

Outside of the negro leagues, no major league franchises relocated for several years after 1915, until the Boston Braves moved to Milwaukee following the 1952 season. Several teams relocated over the next twenty years, often moving to the Western or Southern United States. After a period of over thirty years with no relocation, the Montreal Expos became the Washington Nationals in 2005.

List of defunct and relocated major league franchises since 1892

These franchises played in the National League, the American League, or the Federal League after the 1891 season and either went defunct or relocated. Some franchises appear more than once in the table; for example, the Braves franchise appears twice because they moved to Milwaukee in 1952 and to Atlanta in 1965.

League The league the franchise was in at the time of their move
First First year in Major League Baseball
Last Last year in Major League Baseball
Post-change status The status of the franchise after moving or becoming defunct
Current status The current status of the franchise
P League championships won
WS World Series victories
^ City would later receive a new franchise
Team League First Last Seasons Post-change Status Current Status P WS Reason for move/disbandment Ref
Louisville Colonels NL 1882 1899 18 Defunct Defunct 1 0 Contraction of National League[1] [2]
Baltimore Orioles^ NL 1882 1899 18 Defunct Defunct 3 0 Contraction of National League[1] [3]
Cleveland Spiders^ NL 1887 1899 13 Defunct Defunct 0 0 Contraction of National League[1] [4]
Washington Senators^ NL 1891 1899 9 Defunct Defunct 0 0 Contraction of National League[1] [5]
Milwaukee Brewers^ AL 1901 1901 1 St. Louis Browns Baltimore Orioles 0 0 Poor attendance[6] [7]
Baltimore Orioles^ AL 1901 1902 2 Defunct[a] Defunct 0 0 American League wanted a franchise in New York City[9] [10]
Indianapolis Hoosiers FL 1914 1914 1 Newark Peppers Defunct 1 0 Federal League wanted a franchise in the New York metropolitan area[11] [12]
Kansas City Packers^ FL 1914 1915 2 Defunct Defunct 0 0 Disbandment of Federal League [13]
Chicago Whales^ FL 1914 1915 2 Defunct Defunct 1 0 Disbandment of Federal League [14]
Baltimore Terrapins^ FL 1914 1915 2 Defunct Defunct 0 0 Disbandment of Federal League [15]
St. Louis Terriers^ FL 1914 1915 2 Defunct Defunct 0 0 Disbandment of Federal League [16]
Brooklyn Tip-Tops^ FL 1914 1915 2 Defunct Defunct 0 0 Disbandment of Federal League [17]
Pittsburgh Rebels^ FL 1914 1915 2 Defunct Defunct 0 0 Disbandment of Federal League [18]
Buffalo Blues^ FL 1914 1915 2 Defunct Defunct 0 0 Disbandment of Federal League [19]
Newark Peppers FL 1915 1915 1 Defunct Defunct 0 0 Disbandment of Federal League [12]
Boston Braves^ NL 1876 1952 77 Milwaukee Braves Atlanta Braves 10 1 Poor attendance and competition with the Boston Red Sox[20] [21]
St. Louis Browns^ AL 1902 1953 52 Baltimore Orioles Baltimore Orioles 1 0 Poor attendance and competition with the St. Louis Cardinals[22] [7]
Philadelphia Athletics^ AL 1901 1954 54 Kansas City Athletics Oakland Athletics 9 5 Poor attendance and competition with the Philadelphia Phillies[23] [24]
New York Giants^ NL 1883 1957 75 San Francisco Giants San Francisco Giants 17 5 Declining attendance and desire for a new ballpark[25] [26]
Brooklyn Dodgers NL 1884 1957 74 Los Angeles Dodgers Los Angeles Dodgers 13 1 Declining attendance and desire for a new ballpark[27] [28]
Washington Senators^ AL 1901 1960 60 Minnesota Twins Minnesota Twins 3 1 Poor attendance[29] [30]
Milwaukee Braves^ NL 1953 1965 13 Atlanta Braves Atlanta Braves 2 1 Declining attendance[31] [21]
Kansas City Athletics^ AL 1955 1967 13 Oakland Athletics Oakland Athletics 0 0 Poor attendance and the owner's desire for a larger market[32] [24]
Seattle Pilots^ AL 1969 1969 1 Milwaukee Brewers Milwaukee Brewers 0 0 Poor attendance and desire for a larger ballpark[33] [34]
Washington Senators^ AL 1961 1971 11 Texas Rangers Texas Rangers 0 0 Poor attendance[35] [36]
Montreal Expos NL 1969 2004 36 Washington Nationals Washington Nationals 0 0 Poor attendance and desire for a new ballpark[37] [38]

Map of cities that hosted defunct and moved franchises

List of defunct and relocated Major League Baseball teams is located in the United States
Buffalo
Buffalo
Chicago
Chicago
Newark
Newark
Indianapolis
Indianapolis
Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
Louisville
Louisville
Boston
Boston
Cleveland
Cleveland
Montreal
Montreal
New York
New York
Seattle
Seattle
Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Baltimore
Baltimore
Brooklyn
Brooklyn
Kansas City
Kansas City
Milwaukee
Milwaukee
St. Louis
St. Louis
Washington
Washington
The map shows cities that hosted defunct and relocated baseball franchises that played in the National League, the American League, or the Federal League after 1891. A steel pog indicates that the city hosted a defunct franchise from the Federal League. A green pog indicates the city hosted a relocated or defunct franchise from the National League. A red pog indicates the city hosted a relocated franchise from the American League. An orange pog indicates that the city hosted relocated or defunct franchises from multiple leagues.

 

List of Negro major league franchises

In 2020, Major League Baseball extended major league recognition to seven negro leagues:[39]

The listed years in the table below indicate the first and last years that the franchise played in a major league as recognized by Major League Baseball; many franchises existed before or after playing in a major league. Franchises that played only as associate clubs of a major league are not included. From 1924 to 1927, and from 1942 to 1948, the top Negro leagues crowned a champion through the Negro World Series.

Team League First Last NWS championships
Atlanta Black Crackers NSL, NAL 1932 1939 0
Bacharach Giants ECL, ANL 1923 1929 0
Baltimore Elite Giants NNL I, NSL, NNL II 1930 1948 0
Baltimore Black Sox ECL, ANL, EWL, NNL II 1923 1933 0
Birmingham Black Barons NNL I 1924 1948 0
Brooklyn Eagles[b] NNL II 1935 1935 0
Brooklyn Royal Giants ECL 1923 1928 0
Chicago American Giants NNL I, NSL, NNL II, NAL 1920 1948 2
Chicago Giants NNL I 1920 1921 0
Cincinnati Tigers NAL 1937 1937 0
Cleveland Browns NNL I 1924 1924 0
Cleveland Buckeyes NAL 1942 1948 1
Cleveland Elites NNL I 1926 1926 0
Cleveland Hornets NNL I 1927 1927 0
Cleveland Red Sox NNL II 1934 1934 0
Cleveland Stars EWL 1932 1932 0
Cleveland Tate Stars NNL I 1922 1923 0
Cleveland Tigers NNL I 1928 1928 0
Columbus Buckeyes NNL I 1921 1921 0
Columbus Blue Birds NNL II 1933 1933 0
Cuban House of David EWL 1932 1932 0
Cuban Stars (East) ECL, ANL 1923 1929 0
Cuban Stars (West) NNL I 1920 1930 0
Dayton Marcos NNL I 1920 1926 0
Detroit Stars NNL I 1920 1931 0
Detroit Stars NAL 1937 1937 0
Detroit Wolves EWL 1932 1932 0
Harrisburg Giants ECL 1924 1927 0
Hilldale Club ECL, ANL, EWL 1923 1932 1
Homestead Grays ANL, EWL, NNL II 1929 1948 3
Jacksonville Red Caps NAL 1938 1942 0
Indianapolis ABCs NNL I 1920 1926 0
Indianapolis ABCs NNL I, NSL, NNL II 1931 1933 0
Indianapolis Athletics NAL 1937 1937 0
Indianapolis Clowns NAL 1943 1948 0
Kansas City Monarchs NNL I, NAL 1920 1948 2
Lincoln Giants ECL, ANL 1923 1929 0
Little Rock Grays NSL 1932 1932 0
Louisville Black Caps NNL I, NSL 1930 1932 0
Newark Browns EWL 1932 1932 0
Newark Eagles[b] NNL II 1934 1948 1
Newark Stars ECL 1926 1926 0
New Orleans–St. Louis Stars NAL, NNL II 1938 1943 0
Memphis Red Sox NNL I, NSL, NAL 1924 1948 0
Milwaukee Bears NNL I 1923 1923 0
Monroe Monarchs NSL 1932 1932 0
Montgomery Grey Sox NSL 1932 1932 0
New York Black Yankees NNL II 1936 1948 0
New York Cubans NNL II 1935 1948 1
Philadelphia Stars NNL II 1934 1948 0
Pittsburgh Crawfords NNL II, NAL 1933 1940 0
Pittsburgh Keystones NNL I 1922 1922 0
St. Louis Stars NNL I 1920 1931 0
St. Louis Stars NAL 1937 1937 0
Toledo Tigers NNL I 1923 1923 0
Washington Black Senators NNL II 1938 1938 0
Washington Pilots EWL 1932 1932 0
Washington Potomacs ECL 1924 1925 0

List of major league franchises that went defunct prior to 1892

The Boston Reds won pennants in the Players' League and the American Association before going defunct
The Boston Reds won pennants in the Players' League and the American Association before going defunct
The Providence Grays won the National League in 1879 and 1884 before folding in 1885
The Providence Grays won the National League in 1879 and 1884 before folding in 1885

The franchises in the following list went defunct before the 1892 season, and played in the National League, the American Association (AA), the Players' League (PL), the Union Association (UA), or some combination of the four leagues. The NL has played continuously since 1876, the AA existed from 1882 to 1891, the UA existed for one season in 1884, and the PL operated for one season in 1890. Note that there have been many cases of multiple distinct franchises sharing the same name.

In 1968–1969, the Special Records Committee, which was established by Major League Baseball, defined the major leagues as consisting of the NA, NL, AA, PL, UA, American League, and Federal League.[40] The Special Records Committee excluded the National Association (NA), which operated from 1871 to 1875, as a major league. Some baseball writers have nonetheless argued that the NA should be considered the first major league,[41] but NA franchises are not included below unless they later played in the National League.

Team League First Last Pennants
Philadelphia Athletics NL 1876 1876 0
New York Mutuals NL 1876 1876 0
Hartford Dark Blues[c] NL 1876 1876 0
St. Louis Brown Stockings NL 1876 1877 0
Louisville Grays NL 1876 1877 0
Cincinnati Reds NL 1876 1879 0
Brooklyn Hartfords[c] NL 1877 1877 0
Milwaukee Grays NL 1878 1878 0
Indianapolis Blues NL 1878 1878 0
Providence Grays NL 1878 1885 2
Syracuse Stars NL 1879 1879 0
Troy Trojans NL 1879 1882 0
Cleveland Blues NL 1879 1884 0
Buffalo Bisons NL 1879 1885 0
Worcester Worcesters NL 1880 1882 0
Detroit Wolverines NL 1881 1888 1
Philadelphia Athletics AA 1882 1890 1
Columbus Buckeyes AA 1883 1884 0
New York Metropolitans AA 1883 1887 1
Altoona Mountain Citys UA 1884 1884 0
Baltimore Monumentals UA 1884 1884 0
Boston Reds UA 1884 1884 0
Pittsburgh Stogies UA 1884 1884 0
Cincinnati Outlaw Reds UA 1884 1884 0
Indianapolis Hoosiers AA 1884 1884 0
Kansas City Cowboys UA 1884 1884 0
Milwaukee Brewers UA 1884 1884 0
Philadelphia Keystones UA 1884 1884 0
Richmond Virginians AA 1884 1884 0
St. Paul Saints UA 1884 1884 0
Toledo Blue Stockings AA 1884 1884 0
Washington Statesmen AA 1884 1884 0
Washington Nationals UA 1884 1884 0
Wilmington Quicksteps UA 1884 1884 0
St. Louis Maroons[d] UA/NL 1884 1886 1
Kansas City Cowboys NL 1886 1886 0
Washington Nationals NL 1886 1889 0
Indianapolis Hoosiers[d] NL 1887 1889 0
Kansas City Cowboys AA 1888 1889 0
Columbus Solons AA 1889 1891 0
Brooklyn Gladiators AA 1890 1890 0
Brooklyn Ward's Wonders PL 1890 1890 0
Buffalo Bisons PL 1890 1890 0
Chicago Pirates PL 1890 1890 0
Cleveland Infants PL 1890 1890 0
New York Giants PL 1890 1890 0
Pittsburgh Burghers PL 1890 1890 0
Rochester Broncos AA 1890 1890 0
Syracuse Stars AA 1890 1890 0
Toledo Maumees AA 1890 1890 0
Boston Reds PL/AA 1890 1891 2
Philadelphia Athletics PL/AA 1890 1891 0
Cincinnati Kelly's Killers AA 1891 1891 0
Milwaukee Brewers AA 1891 1891 0

†Indicates a franchise that played in the National Association prior to joining the National League

Timelines

Franchise and league timeline

This timeline includes all franchises (including non-defunct franchises) that played in the AL or NL after 1891; it also shows the eleven historical leagues during the period in which each is considered a major league by Major League Baseball. Active franchises that did not change cities are listed by their current names, even if they were renamed at some point. Franchise moves are marked in black.

National League franchises American League franchises Other leagues

National League franchises American League franchises Other leagues

Pre-1900 city timeline

This timeline shows the history of major league franchises (including non-defunct franchises) before 1900. Multiple bars for a city indicates that the city hosted multiple major league franchises at the same time; for example, Philadelphia at times hosted two or three franchises concurrently. Gaps in the bars indicate a change in franchises; for example, there were three franchises known as the Kansas City Cowboys. Franchise moves are not tracked by this timeline.


National League Franchise American Association franchise Union Association franchise Player's League franchise

National League Franchise American Association franchise Union Association franchise Player's League franchise

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This iteration of the Orioles is sometimes considered to be predecessor of the New York Yankees, but the Yankees themselves treat the Orioles and Yankees as separate franchises.[8]
  2. ^ a b The Newark Dodgers and the Brooklyn Eagles merged in 1936, becoming the Newark Eagles.
  3. ^ a b The Hartford Dark Blues moved to Brooklyn for the 1877 season, becoming the Brooklyn Hartfords.
  4. ^ a b The St. Louis Maroons relocated to Indianapolis after the 1886 season, becoming the Indianapolis Hoosiers

References

  1. ^ a b c d "MLB TO ELIMINATE TWO TEAMS". Wired. AP. 7 November 2001. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  2. ^ "Louisville Colonels Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  3. ^ "Baltimore Orioles Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  4. ^ "Cleveland Spiders Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  5. ^ "Washington Senators Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  6. ^ Russell, Doug (2 March 2012). "Milwaukee's first Major League team remembered. No, not them". OnMilwaukee. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b "Baltimore Orioles Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  8. ^ {{cite web|last1=Lynch|first1=Mike|title=1901-02 Orioles Removed from Yankees History|url=https://www.sports-reference.com/blog/2014/07/1901-02-orioles-removed-from-yankees-history/%7Cwebsite=Sports Reference|access-date=26 September 2017
  9. ^ Thorn, John. "The House That McGraw Built". Our Game. John Thorn. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
  10. ^ "Baltimore Orioles Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  11. ^ Spatz, Lyle (2012). Historical Dictionary of Baseball. Scarecrow Press. p. 161.
  12. ^ a b "Newark Peppers Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  13. ^ "Kansas City Packers Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  14. ^ "Chicago Whales Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  15. ^ "Baltimore Terrapins Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  16. ^ "St. Louis Terriers Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  17. ^ "Brooklyn Tip-Tops Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  18. ^ "Pittsburgh Rebels Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  19. ^ "Buffalo Bisons Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  20. ^ Emery, Tom (31 March 2016). "When the Braves called Boston home". Providence Journal. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  21. ^ a b "Atlanta Braves Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  22. ^ Jones, Landon (10 December 2014). "How Bill Veeck Invented the Baltimore Orioles". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  23. ^ Warrington, Robert D. "Departure Without Dignity: The Athletics Leave Philadelphia". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  24. ^ a b "Philadelphia Athletics Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  25. ^ Goldman, Steven. "What the hell are the Giants doing in San Francisco, anyway?". SBNation. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  26. ^ "San Francisco Giants Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  27. ^ Hirsch, Paul. "Walter O'Malley Was Right". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  28. ^ "Los Angeles Dodgers Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  29. ^ Hennessy, Kevin. "Calvin Griffith: The Ups and Downs of the last Family-Owned Baseball Team". Society for American Baseball Research. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  30. ^ "Minnesota Twins Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  31. ^ Hylon, J. Gordon. "Why Milwaukee Lost the Braves: Perspectives on Law and Culture From a Half-Century Later". Marquette University Law School. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  32. ^ Rieper, Max (20 January 2016). "Losing a sports team: The relocation of the Kansas City Athletics". SBNation. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  33. ^ Caple, Jim (24 August 2016). "Seattle Pilots barely remembered, except through Brewers, 'Ball Four'". ESPN. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  34. ^ "Milwaukee Brewers Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  35. ^ Eisen, Jeffrey M. (1987). "Franchise Relocation in Major League Baseball". University of Miami Entertainment & Sports Law Review. 4 (19). Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  36. ^ "Texas Rangers Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  37. ^ Panetta, Alexander (13 September 2014). "Twenty years after historic season cancelled, the 'Montreal Expos' back in first". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 27 September 2017.
  38. ^ "Washington Nationals Team History & Encyclopedia". Baseball Reference. Retrieved 23 September 2017.
  39. ^ Castrovince, Anthony (December 16, 2020). "MLB adds Negro Leagues to official records". MLB.
  40. ^ Thorn, John (4 May 2015). "Why Is the National Association Not a Major League … and Other Records Issues". MLB.com. Retrieved 28 September 2017.
  41. ^ Ryczek, William. "Why the National Association Was a Major League". The National Pastime Museum. Retrieved 26 September 2017.
This page was last edited on 26 November 2021, at 12:39
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