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List of defunct automobile manufacturers of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of defunct automobile manufacturers of the United States. They were discontinued for various reasons, such as bankruptcy of the parent company, mergers, or being phased out.

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Transcription

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Y

Z

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Kimes and Clark, p.11
  2. ^ Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.190.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx Clymer, p.210.
  4. ^ Clymer, p.205; Kimes 1985, p. 18
  5. ^ Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1946–1959 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2008), p.1016.
  6. ^ "Allen Touring Car 37 Fiche Info 1916". www.plandegraissage.org. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  7. ^ "The Allen Automobile & The Allen Iron & Steel Company". american-automobiles.com. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  8. ^ "Flyer". www.bessermuseum.org. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  9. ^ Kimes, p.29
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx Clymer, p.205.
  11. ^ "Another Flash In The Pan….The Shaw". www.theoldmotor.com. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clymer, p.170.
  13. ^ "The American Automobile & The American Motors Corporation". www.american-automobiles.com. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  14. ^ Clymer, p.31.
  15. ^ "F.A. Ames Co., Ames Body Corp., Ames Speedster, Ames Buggy Co., Carriage Woodstock Co., Ford Model T, Ames Motor Car Co". www.coachbuilt.com. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  16. ^ a b Kimes, p.47
  17. ^ Clymer, p.205; Kimes 1985, p. 19
  18. ^ Clymer, p.170-1.
  19. ^ Kimes, p.50
  20. ^ Kimes, p.57
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Flory, p.1016.
  22. ^ Clymer, p.23 & 205.
  23. ^ Kimes, p.74
  24. ^ Kimes, p.74
  25. ^ Kimes, p.74
  26. ^ Clymer, pp.178 & 205.
  27. ^ Clymer, p.205.
  28. ^ Clymer, pp.153 & 205.
  29. ^ Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  30. ^ Clymer, p.170.
  31. ^ Clymer, pp.38 & 205.
  32. ^ a b c d Flory, p.1016.
  33. ^ Clymer, p.193.
  34. ^ Clymer, p.205.
  35. ^ Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  36. ^ Clymer, pp.190.
  37. ^ a b c d Clymer, p.170-1.
  38. ^ Clymer, p.115.
  39. ^ Clymer, pp. 5, 61, & 205.
  40. ^ Flory, p.1016.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay Clymer, p.23.
  42. ^ Clymer, pp.190 & 205.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm Clymer, p.206.
  44. ^ Clymer, pp.5 & 190.
  45. ^ Clymer, p.178.
  46. ^ a b Suman-Hreblay, Marián (2000). Automobile Manufacturers Worldwide Registry. McFarland. p. 56. ISBN 9781476611402. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  47. ^ Clymer, pp.16, 170, & 206.
  48. ^ One of three companies by this name. Clymer, pp.23 & 206.
  49. ^ Clymer, p.206.
  50. ^ Clymer, p.206.
  51. ^ Clymer, p.153.
  52. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 252
  53. ^ Clymer, pp.22 & 178.
  54. ^ Clymer, p.206.
  55. ^ Clymer, p.206.
  56. ^ Clymer, p.206.
  57. ^ Clymer, pp.25 & 206.
  58. ^ Clymer, p.23.
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Clymer, p.190.
  60. ^ Built in Little Rock, Arkansas. Clymer, p.178.
  61. ^ a b c Kimes 1985, p. 331
  62. ^ Clipper Division, Studebaker-Packard Corp.; Packard, A History of the Motor Car and the Company (General edition), Beverly Rae Kimes, editor (1978), Automobile Quarterly", ISBN 0-915038-11-0"
  63. ^ Triumph an Tragedy: The Last Real Packards by Richard M. Langworth, in Collectible Automobile, September, 1984 issue; p. 6-25; (ISSN 0742-812X)
  64. ^ Clymer, p.178.
  65. ^ Clymer, p.87.
  66. ^ Clymer, p.104.
  67. ^ Clymer, p.63.
  68. ^ a b Clymer, p.206.
  69. ^ Clymer, p.206.
  70. ^ Clymer, p.145.
  71. ^ Clymer, p.206.
  72. ^ Clymer, p.67.
  73. ^ "Electric car for the average Joe not far away". Wheels.ca. 2012-09-14. Retrieved 2014-08-09.
  74. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 357
  75. ^ Clymer, p.158.
  76. ^ Clymer, p.206.
  77. ^ Clymer, p.206.
  78. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 206.
  79. ^ Clymer, pp.190 & 206.
  80. ^ Clymer, p.206.
  81. ^ One of two companies by this name. Clymer, pp.158 & 206.
  82. ^ Named for the horse, built in Minneapolis. Clymer, p.178.
  83. ^ Built in St. Louis, Missouri. Clymer, p.93.
  84. ^ a b Clymer, pp.5 & 206.
  85. ^ Clymer, p.170
  86. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 403
  87. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 403-404
  88. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 404-405
  89. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 405
  90. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 405-406
  91. ^ Kimes(1985), p. 406
  92. ^ Distinct from the tractor. Clymer, p.206.
  93. ^ Built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 206.
  94. ^ Built in Indiana. Distinct from DeSoto. Clymer, p.178.
  95. ^ Distinct from DeSoto Motor Car Company. Clymer, p.178.
  96. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr Clymer, p.209.
  97. ^ Offered an electric phaeton before 1916. Clymer, pp.38 & 205.
  98. ^ Distinct from Diamond T. Clymer, p.206.
  99. ^ Clymer, p.206. Tourist was a model.
  100. ^ a b Clymer, p.5.
  101. ^ Clymer, p.206. By Alberto Santos-Dumont
  102. ^ Clymer, p.206. Founder was later the author of Dyke's Automobile and Gasoline Engine Encyclopedia.
  103. ^ Conceived by Buckminster Fuller.
  104. ^ Built in Wisconsin, distinct from the Michigan company. Clymer, p.153.
  105. ^ Steam and electric cars, built in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  106. ^ Clymer, p.206. No connection to Eaton's.
  107. ^ Clymer, p.38.
  108. ^ Clymer, p.206. No connection to Electric Launch Company.
  109. ^ Johnson model. Clymer, pp.23 & 207. Distinct from the Elite steam automobile company.
  110. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch Clymer, p.207.
  111. ^ Clymer, p.170-1 & 207.
  112. ^ Built in Cincinnati, Ohio. Clymer, p.104.
  113. ^ Later Halladay or Streator, eventually Barley. Clymer, p.207.
  114. ^ Car and truck maker, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  115. ^ Built in Chicago. Clymer, p.104.
  116. ^ Clymer, p.207.
  117. ^ Clymer, p.207.
  118. ^ Clymer, p.207.
  119. ^ "Early American Automobiles 1904 Models". Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  120. ^ http://www.northfield.org/files/REGuide031908.pdf
  121. ^ Clymer, p.166.
  122. ^ Clymer, p.207.
  123. ^ Clymer, p.40.
  124. ^ a b Clymer, p.207.
  125. ^ Kimes & Clark, 'Standard Catalog, p.574.
  126. ^ Clymer, p.63.
  127. ^ Kimes & Clark, 'Standard Catalog, p.574.
  128. ^ Kimes & Clark, 'Standard Catalog, p.574.
  129. ^ Kimes & Clark, 'Standard Catalog, p.574.
  130. ^ Not counting the Blair-Forth, of 1908. Kimes & Clark, 'Standard Catalog, p.574.
  131. ^ Not counting the Blair-Forth, of 1908. Kimes & Clark, 'Standard Catalog, pp.574-575.
  132. ^ Kimes & Clark, 'Standard Catalog, p.575.
  133. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1289
  134. ^ Clymer, p.16.
  135. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 593
  136. ^ Clymer, p.153.
  137. ^ a b Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  138. ^ Clymer, p.51.
  139. ^ Kimes, Clark (1996), p.625.
  140. ^ Distinct from the Gearless steamer. Clymer, p.207.
  141. ^ Made by the multinational as experimental models.
  142. ^ Clymer, p.207. Distinct from the multinational
  143. ^ Gasoline and steam. Clymer, pp.23 & 190.
  144. ^ Flory, p.1016, credits them only for 1950.
  145. ^ Supposedly from Atlanta, Georgia. Clymer, p.207.
  146. ^ Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland 1916–1922. Clymer, p.190.
  147. ^ Clymer, p.178.
  148. ^ Clymer, pp.14 & 22.
  149. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1447
  150. ^ One of two companies by this name. Clymer, p.207.
  151. ^ Truck maker, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  152. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 190.
  153. ^ Schwarzkopf, E.E. (1910). Automobile Topics. volume 19. p. 1456. Retrieved 2019-12-05. (Google books)
  154. ^ Sherron, Chas. B. (1907). American Vehicle: Devoted to the Interests of the Vehicle and Accessory Trades. volume 20. p. 26. Retrieved 2019-12-05. Google books: (Automobile Notes)
  155. ^ No relation to the school. Clymer, p.170.
  156. ^ "Indiana Truck History Report". Archived from the original on 25 July 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2014.
  157. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 652,761
  158. ^ Distinct from Hatfield Motor Vehicle Company and the Hatfield Company truck manufacturer. Kimes 1985, p. 682
  159. ^ a b Kimes(1985), p. 1524
  160. ^ An air-cooled, built in Wisconsin, sold for US$2000. Clymer, p.23.
  161. ^ Clymer, p.112.
  162. ^ Clymer, p.207. Distinct from Hewitt-Lindstrom.
  163. ^ Steam and gasoline, based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.23 & 190.
  164. ^ Distinct from the Australian company.
  165. ^ Clymer, p.207. Distinct from Holley.
  166. ^ Clymer, pp.170–1 & 207.
  167. ^ a b Clymer, pp.23 & 207.
  168. ^ a b Clymer, pp.5 & 23.
  169. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 207.
  170. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 742
  171. ^ In Boston. Kimes 1985, pp. 769, 1407
  172. ^ a b In New York City. Kimes 1985, p. 769
  173. ^ Clymer, p.207; Kimes 1985, p. 769
  174. ^ Clymer, p.206.
  175. ^ In Toledo, Ohio. Clymer, p.23; Kimes 1985, p. 769
  176. ^ In Buffalo, New York. Kimes 1985, p. 769
  177. ^ a b Clymer, pp.18 & 23.
  178. ^ Built in Wisconsin. Clymer, pp.23 & 153.
  179. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de Clymer, p.208.
  180. ^ Clymer, p.208. Not to be confused with Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  181. ^ Also sold commercial vans of 1, 2, 3, & 6 tons. Clymer, p.53.
  182. ^ Clymer, p.131.
  183. ^ One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.208.
  184. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 769
  185. ^ Flory, pp.1011–12.
  186. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 774
  187. ^ Based in Toledo, Ohio. Clymer, p.158.
  188. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 782
  189. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  190. ^ a b c Built in Wisconsin. Clymer, p.153.
  191. ^ Clymer, p.208. Electrette was a model.
  192. ^ Clymer, p.208. Distinct from LaSalle.
  193. ^ Distinct from Lewis Motocycle. Clymer, p.208.
  194. ^ a b c Horseless Age 1895.
  195. ^ A four-wheeler, despite the name. Clymer, p.8.
  196. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 828
  197. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 635
  198. ^ Before 1912, the cars were called Sears. Clymer, p.90.
  199. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 859–860
  200. ^ a b Kimes 1975, p. 1004
  201. ^ began with steam autos
  202. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clymer, p.22.
  203. ^ Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.890
  204. ^ Based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 208.
  205. ^ Clymer, p.23.
  206. ^ Clymer, p.208. Distinct from the Mason steamer.
  207. ^ Truck maker, Based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  208. ^ Built in Waterloo, Iowa. Clymer, p.93.
  209. ^ Clymer, p.84.
  210. ^ Built in Wisconsin by Joe Merkel, who later built the Merkel Motorcycle. Clymer, p.153.
  211. ^ Distinct from the Meteor steamer and the Ford division. Clymer, p.23.
  212. ^ Clymer, p.208. Distinct from the Nash
  213. ^ Built in Waltham, Massachusetts. Clymer, p.145.
  214. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 929
  215. ^ Built in Moline, Illinois. Clymer, p.93.
  216. ^ Built in Racine, Wisconsin. Clymer, pp.36 & 153.
  217. ^ Clymer, p.57.
  218. ^ Clymer, p.208. One of two companies by this name, distinct from Moline-Knight.
  219. ^ Clymer, p.190.
  220. ^ Clymer, p.208. Not to be confused with Moggie.
  221. ^ Clymer, pp.22 & 208.
  222. ^ Lewis, Mary Beth. "Ten Best First Facts", in Car and Driver, 1/88, p.92.
  223. ^ Flory, p.1016, dates it to 1950.
  224. ^ Built in Traverse City, Michigan. Clymer, pp.170 & 178.
  225. ^ Not to be confused with the producers of the Ruxton.
  226. ^ Clymer, pp.170–1 & 208.
  227. ^ Often misspelled as Neilson (Clymer, p.208)
  228. ^ a b c Kimes 1975, p. 1003
  229. ^ Clymer, p.208. Not to be confused with the motorcycle.
  230. ^ Kimes 1975, p. 1005
  231. ^ Built in Milwaukee. Clymer, p.153.
  232. ^ Catalog of American Cars 1805–1945 (1985), p.1013
  233. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 209.
  234. ^ Based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  235. ^ Based in Cleveland. Distinct from Owen Magnetic. Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  236. ^ built in Salem, Mass.; 1 gasoline & 2 electric cars Kimes 1985, p. 1063
  237. ^ Built in Indianapolis, Indiana. Clymer, p.102.
  238. ^ Built in Chicago. Clymer, p.151.
  239. ^ Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.1125
  240. ^ Clymer, p.42.
  241. ^ a b c Standard Catalogue of American Cars, p.1126
  242. ^ Clymer, pp.6 & 153.
  243. ^ Cars and trucks, built in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.5, 178, & 190.
  244. ^ Friction-drive, built in Wisconsin. Clymer, p.153.
  245. ^ Freund, Klaus, ed. (August 1981). Auto Katalog 1982 (in German). 25. Stuttgart: Vereinigte Motor-Verlage GmbH & Co. KG. p. 165.
  246. ^ Based in Cleveland.Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  247. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from the GM division.
  248. ^ Clymer, pp.13 & 23.
  249. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Porter Motor Company.
  250. ^ Flory, p.1016. Distinct from Powell Manufacturing Company?
  251. ^ Clymer, p.209.
  252. ^ Distinct from the pickup. Clymer, p.209.
  253. ^ Cars & trucks, based in Cleveland. Clymer, p.190.
  254. ^ Clymer, p.149.
  255. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Reading Steamer.
  256. ^ Clymer, p.209. Said to be the cheapest car ever built.
  257. ^ Producer of four-axle Octoauto and twin rear axle Sextoauto in Columbus, Indiana. Clymer, p.122-4.
  258. ^ 1895 car produced by Remington Arms Company. Clymer, p.209.
  259. ^ "Renaissance Cars Inc. / Zebra Motors Inc". Retrieved 3 September 2014.
  260. ^ Based in Cleveland. Clymer, pp.190 & 209.
  261. ^ Clymer, pp.22 & 209.
  262. ^ Clymer, p.209.
  263. ^ Clymer, pp.23 & 209.
  264. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Rogers Steamobile. One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.209.
  265. ^ Rolls Royce
  266. ^ Kimes (1985), p. 1273
  267. ^ A tricycle. Clymer, p.8.
  268. ^ Clymer, p.209. Also known as Dumont
  269. ^ Clymer, p.8.
  270. ^ Clymer, pp.90 & 209.
  271. ^ Clymer, p.209. Distinct from Chrysler Sebring.
  272. ^ Built in Buffalo, New York. Clymer, p.5.
  273. ^ Built by William H. Sharp. Clymer, p.88.
  274. ^ "Shay Model A Roadster". shayhistory.com. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  275. ^ Dixie Junior and Dixie Tourist (1908-1910- Retrieved 2018-10-28
  276. ^ The Horseless Age: The Automobile Trade Magazine, Volume 22- Retrieved 2018-10-28
  277. ^ Unrelated to the steam car company. Clymer, p.210.
  278. ^ Clymer, pp.23 & 210.
  279. ^ One of two companies with this name. Clymer, p.210.
  280. ^ Distinct from Stanley Motor Carriage Company. Clymer, p.210.
  281. ^ Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Stearns (automobile).
  282. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 512
  283. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1351
  284. ^ One of three companies by this name. Clymer, p.210.
  285. ^ Steam cars. One of three companies by this name. Clymer, pp.23 & 210.
  286. ^ Production was continued in Canada until 1966.
  287. ^ Flory, p.1016. Fitting Cadillac V8s into Studebakers was common in the 1950s, under the nickname Studillac, as well as into Fords as Fordillacs; it appears Flory has mistaken it.
  288. ^ Clymer, pp.38 & 210.
  289. ^ Clymer, p.210. Not to be confused with models from Dodge, Plymouth, Studebaker, Nash Motors, Chevrolet, or GMC.
  290. ^ Clymer, p.52.
  291. ^ Clymer, p.210. Unrelated to Summit Racing Equipment.
  292. ^ Clymer, p.190, locates them in Cleveland.
  293. ^ Clymer, pp.170 & 210.
  294. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1417–1419
  295. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1423–1424
  296. ^ Kimes 1985, pp. 1463, 45
  297. ^ Clymer, p.22; Kimes 1985, pp. 769, 1472
  298. ^ Clymer, p.210. Unrelated to Triumph Motor Company sportscars or Triumph Engineering Co Ltd motorcycles.
  299. ^ Distinct from the Victor steam cars. Clymer, p.210.
  300. ^ "The Victor Page Automobile & The Victor W. Page Corp". www.american-automobiles.com. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  301. ^ Clymer, pp.23.
  302. ^ Kimes, Beverly R. (editor), and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805–1945. Krause Publications, 1985. ISBN 0-87341-045-9. p 1455
  303. ^ Built in Painesville, Ohio. Clymer, p.135.
  304. ^ Detroit-based builder of "generic" cars without badges so dealers could badge them as desired. Clymer, p.146.
  305. ^ Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Ward (electric automobile company)
  306. ^ Clymer, p.210. Distinct from Ward (automobile company)
  307. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1491
  308. ^ Kimes 1985, p. 1519
  309. ^ a b Kimes 1985, p. 1521

Sources

  • Automobile Quarterly (eds.). The American Car Since 1775. Kutztown, PA: Automobile Quarterly, Inc., 1971. ISBN 0-525-05300-X
  • Bird, Anthony and Douglas-Scott Montagu of Beaulieu, Edward: Steam Cars, 1770–1970, Littlehampton Book Services Ltd., 1971. ISBN 0-304-93707-X: ISBN 978-0-304-93707-3
  • Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925. New York: Bonanza Books, 1950.
  • Clymer, Floyd and Gahagan, Harry W.: Floyd Clymer's Steam Car Scrapbook, Literary Licensing, LLC, 2012. ISBN 1-258-42699-4; ISBN 978-1-258-42699-6
  • Georgano, Nick (Ed.). The Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn, 2000. ISBN 1-57958-293-1
  • Evans, Richard J.: Steam Cars (Shire Album), Shire Publications Ltd (booklet) 1985. ISBN 0-85263-774-8; ISBN 978-0-85263-774-6
  • Headfield, John: American Steam-Car Pioneers: A Scrapbook (1st edition). Newcomen Society in North, 1984. ISBN 9994065904; ISBN 978-9994065905
  • Kimes, Beverly R. (editor), and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805–1945. Krause Publications, 1975. ISBN 0-87341-111-0
  • Kimes, Beverly R. (editor), and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805–1945. Krause Publications, 1985. ISBN 0-87341-045-9
  • Kimes, Beverly R., and Clark, Henry A. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805–1942 (3rd edition). Iola, WI: Krause, 1996. ISBN 0-87341-428-4
  • Kirsch, David A.: The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick NJ and London, 2000. ISBN 0-8135-2809-7
This page was last edited on 27 October 2020, at 22:31
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