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List of castles in England

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Windsor Castle, Berkshire
Windsor Castle, Berkshire

This list of castles in England is not a list of every building and site that has "castle" as part of its name, nor does it list only buildings that conform to a strict definition of a castle as a medieval fortified residence.[1] It is not a list of every castle ever built in England, many of which have vanished without trace, but is primarily a list of buildings and remains that have survived. In almost every case the buildings that survive are either ruined, or have been altered over the centuries. For several reasons, whether a given site is that of a medieval castle has not been taken to be a sufficient criterion for determining whether or not that site should be included in the list.

Castles that have vanished or whose remains are barely visible are not listed, except for some important or well-known buildings and sites. Fortifications from before the medieval period are not listed, nor are architectural follies. In other respects it is difficult to identify clear and consistent boundaries between two sets of buildings, comprising those that indisputably belong in a list of castles and those that do not. The criteria adopted for inclusion in the list include such factors as: how much survives from the medieval period; how strongly fortified the building was; how castle-like the surviving building is; whether the building has been given the title of "castle"; how certain it is that a medieval castle stood on the site, or that the surviving remains are those of a medieval castle; how well-known or interesting the building is; and whether including or excluding a building helps make the list, in some measure, more consistent.

In order to establish a list that is as far as possible comprehensive as well as consistent, it is necessary to establish its boundaries. Before the list itself, a discussion of its scope includes lengthy lists of buildings excluded from the main lists for various reasons. The Castellarium Anglicanum, an authoritative index of castles in England and Wales published in 1983, lists over 1,500 castle sites in England.[2] Many of these castles have vanished or left almost no trace. The present list includes more than 800 medieval castles of which there are visible remains, with over 300 having substantial surviving stone or brick remains.


Contents

History

The Tower of London
The Tower of London

A castle is a type of fortified structure, developed in Europe during the Middle Ages. The first castles appeared in France in the 10th century,[3] and in England during the 11th century. A few castles are known to have been built in England before the Normans invaded in 1066;[4] a great many were built in the years following, the principal mechanism by means of which the Normans were able to consolidate their control over the country.[5] Whilst a few important castles, such as the White Tower in the Tower of London, were built of stone, most early castles were motte-and-bailey castles of earthwork and timber, which could be constructed quickly. Some were later rebuilt in stone,[6] but there are a great many castle sites in England where all that is visible today are traces of earthworks.[7]

Castles continued to be built in England for several hundred years, reaching a peak of military sophistication in the late 13th century.[8] The two principal elements in their construction were the great tower or keep, such as the White Tower, and the fortified enclosure, such as is provided by the outer wall of the Tower of London. During the 14th century, largely as a result of the decline of feudalism,[9] the construction of strong castles began to decline, in favour of more lightly fortified structures often described as fortified manor houses.[10] In the far north of England, where conditions remained unsettled, fortified buildings continued to be built as late as the 16th century, not only by the rich and powerful but by any with adequate means, as defence not against great armies, but against the notorious Border Reivers. Many took the form of the pele tower, a smaller, more modest version of the castle keep,[11] and many of these still survive, often incorporated in later buildings.

Pendennis Castle, Cornwall: a 16th-century Henrician Castle
Pendennis Castle, Cornwall: a 16th-century Henrician Castle

Castles differed from earlier fortifications in that they were generally private fortified residences. Typically, a castle was the residence of a feudal lord, providing the owner with a secure base from which to control his lands,[12] and also a symbol of wealth and power. Earlier fortified structures, such as the Saxon burh or the Iron Age hill fort, provided public or communal defences,[13] as did medieval town or city walls. The many Roman forts of which ruins survive in Britain differed in being wholly military in nature - they were camps or strongholds of the Roman army. The Romans also built town or city walls in England, which can still be seen, for instance at Silchester.

By the 16th century the role of fortifications had changed once more with the development of artillery capable of breaching even thick stone walls. In the reign of Henry VIII, fears of invasion[14] led to the building of a series of new fortresses along the south coast of England,[15] known as the Device Forts or Henrician Castles. These were designed to use and to defend against artillery, and since they were not private residences, but national fortifications, they do not possess what architectural historians have come to see as the defining characteristics of a castle.[16] Nonetheless they are visibly castle-like, being compact, with battlemented walls, squat turrets and sometimes a keep; and they were the last generation of fortresses in England to be known as castles, long before architectural historians began to argue that they should not be.[17] One of them, Pendennis Castle, was one of the last Royalist strongholds to fall to the Parliamentarians during the English Civil War—starvation forcing surrender after a siege of five months.[18]

Herstmonceux Castle, East Sussex

As the role of the castle as fortress declined in the later medieval period, its role as a residence increasingly became the more important. Castles such as Herstmonceux were built with fortifications seemingly designed more for show than for strength,[19] implying a further evolution in the role and concept of the castle, becoming less a means of enforcing power but instead a symbol of its possession, a castle becoming a grand residence proclaiming the status of its owner. Once fortifications had become altogether redundant, it became increasingly rare in England for new buildings to be described as castles, in contrast to France, where country houses continued to be known as châteaux.

Once no longer needed as fortresses, castles — if they were not abandoned — were, over the centuries, adapted and modernised to make them more suitable for continued use as residences:[20] large windows were inserted in defensive walls, as at Lumley; outer walls were demolished or lowered to open up views from within, as at Raby; new residential ranges were built to improve and extend accommodation, as at Windsor. Some castles were restored after falling into ruin, like Bamburgh;[21] others, like Belvoir, were demolished and rebuilt, retaining little or none of the original structure.[22] In the 18th and 19th centuries especially, many castles underwent "improvements" by architects such as Anthony Salvin, and in this period a fashion developed for entirely new houses to be built in the style of castles, and to be known as castles.[23][24] Amongst these was Peckforton Castle, built by Salvin: a building so authentic in its recreation of a medieval castle that it has been described as possibly the last serious fortified home built in Britain.[25]

Peckforton Castle, Cheshire, with Beeston Castle in the distance
Peckforton Castle, Cheshire, with Beeston Castle in the distance

Scope and exclusions

No list of castles in England is ever likely to be complete, because there will never be complete agreement in every case as to whether the remains of a building are those of a castle, whether a given place is the site of a castle, or whether a surviving building should be considered to be a castle.[26]

Perhaps because the castle has become the most familiar type of fortification, many sites of fortifications earlier than the 10th century have become known as castles. Most of these are Iron Age hill forts. Amongst the best known are Abbotsbury Castle, Barbury Castle, Bratton Castle, Cadbury Castle, Castle Dore, Chûn Castle, Liddington Castle, Maen Castle, Maiden Castle and Uffington Castle,[27] whilst many more appear in the List of hill forts in England. Others, such as Melandra Castle, Reculver Castle, Richborough Castle and Whitley Castle, are Roman forts, whilst Daw's Castle is a Saxon burh.[27] None of these is included in the present list unless it is also the site of a medieval castle, as is the case with, for instance, Portchester Castle, where an imposing castle was built within the surviving walls of the Roman fort.[28]

Portchester Castle, Hampshire: Roman walls and medieval keep
Portchester Castle, Hampshire: Roman walls and medieval keep

Nor are all medieval fortified sites included in the present list. The remains of town and city walls are excluded — most of these appear in the List of town walls in England and Wales. Also excluded are churches with defensive towers, such as Ancroft, Burgh by Sands, Edlingham, Garway, Great Salkeld and Newton Arlosh, as well as other fortified ecclesiastical sites such as Alnwick Abbey, Battle Abbey, Thornton Abbey, Wetheral Priory, Whalley Abbey and St Mary's Abbey, York.[29] Some of the pele towers of Northern England are included, but the more modest fortified buildings known as bastles are not, though the distinction between them is not always altogether clear. Amongst fortified manor houses, those given the title of castle are included, whilst many others were more lightly fortified and are excluded. Amongst these are Baddesley Clinton, Cowdray House, Farnhill Hall, Hipswell Hall, Ightham Mote, Little Wenham Hall, Markenfield Hall and Walburn Hall.[29]

The list includes pele towers that became known as castles, or preserve a castle-like aspect. Many others, or their remains, survive much altered—incorporated in later country houses or farmhouses, and are excluded. Amongst these are: Aske Hall, Biddlestone RC Chapel, Bolling Hall, Bolton Old Hall, Boltongate Rectory, Causey Park House, Clennell Hall, Cliburn Hall, Corbridge Low Hall, Cowmire Hall, Craster Arms (Beadnell), Croglin Old Pele, Denton Hall, Dovenby Hall, Dunstan Hall, East Shaftoe Hall, Godmond Hall, Great Salkeld Rectory, Hardrigg Hall, Hepscott Hall, Hetton Hall, Hollin Hall, Hutton Hall (Penrith), Irton Hall, Johnby Hall, Killington Hall, Kirkoswald College, Levens Hall, Little Harle Tower, Nether Hall, Netherby Hall, Ormside Hall, Pockerley Pele, Preston Patrick Hall, Randalholme Hall, Rock Hall, Rudchester Hall, Sella Park, Selside Hall, Skelsmergh Hall, Smardale Hall, Thistlewood Farmhouse, Warnell Hall, Weetwood Hall and Witton Tower.[29]

In the post-medieval period, the distinction between true castles and later mock castles is blurred by the extent to which medieval castles were adapted and rebuilt. At Greystoke a new castle was built incorporating a medieval pele tower;[30] at Thurland a new castle was built from the ruins of the old;[31] at Belvoir the old castle was demolished and a new one built.[22] The building of mock castles might be seen as the logical conclusion of a process already apparent in castles such as Herstmonceux or Tattershall, where the castle-like aspect of the building was becoming more for show than for strength.[19]

Wentworth Castle: not a castle but a country house
Wentworth Castle: not a castle but a country house

Amongst post-medieval buildings in England that are known as castles, a few, such as Peckforton Castle, closely resemble medieval castles. Many others, such as Clearwell Castle, have some castle-like features, and some, like Mereworth Castle, bear no resemblance whatsoever to a castle. The list excludes buildings that neither look like castles, nor incorporate the remains of castles. Amongst these are Bolebroke Castle, Bovey Castle, Bruce Castle, Castle Ashby, Castle Howard, Clifton Castle, Highclere Castle, Mereworth Castle, New Wardour Castle, Sherborne Castle, Wentworth Castle, and Wisbech Castle.[32] Many other buildings with some castle-like features are also excluded. Amongst these are Acton Castle, Allerton Castle, Augill Castle, Avon Castle, Bell's Castle, Bolesworth Castle, Bude Castle, Castle Eden Castle, Castle Goring, Cave Castle, Clearwell Castle, Cliffe Castle, Coates Castle, Creech Castle, Droskyn Castle, Edmond Castle, Enmore Castle, Ewell Castle, Farleigh Castle, Farley Castle, Fillingham Castle, Hatherop Castle, Headingley Castle, Highcliffe Castle, Hilfield Castle, Kenwith Castle, Kirby Knowle Castle, Knepp Castle, Luscombe Castle, Midford Castle, Mulgrave Castle, Otterburn Tower, Pentillie Castle, Reeve Castle, Ryde Castle, St. Clare Castle, Sibdon Castle, Sneaton Castle, Stanhope Castle, Studley Castle, Swinton Castle, The Citadel (Weston-under-Redcastle), Tregenna Castle, Vanbrugh Castle, Wadhurst Castle, Wattisham Castle, Whitehaven Castle, Whitstable Castle, Willersley Castle, and Willsbridge Castle.[32] Amongst those that have been demolished is Steephill Castle.

Artificial ruins and follies, often built as memorials or landscape features, are also excluded. Amongst these are Appley Tower, Black Castle, Bladon Castle, Blaise Castle, Bollitree Castle, Boston Castle, Braylsham Castle, Broadway Tower, Carr Hall Castle, Castlebourne, Clent Castle, Clopton Tower, Dinton Castle, Doyden Castle, Dunstall Castle, Durlston Castle, Fort Putnam, Hadlow Castle, Castle in Hagley Park Lawrence Castle, Long's Park Castle, Mow Cop Castle, Mowbray Castle, Pirton Castle, Radford Castle, Radway Tower, Ragged Castle (Badminton), Rivington Castle, Rodborough Fort, Ross Castle, Rothley Castle, Roundhay Castle, Sebergham Castle, Severndroog Castle, Shaldon Castle, Sham Castle (Bath), Sledmere Castle, Speedwell Castle, Stainborough Castle, Starlight Castle, Stowe Castle, Strattenborough Castle, Sundorne Castle, Toll House (Clevedon) and Wyke Castle.[32] Finally, the 16th-century Henrician Castles, whose design was closely inspired by medieval castles, are included, but later military fortifications—with just a few exceptions—are not.

Red Lion Tower, Haltwhistle
Red Lion Tower, Haltwhistle

However carefully the criteria for including a building or site on this list are set out, borderline cases are inevitable. Many buildings known to incorporate northern pele towers in their fabric, but are no longer castle-like—such as the Red Lion Tower in Haltwhistle—have been excluded. On the other hand, Corby Castle, in which a pele tower survives wholly encased in a later building,[33] is included because it is known as a castle, and by implication continued to fulfil the role of one, at least in part. Kimbolton Castle is included as the site of a medieval castle, and because the present mansion has a castellated aspect in deference to the medieval castle it replaced.

Key

Key
Accessible open space
Accessible open space
CL icon.svg
Castle open to the public
EH icon.svg
English Heritage
HH icon.svg
Historic House open to the public
Museum icon (red).svg
Museum
National Trust
National Trust
NGS Private, grounds open under the National Gardens Scheme
Name Usually the name of the surviving building, but not always—for instance the remains of the historic Bampton Castle were incorporated in a later building known as Ham Court
Type Usually the type of castle represented by the predominant surviving fortified remains
Date Usually the dates of the principal building works relating to the surviving remains
Condition An indication as to what remains of the original castle structure
Image The building or site as it currently exists
Ownership
/ Access
Brief information relating to the current ownership or use of the site, an icon signifying that the site is frequently open to the public

Bedfordshire

Castles of which only earthworks, fragments or nothing remains include:[2]

Bedford Castle was demolished after a well-documented eight-week siege by Henry III, with around 2000 men, in 1224.[34]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Someries Castle Fortified manor house 15th century Fragmentary remains
Someries Castle.jpg
CL icon.svg
Brick, unfinished, ruined gatehouse and chapel survive.[35]

Berkshire

Castles of which only earthworks, fragments or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Donnington Castle Castle c. 1386 Fragment
Donnington Castle - geograph.org.uk - 35386.jpg
EH icon.svg
Built by Richard Abberbury the Elder, destroyed during the English Civil War, gatehouse survives.[36]
Windsor Castle Keep and bailey 12–19th century Intact
Windsor Castle at Sunset - Nov 2006.jpg
Royal palace Restored and extended by James Wyatt and Jeffry Wyattville, 1800–30.[37]

Bristol

Castles of which only vestiges remain include:[2]

Buckinghamshire

Castles of which only earthworks, fragments or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Boarstall Tower Fortified manor house c. 1312 Fragment
Boarstall Tower - geograph.org.uk - 1062939.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Moated site, gatehouse survives, altered in the 16–17th centuries, converted to house 20th century.[38]

Cambridgeshire

Castles of which only earthworks, fragments or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Buckden Palace Fortified manor house 13–15th century Fragment
Buckden Towers.jpg
Claretian conference centre Renamed Buckden Towers, partly demolished and remnants incorporated with a 19th-century house.[39]
Elton Hall Fortified manor house c. 1477 Fragment
Elton Hall - geograph.org.uk - 1258739.jpg
HH icon.svg
Gatehouse survives, incorporated in building of 1662–1689, remodelled and extended in the 18–19th centuries.[40]
Kimbolton Castle Castellated house 17–18th century Intact
Kimbolton Castle 01.jpg
School Site of medieval castle, rebuilt and later remodelled by Sir John Vanbrugh 1707–10.[41]
Kirtling Tower Fortified manor house c. 1530 Fragment
A view of Kirtling Tower - geograph.org.uk - 525588.jpg
NGS 16th-century gatehouse on supposed site of moated Saxon castle.[42]
Longthorpe Tower Tower house 1263–1300 Intact
Longthorpe Tower1.jpg
EH icon.svg
Elaborate scheme of domestic medieval wall paintings.[43]
Northborough Castle Fortified manor house 1330–40 Fragment
The gatehouse, Northborough Hall - geograph.org.uk - 672519.jpg
Private Gatehouse and hall survive, with 16/17th-century alterations.[44]
Woodcroft Castle Quadrangular castle c. 1280 Habitable fragment
WoodcroftCastle.jpg
Private West range of original building survives, with alterations.[45]

Cheshire

Castles of which only earthworks, fragments or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Beeston Castle Enclosure castle 13–14th century Ruins
Beeston Castle Gate.jpg
EH icon.svg
Sited on crag high above Cheshire Plain, 19th-century outer gatehouse.[46]
Chester Castle Keep and bailey 12th century Fragment
Agricola Tower, Chester Castle - geograph.org.uk - 675807.jpg
EH icon.svg
Agricola tower sole feature of medieval castle to survive an 18th-century fire.[47]
Cholmondeley Castle Neo-romantic castle 1801–19 Intact
Cholmondeley - Cholmondeley Castle.jpg
HH icon.svg

Marquess of Cholmondeley
Transformed into castle by Smirke, 1817–19.[48]
Doddington Castle Tower house c. 1403 Substantially intact
"Castle" in the park (cropped).jpg
Private Also known as Delves Hall. Building At Risk.[49]
Halton Castle Castle 13th century Fragmentary remains
Halton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 311820.jpg
CL icon.svg

Duchy of Lancaster
Commanding position, 13th-century tower, 18th-century courthouse, folly of c. 1800.[50]
Peckforton Castle Neo-romantic castle 1844–50 Intact
Peckforton Castle 1.jpg
Hotel By Anthony Salvin, possibly the last serious fortified home built in Britain.[25]

County Durham

Castles of which only earthworks or vestiges remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Auckland Castle Keep and bailey 12–16th century Rebuilt
Auckland Castle 036.jpg
HH icon.svg

Church of England
Mostly 16th-century, fragments remain of medieval castle, residence of the Bishop of Durham.[51]
Barnard Castle Keep and bailey 11–14th century Ruins
Barnard Castle.jpg
EH icon.svg
[52]
Bowes Castle Keep 12th century Fragmentary remains
Bowes Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1158843.jpg
EH icon.svg
Ruins of keep survive.[53]
Brancepeth Castle Keep and bailey 14–19th century Reconstructed
Brancepeth Castle.jpg
Private Substantial medieval portions, including 5 towers incorporated in 19th-century rebuilding.[54]
Durham Castle Keep and bailey 11–14th century Rebuilt
Durham Castle - geograph.org.uk - 897762.jpg
University College, Durham Much altered during continuous occupation since c. 1072.[55]
Lambton Castle Neo-romantic castle c. 1820–8 Intact
Lambton Park 1892.jpg
Wedding venue / Earl of Durham Later additions demolished following subsidence.[56]
Lumley Castle Quadrangular castle c. 1392 Intact
Lumley Castle 02.jpg
Hotel / Earl of Scarbrough Altered c. 1580 and 1721.[57]
Mortham Tower Fortified manor house 14–16th century Intact
Mortham Tower - geograph.org.uk - 1413899.jpg
Private 15th-century tower, formerly in Yorkshire.[58]
Raby Castle Castle 12–14th century Intact
Raby Castle - geograph.org.uk - 29645.jpg
HH icon.svg

Lord Barnard
Altered in the 18–19th centuries.[59]
Raby Old Lodge Tower house 16th century Restored Holiday accommodation Probably built as a hunting lodge for the Neville family of Raby Castle.[60]
Scargill Castle Tower house 13–15th century Fragment
Scargill Castle Farm - geograph.org.uk - 75574.jpg
Private, farm Amongst farm buildings.[61]
Walworth Castle Sham castle c. 1600 Restored
Walworth 001.jpg
Hotel South-west tower and adjoining wall possibly medieval.[62]
Witton Castle Castle c. 1410 Restored
Witton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 307577.jpg
Caravan site Extended in 1790–95. Used as a leisure centre for a caravan site.[63]

Cornwall

Castles of which little or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Caerhays Castle Neo-romantic castle 1807–10 Intact
Caerhayes Castle.jpg
HH icon.svg
Built in 1808 by John Nash.[64]
Carn Brea Castle Sham castle 15–19th century Intact
Carn Brea Castle by Ansom.jpg
Restaurant Possible medieval hunting lodge rebuilt in the 18–19th centuries.[65]
Ince Castle Semi-fortified house c. 1640 Intact
Ince Castle - geograph.org.uk - 344828 cropped.jpg
NGS House may have been held against the Roundheads in 1646.[66]
Launceston Castle Keep and bailey 11–13th century Ruins
Launceston, castle over rooftops - geograph.org.uk - 571483.jpg
EH icon.svg
[67]
Pendennis Castle Artillery fort 1540–98 Intact
Pendennis Castle keep.jpg
EH icon.svg
Withstood 5-month siege in 1646.[18]
Pengersick Castle Fortified manor house c. 1510 Fragment
Pengersick Castle - geograph.org.uk - 54699.jpg
HH icon.svg
4-storey tower remains, with later building.[68]
Place House, Fowey Tower house 15–19th century Rebuilt
Place House, Fowey.jpg
Private Original tower house defended against the French in 1475, subsequently strengthened, later rebuilt.[69]
Restormel Castle Shell keep 12–13th century Ruins
RestormelCastle.JPG
EH icon.svg
[70]
St Catherine's Castle Artillery fort 1538–40 Ruins
St Catherines Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1239837.jpg
EH icon.svg
At mouth of River Fowey.[71]
St. Mawes Castle Artillery fort 1540–3 Intact
St-mawes-castle.JPG
EH icon.svg
Position not defensible from land attack.[72]
St. Michael's Mount Fortified site 12–17th century Substantially intact
CASTLE3.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Castle and priory church comprise single building.[73]
Tintagel Castle Twin bailey 1227–33 Fragmentary remains
Upper mainland courtyard of Tintagel Castle, 2007.jpg
EH icon.svg
[74]
Trematon Castle Shell keep 12–13th century Ruins
Keep, Trematon Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1192900.jpg
Duchy of Cornwall [75]

Cumbria

Castles of which only earthworks, vestiges or no traces remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Appleby Castle Keep and bailey 12–17th century Restored
Caesar's Tower inside Appleby castle - geograph.org.uk - 1505585.jpg
Private Restored in the 17th century by Lady Anne Clifford.[76]
Armathwaite Castle Tower house 15th century Intact
River Eden from Armathwaite Bridge - geograph.org.uk - 211411 cropped.jpg
Private Incorporated in later buildings.[77]
Arnside Tower Tower house 15th century Ruins
Arnside Tower from the south west - geograph.org.uk - 418663.jpg
Private Freestanding tower house.[78]
Askerton Castle Castle 14–16th century Restored
Askerton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 958564.jpg
Private, farm Altered by Anthony Salvin.[79]
Beetham Hall Fortified manor house 14th century Partly ruined
Beetham Hall - geograph.org.uk - 862919.jpg
Private [80]
Bewcastle Castle Courtyard castle 14–15th century Fragmentary ruins
Bewcastle - geograph.org.uk - 1945279.jpg
CL icon.svg
Sited within Roman fort.[81]
Bewley Castle Fortified manor house 13–14th century Fragmentary ruins Private Once a residence of the Bishops of Carlisle.[82]
Blencow Hall Fortified house 15–16th century Intact
Blencow Hall - geograph.org.uk - 1458342.jpg
Holiday accommodation Altered in 1590.[83]
Brackenburgh Old Tower Pele tower 14–15th century Substantially intact Private Adjoining large 19th-century house.[84]
Brackenhill Tower Tower house 1586 Intact Holiday accommodation Restored 21st century.[85]
Branthwaite Hall Pele tower 14–15th century Intact
Branthwaite Hall. - geograph.org.uk - 80423.jpg
Private 17th-century additions.[86]
Brough Castle Keep and bailey 11–14th century Ruins
Brough Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1605399.jpg
EH icon.svg
Restored in 1659–62 by Lady Anne Clifford.[87]
Brougham Castle Keep and bailey 13–14th century Ruins
Brougham Castle - geograph.org.uk - 17714.jpg
EH icon.svg
Converted into country house in 17th century by Lady Anne Clifford.[88]
Brougham Hall Fortified manor house 13–19th century Ruins
Brougham Hall - geograph.org.uk - 1532.jpg
Crafts centre Ruins of 19th-century house incorporating remains of earlier building.[89]
Broughton Tower Pele tower 14th century Intact
Broughton Tower, Cumbria.jpg
School Incorporated in later building.[90]
Burneside Hall Tower house 14th century Ruins
Burneside Hall - geograph.org.uk - 1499618.jpg
Private [91]
Carlisle Castle Keep and bailey 12–15th century Substantially intact
Carlisle Castle 03.jpg
EH icon.svg
Converted to barracks 19th century.[92]
Catterlen Hall Tower house 15th century Intact
CatterlenHall cropped.jpg
Private Later additions.[93]
Clifton Hall Pele tower 16th century Substantially intact
Pele Tower, Clifton, Cumbria (geograph 1878296, cropped).jpg
EH icon.svg
Used as a farm building until 1973.[94]
Cockermouth Castle Enclosure castle 13–14th century Partly restored
Cockermouth Castle.jpg
Private 19th-century additions.[95]
Corby Castle Tower house 13th century Rebuilt
Corby Castle cropped.jpg
Private Concealed within a Georgian Mansion House.[33]
Dacre Castle Tower house 14th century Restored
Dacre Castle.jpg
Private Restored in the 17th and 19th centuries.[96]
Dalston Hall Fortified house 15th century Intact
Dalston Hall.jpg
Hotel Later additions.[97]
Dalton Castle Pele tower 14th century Restored
Dalton Castle.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Remodelled c. 1704 and 1856.[98]
Drawdykes Castle Tower house 14th century Intact Private, farm Original tower with early Classical Revival facade.[99]
Drumburgh Castle Tower house 14th century Habitable
Drumburgh Castle - geograph.org.uk - 912711.jpg
Private Converted into farmhouse.[100]
Gleaston Castle Enclosure castle 14th century Fragmentary remains
North-Tower-from-NW.jpg
Private Abandoned late 15th century.[101]
Greystoke Castle Castle 14–19th century Rebuilt
Greystoke Castle.jpg
Wedding venue Rebuilt incorporating parts of 14th-century building, remodelled in 1840 by Anthony Salvin.[102]
Harbybrow Tower Pele tower 15th century Ruin Private Adjoining 19th-century farmhouse.[103]
Hayton Castle Tower house 14–15th century Substantially intact Private Castle converted to house.[104]
Hazelslack Tower Pele tower 14th century Ruins
Hazelslack Tower - geograph.org.uk - 126519.jpg
Private Near Arnside.[105]
Howgill Castle Tower house 14th century Substantially intact Private Altered and remodelled in the 17–18th century.[106]
Hutton-in-the-Forest Pele tower 14–19th century Intact
Hutton-in-the-Forest 04.jpg
HH icon.svg
Large country-house extensions.[107]
Hutton John Pele tower 14th century Intact
Hutton John - geograph.org.uk - 563746.jpg
HH icon.svg
Later alterations and additions.[108]
Ingmire Hall Pele tower 16–20th century Rebuilt
Ingmire Hall-geograph.org.uk-3218717.jpg
Private apartments Incorporated in large, mostly 19th-century mansion.[109]
Isel Hall Tower house 14–15th century Intact
Iselhall.jpg
HH icon.svg
Later additions.[110]
Kendal Castle Ringwork 12–14th century Fragmentary remains
Kendal Castle at sunset.jpg
UKAL icon.svg
[111]
Kentmere Hall Pele tower 14th century Intact
Kentmere hall.jpg
Private [112]
Kirkandrews Tower Pele tower 16th century Intact
Kirkandrews Tower - geograph.org.uk - 1577812.jpg
Private [113]
Linstock Castle Tower house 12–13th century Substantially intact Private Altered and remodelled in the 17–20th century.[114]
Lowther Castle Neo-romantic castle 1806–14 Ruins
Lowther Castle 01.jpg
HH icon.svg
Shell of a 19th-century castle by Smirke, on site of medieval hall.[115]
Middleton Hall Fortified manor house 14th century Habitable
Middleton Hall.jpg
Private Altered and extended in the 15–19th centuries.[116]
Millom Castle Castle 14th century Ruins
Millom Castle - geograph.org.uk - 285259.jpg
CL icon.svg
16–17th-century farmhouse built into ruins.[117]
Muncaster Castle Tower house 13–14th century Restored
Muncaster Castle 01.jpg
HH icon.svg
Remodelled by Anthony Salvin, home of Tom Fool, 16th-century jester.[118]
Naworth Castle Keep and bailey 13–16th century Restored
Naworth Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1485110.jpg
Wedding venue
Earl of Carlisle
Altered and restored in the 18th and 19th centuries.[119]
Newbiggin Hall Fortified house 15–16th century Intact
Part of Newbiggin Hall - geograph.org.uk - 290844.jpg
Private Remodelled by Anthony Salvin.[120]
Pendragon Castle Tower house 12–14th century Fragmentary remains
Pendragon Castle - geograph.org.uk - 927364.jpg
CL icon.svg
[121]
Penrith Castle Castle 14–15th century Fragmentary remains
Penrith Castle 2.JPG
EH icon.svg
[122]
Piel Castle Castle 14–15th century Ruins
Piel Castle.jpg
EH icon.svg
Also known as Fouldrey Castle.[123]
Prior's Tower, Carlisle Pele tower 15th century Intact
Prior's Tower, Carlisle.jpg
Church of England Part of the Deanery, alongside later buildings.[124]
Rose Castle Quadrangular Castle 15–16th century Restored
Rose Castle, Raughton Head.jpg
Church of England Converted to private house 17th century, residence of the Bishop of Carlisle until 2011.[125]
Scaleby Castle Tower house 13–15th century Partly ruined
Scaleby Castle, Cumbria - geograph.org.uk - 50853.jpg
Private Incorporated with later house.[126]
Sizergh Castle Tower house 14–16th century Restored
Sizergh Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1290821.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Altered in the 18–20th centuries.[127]
Toppin Castle Sham castle 19th century Intact
Toppin Castle Farm House (geograph 1841134, cropped).jpg
Private Imitation tower house.[128]
Ubarrow Hall Pele tower Medieval Substantially intact
Yewbarrow-hall-longsleddale.jpg
Private Alongside later building, reduced in height.[129]
Wharton Hall Fortified manor house 14–17th century Partly restored
Wharton Hall - geograph.org.uk - 163881.jpg
Private [130]
Whitehall, Mealsgate Tower house 14–15th century Substantially intact Holiday accommodation Alterations by Anthony Salvin.[131]
Workington Hall Tower house 14–18th century Ruins
Curwen Hall - geograph.org.uk - 571432.jpg
Local authority Inhabited until 1929, requisitioned by the army in the Second World War and since allowed to fall into ruin. Also known as Curwen Hall.[132][133]
Wray Castle Neo-romantic castle 1840–7 Intact
Wray Castle - geograph.org.uk - 129530.jpg
NTE icon.svg
[134]
Wraysholme Tower Tower house 15th century Substantially intact
Wraysholme Tower.jpg
Private, farm Used as barn and cow-house, adjoining a 19th-century house.[135]
Yanwath Hall Pele tower 15th century Intact
Yanwathhall.jpg
Private Adjoining later building.[136]

Derbyshire

Castles of which only earthworks, vestiges or no traces remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Bolsover Castle Castle 12–17th century Rebuilt
Bolsover Castle - geograph.org.uk - 205752.jpg
EH icon.svg
Castle rebuilt as a 17th-century mansion.[137]
Codnor Castle Castle 13–14th century Fragmentary remains
Codnor castle01.jpg
CL icon.svg
[138]
Elvaston Castle Castellated house 17–19th century Derelict
Elvaston Castle 2.jpg
Derbyshire County Council Built in 1633, remodelled by James Wyatt in 19th century, now within country park. Building At Risk.[139]
Haddon Hall Fortified manor house 14–15th century Intact
Haddon Hall (geograph 2270973) cropped.jpg
HH icon.svg
Altered in the 16–17th centuries, restored in the 1920s.[140]
Mackworth Castle Fortified manor house 15th century Fragment
Mackworth Castle, Lower Road, Mackworth Village, Derbyshire.jpg
Private Ruined gatehouse adjoining farm.[141]
Peveril Castle Keep and bailey 11–14th century Ruins
Peveril Castle keep, 2009.jpg
EH icon.svg
Commanding position above ravine.[142]
Riber Castle Sham castle 1868 Ruins
Riber Castle - from Heights of Abraham - Matlock (geograph 1685064).jpg
Private School 1892–1930.[143]
Wingfield Manor Fortified manor house 15th century Ruins
Wingfield Manor - geograph.org.uk - 6280.jpg
EH icon.svg
Abandoned in the 18th century.[144]

Devon

Castles of which only earthworks or vestiges remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Affeton Castle Fortified manor house 15th century Fragment
Affeton gatehouse500.jpeg
Private Gatehouse of house sacked during English Civil War, with 19th-century alterations.[145]
Berry Pomeroy Castle Enclosure castle 15th century Ruins
Berry Pomeroy Castle - geograph.org.uk - 913529.jpg
EH icon.svg
Very late castle, designed to defend against artillery.[146]
Bickleigh Castle Fortified manor house 15th century Restored
Bickleigh castle.jpg
Wedding venue Incorporated in later buildings.[147]
Compton Castle Fortified manor house 14–16th century Restored
Compton Castle in Devon enh.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Used as farm after 1750, restored 20th century.[148]
Dartmouth Castle Castle 1481 Restored
Dartmouth Castle - geograph.org.uk - 725989.jpg
EH icon.svg
Converted to artillery castle 1509–47.[149]
Castle Drogo Neo-romantic castle 1911–1930 Intact
Drogo.jpg
NTE icon.svg
By Edwin Lutyens.[150]
Gidleigh Castle Keep c. 1300 Ruins
Gidleigh Castle.jpg
CL icon.svg
[151]
Hemyock Castle Enclosure castle c. 1380 Fragmentary remains
Hemyock Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1491334.jpg
Private [152]
Kingswear Castle Artillery fort 1491–1502 Intact
Kingswear Castle from Dartmouth Castle.jpg
Landmark Trust [153]
Lydford Castle Keep and bailey 12–13th century Ruins
Lydford Castle - geograph.org.uk - 31173.jpg
EH icon.svg
[154]
Marisco Castle Keep and bailey c. 1243 Restored
Mariscocastle.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Restored in 1643.[155]
Okehampton Castle Keep and bailey 11–14th century Fragmentary remains
Okehampton Castle Motte, 2009 - geograph.org.uk - 1574337.jpg
EH icon.svg
[156]
Plympton Castle Motte and bailey 12th century Fragmentary remains
Plympton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 103022.jpg
CL icon.svg
[157]
Powderham Castle Fortified manor house 14–16th century Restored
Powderham Castle 02.jpg
HH icon.svg

Earl of Devon
Remodelled in the 18th and 19th centuries.[158]
Rougemont Castle (Exeter) Castle 11–12th century Fragments
Rougemont Castle gatehouse, 2010.jpg
Wedding venue Medieval fragments survive with later buildings.[159]
Salcombe Castle Artillery fort 1540s Ruins
Salcombecastle.JPG
UKAL icon.svg
Refortified in 1643–45.[160]
Tiverton Castle Quadrangular castle 14th century Partly habitable
Tiverton , Tiverton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1287124.jpg
HH icon.svg
16th-century house built within the castle.[161]
Totnes Castle Shell keep 11–14th century Ruins
Totnes Castle1.JPG
EH icon.svg
Well-preserved keep on high motte.[162]
Watermouth Castle Neo-romantic castle 1825–45 Intact
Watermouth Bay and Castle, Devon - geograph.org.uk - 1534396.jpg
Theme park [163]

Dorset

Castles of which only earthworks, fragments or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Brownsea Castle Castellated house 16–19th century Intact
Brownsea Castle, Brownsea Island, Poole, Dorset.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Incorporates part of a 16th-century Henrician Castle.[164]
Christchurch Castle Motte and bailey 12–14th century Fragmentary remains
Christchurch Castle two walls.JPG
EH icon.svg
Hall house known as Constable's House survives, with rare Norman chimney.[165]
Corfe Castle Keep and bailey 11–13th century Extensive ruins
Corfe Castle - geograph.org.uk - 349316.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Besieged and slighted during the English Civil War.[166]
Lulworth Castle Sham castle c. 1610 Restored
Lulworth Castle (1937).jpg
EH icon.svg
Hunting lodge, gutted by fire 1929.[167]
Pennsylvania Castle Neo-romantic castle 1800 Intact
Pennsylvania Castle - geograph.org.uk - 527899.jpg
Private On the Isle of Portland, built for John Penn to designs by James Wyatt.[168]
Portland Castle Artillery fort 1539 Intact
Uk dor portcastle.JPG
EH icon.svg
Private residence 1816–70.[169]
Rufus Castle Castle 15th century Ruins
Rufus Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1305386.jpg
Private Also known as Bow and Arrow Castle.[170]
Sherborne Old Castle Keep and bailey 12th century Ruins
Sherborne Old Castle 02.jpg
EH icon.svg
Replaced by 16–17th century house, which became known as Sherborne Castle.[171]
Woodsford Castle Fortified manor house 14th century Habitable
Woodsford Castle - geograph.org.uk - 924711.jpg
Landmark Trust [172]

East Riding of Yorkshire

Castles of which only earthworks, fragments or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Paull Holme Tower Tower House 15th century Ruins
Paull Holme Tower - geograph.org.uk - 52138.jpg
Private Originally part of larger house, roofless.[173]
Skipsea Castle Motte and Bailey 11th century Earthworks
Skipsea Castle - geograph.org.uk - 79788.jpg
EH icon.svg
Well-preserved earthworks.[174]
Wressle Castle Quadrangular castle 1390 Ruins
Wressle Castle.jpg
Private, farm South range remains, inhabited until gutted by fire in 1796.[175]

East Sussex

Castles of which little or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Bodiam Castle Quadrangular castle c. 1385 Ruins
Bodiam-castle-10My8-1197.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Wide moat.[176]
Camber Castle Artillery fort c. 1540 Ruins
Camber Castle - geograph.org.uk - 18765.jpg
EH icon.svg
"Dismantled" 1642 after sea receded.[177]
Hastings Castle Keep and bailey 12th century Fragmentary ruins
Hastingscastle.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local Authority
Ruined by 1399.[178]
Herstmonceux Castle Fortified mansion 15th century Restored
Herstmonceux Castle.JPG
Queen's University Brick, interior dismantled in 1777, restored 20th century, former home of Royal Greenwich Observatory, now Study Centre.[179]
Lewes Castle Keep and bailey 12–14th century Ruins
Lewes Castle keep.JPG
EH icon.svg
Unusual in having two mottes[180]
Pevensey Castle Keep and bailey 12th century Ruins
Pevensey castle-09.jpg
EH icon.svg
Castle built within surviving walls of Roman fort of Saxon Shore.[181]
Rye Castle (Ypres Tower) Tower House c. 1250 Intact
Ypres Tower.jpg
Museum icon (red).svg
Originally called Baddings Tower.[182]

Essex

Castles of which only earthworks remain include:[2]

Pleshey Castle is a good example of a motte-and-bailey castle: only earthworks and a medieval brick bridge remain.[183]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Colchester Castle Tower keep 11th century Intact
Colchester-castle.jpg
Museum icon (red).svg

Local authority
Reduced in height in 17th century.[184]
Hadleigh Castle Castle 13–14th century Fragmentary remains
Hadleigh Castle.jpg
EH icon.svg
[185]
Hedingham Castle Tower keep 1130–40 Substantially intact
The Keep at Castle Hedingham - geograph.org.uk - 30510.jpg
HH icon.svg
Castle demolished in the 17th century except for keep, well-preserved interior despite fire of 1954.[186]
Walden Castle Keep and bailey 12th century Fragmentary remains
Walden castle.jpg
CL icon.svg
Remains of keep.[187]

Gloucestershire

Castles of which only earthworks, fragments or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Berkeley Castle Keep and bailey 12–14th century Intact
Berkeley Castle 03.jpg
HH icon.svg
Largely unaltered until the 1920s, when interior modernised by 8th Earl of Berkeley.[188]
Beverstone Castle Pentagonal castle 13–15th century Ruins
Beverston Castle - geograph.org.uk - 148310.jpg
NGS 17th-century house built within ruins.[189]
St. Briavel's Castle Keep and bailey 13th century Habitable
St Briavels Castle - geograph.org.uk - 520136.jpg
EH icon.svg
Youth hostel.[190]
Sudeley Castle Quadrangular castle 15th century Restored
Sudeley Castle view from garden Oct07.jpg
HH icon.svg
Restored as a country house in the 19th century.[191]
Thornbury Castle Fortified house c. 1511 Substantially intact
Thornbury.castle.from.church.arp.750pix.jpg
Hotel Restored in the 19th century.[192]

Greater London

Castles of which no traces remain include:[2]

The table does not include The White House, a replica of a Polish palace in London.[193]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Tower of London Concentric castle 11–13th century Intact
Tower of London, April 2006.jpg
Historic Royal Palaces White Tower built c. 1077–1100, curtain walls added in the 13th century, working portcullis.[194]
Manor Farm, Ruislip Motte-and-bailey castle 13th century Ruins
Motte and Bailey site Manor Farm Ruislip.JPG
Public access

Greater Manchester

Castles of which only earthworks, fragments or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Radcliffe Tower Tower house 1403 Fragment
Radcliffe tower hdr.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local authority
Ruinous tower formerly incorporated in timber house.[195]

Hampshire

Castles of which only earthworks or vestiges remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Calshot Castle Artillery fort 16th century Substantially intact
Calshot castle evening.JPG
EH icon.svg
Altered in the 18–20th centuries, in use until 1961.[196]
Hurst Castle Artillery fort 16th century Substantially intact
Hurst Castle west bastion 2.jpg
EH icon.svg
Repaired and refortified in the 19th century.[197]
Netley Castle Artillery fort 16–19th century Rebuilt
Netley Castle, 2008, 1.jpg
Private Remodelled and extended in 1885–90.[198]
Odiham Castle Shell keep and bailey Early 13th century Fragmentary ruins
Odiham Castle.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local authority
Built by King John.[199]
Portchester Castle Keep and bailey 11–12th century Extensive ruins
Portchester castle 04.jpg
EH icon.svg
Built within surviving walls of Roman fort of the Saxon Shore.[28]
Southampton Castle Keep and bailey 11–14th century Fragments
Southampton Castle Wall alongside Castle Lane.jpg
UKAL icon.svg
North bailey wall survives.[200]
Southsea Castle Artillery fort 16th century Rebuilt
Southsea castle from the east.JPG
CL icon.svg

Local authority
Altered several times.[201]
Winchester Castle Motte and bailey 11–13th century Fragment
Winchester Grand Hall.JPG
CL icon.svg

Local authority
Great hall survives, reroofed in 1873.[202]
Wolvesey Castle Castle 12th century Ruins
Wolvesey Castle - Wymond's Tower - geograph.org.uk - 1316547.jpg
EH icon.svg
[203]

Herefordshire

Castles of which little or no traces remain include:[2]

Ewyas Harold Castle is recorded in the Domesday Book and was probably built c. 1048.[204]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Brampton Bryan Castle Castle 13–14th century Ruins
Brampton Bryan gatehouse.jpg
Private Gatehouse survives.[205]
Clifford Castle Motte and bailey 11–13th century Fragments
Clifford Castle ruins.jpg
Private Building At Risk.[206]
Croft Castle Quadrangular castle 14th century Rebuilt
Croft Castle 6.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Converted to a 16/17th-century house.[207]
Downton Castle Neo-romantic castle c. 1774–78 Intact
Downton Castle.jpg
Private Altered and extended in 1860–70.[208]
Eastnor Castle Neo-romantic castle 1811–20 Intact
Eastnor Castle 03.jpg
HH icon.svg
By Robert Smirke.[209]
Goodrich Castle Concentric castle 12–13th century Ruins
Goodrich Castle 01.jpg
EH icon.svg
Partly demolished during English Civil War.[210]
Hampton Court Fortified manor house 1427 Intact
HamptonCourtHerefordshire cropped.jpg
HH icon.svg
Remodelled in 1830–40s.[211]
Kentchurch Court Fortified manor house 14th century Fragment
Kentchurch Court, Garway, Herefordshire - Geograph-2751788-cropped.jpg
HH icon.svg
Medieval tower and gateway survive, remainder largely rebuilt by Nash 1795–1807.[212]
Kinnersley Castle Castle Medieval Rebuilt
Kinnersley Castle.jpg
HH icon.svg
16–17th-century house on the site of a medieval castle.[213]
Longtown Castle Keep and bailey 12–13th century Fragmentary ruins
Longtown Castle - geograph.org.uk - 392612.jpg
EH icon.svg
Circular keep.[214]
Pembridge Castle Keep and bailey 12–13th century Partly habitable
Pembridge Castle.jpg
Private Reconstructed 20th century.[215]
Snodhill Castle Keep and bailey 11–14th century Fragmentary ruins
Snodhill Castle (geograph 2203637, cropped).jpg
UKAL icon.svg
[216]
Treago Castle Fortified manor house 15–16th century Restored
Treago-Castle-375001 13a17522-by-Tony-Bailey.jpg
Private Altered in the 17–19th centuries.[217]
Wigmore Castle Keep and bailey 11–14th century Fragmentary ruins
Entrance to Wigmore Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1248482.jpg
EH icon.svg
Partly dismantled in 1643.[218]
Wilton Castle Castle 13th century Fragmentary ruins
Winter view of Wilton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1169638.jpg
CL icon.svg
Remains incorporated in a 19th-century house.[219]

Hertfordshire

Castles of which only earthworks, fragments or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Berkhamsted Castle Motte and bailey 11–13th century Fragmentary remains
Berkhamsted Castle Jan 2007.jpg
EH icon.svg
Double Moat.[220] Unoccupied since 1495.[221]
Hertford Castle Motte and bailey 11–12th century Fragments
Hertford Castle.jpg
Local authority 15th-century gatehouse survives, altered and extended in the 18–20th centuries.[222]

Isle of Wight

Castles of which little or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Carisbrooke Castle Keep and bailey 12–14th century Substantially intact
Carisbrooke Castle gate 2.jpg
EH icon.svg
Refortified in the 1590s as artillery fortress, former seat of the Governor of the Isle of Wight.[223]
Norris Castle Neo-romantic castle c. 1800 Intact
Norris Castle - East Cowes - geograph.org.uk - 545339.jpg
Private Gothic Revival, by James Wyatt.[224]
Yarmouth Castle Artillery fort 1547 Substantially intact
Yarmouth Castle.JPG
EH icon.svg
Altered in the 17th century.[225]
West Cowes Castle Artillery fort 16–19th century Rebuilt
Cowes iw esplanade cropped.jpg
Royal Yacht Squadron Fragments of a 16th-century structure incorporated in a later building.[226]

Isles of Scilly

Castles of which only vestiges remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Cromwell's Castle Artillery tower 1651 Substantially intact
Cromwell's Castle - Scilly - geograph.org.uk - 15726.jpg
EH icon.svg
[227]
Star Castle Artillery fort 1593 Intact
Star Castle - geograph.org.uk - 615094.jpg
Hotel Important and complete example of Elizabethan fort.[228]

Kent

Castles of which little or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Allington Castle Fortified house 13–14th century Restored
Allington Castle.jpg
Wedding venue Restored in 1905–1929.[229]
Canterbury Castle Tower keep 12th century Ruins
Canterbury Castle.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local Authority
Demolished in 1792.[230]
Chiddingstone Castle Neo-romantic castle 19th century Intact
Chiddingstone Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1260148.jpg
HH icon.svg
17th-century building converted to a castle in the 19th century.[231]
Chilham Castle Keep and bailey 11–14th century Intact
Chilham Castle from Soleshill Road - geograph.org.uk - 403663 cropped.jpg
NGS Keep survives with Jacobean house.[232]
Cooling Castle Keep and bailey 1380s Part ruined
Cooling Castle Gateway - geograph.org.uk - 1067812.jpg
Wedding venue Well-preserved gatehouse survives, barns used for events.[233]
Deal Castle Artillery fort 16th century Intact
Deal Castle.jpg
EH icon.svg
Formerly residence of Captain of the Cinque Ports.[234]
Dover Castle Concentric castle 12–13th century Intact
Keep and entrance of Dover Castle, 2007.jpg
EH icon.svg
Adapted for modern warfare 18–19th centuries.[235]
Eynsford Castle Castle 12th century Fragmentary ruins
Eynsford Castle, Kent - geograph.org.uk - 40563.jpg
EH icon.svg
[236]
Hever Castle Fortified manor house 14th century Restored
Hever Castle 10.JPG
HH icon.svg
Restored early 19th century, working portcullis.[237]
Kingsgate Castle Neo-romantic castle 18–19th century Intact
Kingsgate Castle and Kingsgate Bay - geograph.org.uk - 1474011.jpg
Private apartments Built c. 1760, rebuilt late 19th century.[238]
Leeds Castle Castle 12–15th century Restored
Castle Leeds1 cz.jpg
HH icon.svg
Extensively rebuilt in 1822 and 1926.[239]
Leybourne Castle Castle 13th century Fragmentary ruins
Leybourne Castle.jpg
Private 16th-century house partly incorporating ruins, rebuilt in 1931.[240]
Lullingstone Castle Semi-fortified house 1543–80 Fragment
Lullingstone Castle Gatehouse - geograph.org.uk - 609440.jpg
HH icon.svg
16th-century gatehouse incorporated into a later house.[241]
Lympne Castle Fortified house 13–14th century Restored
Lympne Castle - geograph.org.uk - 57817.jpg
Wedding venue Restored and extended in 1907–12.[242]
Otford Palace Fortified manor house 16th century Ruins
Otford Palace Gatehouse.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local Authority
The palace was one of the chain of houses belonging to the archbishops of Canterbury.[243]
Penshurst Place Fortified manor house 14–15th century Fragment
Penshurst Place - geograph.org.uk - 841026.jpg
HH icon.svg
Remodelled in the 19th century, single tower and stretch of wall survive from fortifications of c. 1400.[244]
Rochester Castle Tower keep 1127 Ruins
Rochester castle.jpg
EH icon.svg
Keep 125 ft (38 m) high to top of turrets.[245][246]
St Leonard's Tower, West Malling Tower keep 1080 Ruins
St leonards tower.jpg
EH icon.svg
[247]
Saltwood Castle Castle 12–14th century Part restored
Saltwood Castle.JPG
Private [248]
Sandgate Castle Artillery fort 1539–40 Substantially intact
Sandgate Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1412667.jpg
Private Altered in 1805–06.[249]
Scotney Castle Fortified manor house 1378–80 Fragment
Scotney Castle.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Single surviving tower incorporated in later house.[250]
Sissinghurst Castle Fortified manor house 15th century Rebuilt
Sissinghurst Castle 09.JPG
NTE icon.svg
No fortifications remaining.[251]
Starkey Castle Manor house 14th century Fragment
Starkey Castle from Footpath - geograph.org.uk - 1062154.jpg
Private Fine medieval hall-house remains from possibly fortified manor house.[252]
Stone Castle Tower 12th century Intact
Stone Castle - geograph.org.uk - 893976.jpg
Wedding venue Medieval tower incorporated in building of 1825.[253]
Sutton Valence Castle Keep and bailey 12th century Fragmentary remains
Sutton Valence Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1015834.jpg
EH icon.svg
[254]
Tonbridge Castle Keep and bailey 11–13th century Fragment
TonbridgeCastle0018.JPG
CL icon.svg

Local authority
Gatehouse survives.[255]
Upnor Castle Artillery fort 1559–67, 1599–1601 Substantially intact
Upnor Castle 01.jpg
EH icon.svg
[256]
Walmer Castle Artillery fort 1539 Intact
Walmer Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1407476.jpg
EH icon.svg
Residence of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports from 18th century.[257]
Westenhanger Castle Fortified manor house c. 1343 Fragment
Westenhanger Castle - geograph.org.uk - 889584.jpg
Wedding venue 18th-century farmhouse built within ruins.[258]

Lancashire

Castles of which only earthworks or vestiges remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Ashton Hall Tower house 14–19th century Intact
Ashton Hall, south tower - geograph.org.uk - 1674506.jpg
Lancaster Golf Club Near Stodday, 14th-century tower incorporated into a later building.[259]
Borwick Hall Pele tower 14th century Intact
Borwick Hall, Lancashire (geograph 2173255).jpg
Outdoor education centre Incorporated in mainly 16th-century building.[260]
Clitheroe Castle Keep and bailey 11–12th century Ruins
Clitheroe Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1100108.jpg
CL icon.svg
[261]
Hornby Castle Keep 13th century Fragment
Hornby Castle, Lancashire (3).jpg
Private Keep rebuilt early 16th century, incorporated into an 18–19th-century house.[262]
Lancaster Castle Keep and bailey 11–12th century Intact
Lancaster Castle Ashton Memorial.JPG
CL icon.svg

Local authority
Prison from 1745, 20th-century Shire Hall replaced medieval buildings, now Crown Court.[263]
Thurland Castle Fortified manor house 14–15th century Rebuilt
Thurland Castle, Lancashire (geograph 1896885).jpg
Private apartments Near Tunstall, ruins rebuilt in 1879–85.[31]
Turton Tower Pele tower 15th century Intact
Turton Tower - geograph.org.uk - 1271895.jpg
HH icon.svg
Incorporated in later building.[264]

Leicestershire

Castles of which only earthworks or vestiges remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Ashby de la Zouch Castle Keep 12–15th century Fragmentary ruins
Ashbycastle.JPG
EH icon.svg
Fortified manor converted to castle in 1474, slighted during English Civil War.[265]
Belvoir Castle Neo-romantic castle 17–19th century Intact
Belvoir Castle Leicestershire.jpg
HH icon.svg

Duke of Rutland
Rebuilt in 1655–68 incorporating fragments of medieval castle, remodelled in 1801–30.[22]
Kirby Muxloe Castle Quadrangular castle 1480–3 Fragmentary ruins
Kirby Muxloe 2.jpg
EH icon.svg
Unfinished.[266]
Leicester Castle Castle 12–13th century Fragments
Leicester Castle Yard south gateway.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local authority
Great hall survives, much altered.[267]

Lincolnshire

Castles of which only earthworks or vestiges remain include:[2]

Goltho Castle was built on the site of a Saxon fortified dwelling of c. 850, established by excavation.[268]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Bolingbroke Castle Enclosure castle 13–14th century Fragmentary ruins
Old-Bolingbroke-Castle.jpg
EH icon.svg
Slighted after brief siege in 1643.[269]
Grimsthorpe Castle Castle 13th century Fragment
Grimsthorpe Castle - North Facade.JPG
HH icon.svg
Remodelled in 18th and 19th centuries, retains a 13th-century south-east tower.[270]
Hussey Tower Tower house 14–15th century Ruins
Hussey Tower, Boston, Lincs - geograph.org.uk - 62845.jpg
CL icon.svg
[271]
Kyme Tower Castle 14th century Fragment
South Kyme Tower - geograph.org.uk - 625619.jpg
Private [272]
Lincoln Castle Keep and bailey 11–13th century Substantially intact
Lincoln Castle.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local Authority
Double motte and bailey.[273]
Rochford Tower Fortified house 15–16th century Fragment
The Rochford Tower, Boston, Lincs - geograph.org.uk - 148581.jpg
Private 2 miles east of Boston.[274]
Somerton Castle Quadrangular castle 1281–1305 Fragment
Somerton Castle-Geograph-1055631-by-Richard-Croft.jpg
Private Single tower survives, adjoining a 17th-century building.[275]
Tattershall Castle Tower 1430s Intact
Tattershall castle keep.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Brick tower built for Ralph Cromwell, restored in 1911–25 by Lord Curzon.[276]
Torksey Castle Semi-fortified house 16th century Fragmentary ruins
Torksey Castle - geograph.org.uk - 47205.jpg
Private Slighted during English Civil War.[277]

Merseyside

Castles of which no traces remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Brimstage Hall Tower house c. 1398 Substantially intact
Brimstage Hall - geograph.org.uk - 405620.jpg
Crafts centre Tower incorporated in later building of 16th and 19th centuries.[278]
Leasowe Castle Sham castle 16–19th century Intact
Leasowe Castle.jpg
Hotel Built in 1593, extended in 1600–42 and the 19th century.[279]

Norfolk

Castles of which only earthworks or vestiges remain include:[2]

The surviving motte of Thetford Castle is one of the highest in England,[280] about 80 ft (24 m) high.[281]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / access Notes
Baconsthorpe Castle Fortified manor house 15th century Fragmentary ruins
Baconsthorpe Castle.jpg
EH icon.svg
[282]
Burgh Castle Motte and bailey 12th century No visible remains
The Roman fort of Gariannonum - view northwest - geograph.org.uk - 693481.jpg
EH icon.svg
/ Norfolk Archaeological Trust
Site of medieval motte and bailey castle within surviving walls of Roman fort of Saxon Shore.[283]
Caister Castle Quadrangular castle 1432–46 Fragmentary ruins
Caister Castle - geograph.org.uk - 808658.jpg
CL icon.svg
Moated, largely brick, built by John Fastolf, a relatively intact 90 ft (27 m) tower remains.[284]
Castle Acre Castle Motte and bailey 11–12th century Fragmentary remains
Castle Acre - geograph.org.uk - 578483.jpg
EH icon.svg
English Heritage
Extensive earthworks.[285]
Castle Rising Castle Keep c. 1138 Ruins
Castle-rising-castle.JPG
EH icon.svg
English Heritage/Lord Rising
[286]
Claxton Castle Castle 14–15th century Fragmentary ruins
Claxton Castle.jpg
Private [287]
Norwich Castle Keep c. 1095–1110 Intact
Norwich Castle - geograph.org.uk - 208494.jpg
Museum icon (red).svg
Norfolk Museums and Archaeology Service
Prison during 18–19th centuries.[288]
Oxburgh Hall Fortified manor house c. 1482 Intact
Oxburgh Hall 20080719-05.jpg
HH icon.svg
National Trust
18th- and 19th-century additions.[289]
Weeting Castle Fortified manor house 12th century Fragmentary ruins
Weeting Castle - geograph.org.uk - 2377269.jpg
EH icon.svg
[290]

Northamptonshire

Castles of which little or no traces remain include:[2]

Fotheringhay Castle was the scene of the trial and execution of Mary, Queen of Scots in 1587.[291]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Astwell Castle Fortified manor house 15th century Fragment
Astwell castle, Northhamptonshire.jpg
Private, farm Gatehouse survives alongside a 17th-century house.[292]
Barnwell Castle Rectangular castle c. 1266 Ruins
Barnwell Castle1.jpg
Private [293]
Rockingham Castle Motte and bailey 13–19th century Rebuilt
Rockingham Castle entrance.jpg
HH icon.svg
13th century gatehouse survives, largely rebuilt in the 16th century, remodelled in 1660 and by Anthony Salvin in 19th century.[294]
Thorpe Waterville Castle Castle 14th century Fragment
Thorpewatervillecastle.jpg
Private Great hall with fine open roof survives, altered for use as a barn.[295]

Northumberland

Castles of which little or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Alnham Vicars Pele Pele tower 14th century Restored
The Vicars Pele, Alnham - geograph.org.uk - 1202709 cropped.jpg
Private [296]
Alnwick Castle Keep and bailey 12–14th century Restored
Alnwick Castle 02.jpg
HH icon.svg

Duke of Northumberland
Remodelled by Robert Adam and Anthony Salvin.[297]
Aydon Castle Fortified manor house 14th century Intact
Aydon Castle 2.jpg
EH icon.svg
Converted to farmhouse 17th century.[298]
Bamburgh Castle Keep and bailey 12–14th century Restored
Bamburgh 2006 closeup.jpg
HH icon.svg

Lord Armstrong
Ruinous by 1704, extensively restored in 1894–1904.[21]
Barmoor Castle Tower house 14–19th century Rebuilt
Barmoor Castle - geograph.org.uk - 779515.jpg
Private 19th-century mansion incorporating remains of a 14th-century building.[299]
Beaufront Castle Neo-romantic castle 1836–1841 Intact
Beaufront Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1463944.jpg
Private 19th-century mansion on the site of a 15th-century tower house.[300]
Bellister Castle Castle 13–14th century Fragmentary remains
Bellister Castle.jpg
Private Ruins adjoining a 17th-century house.[301]
Belsay Castle Tower house 1439–60 Intact
South frontage of Belsay Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1383674.jpg
EH icon.svg
Later ruined building attached.[302]
Berwick Castle Castle 12–13th century Fragmentary remains
Berwick Castle - geograph.org.uk - 768511.jpg
EH icon.svg
[303]
Bitchfield Castle Pele tower 14th century Restored Private Incorporated in later mansion.[304]
Blenkinsop Castle Tower house 14th century Ruins
Car park and ruins, Blenkinsopp Castle.jpg
Private Incorporated into a 19th-century house.[305]
Bothal Castle Castle 14th century Rebuilt
Bothal Castle.jpg
Private Extensively restored in the 19th century.[306]
Bywell Castle Castle 15th century Fragments
Bywell Castle.jpg
Private Gatehouse survives.[307]
Callaly Castle Pele tower 14–15th century Intact
Sheep Pasture in the Grounds of Callaly Castle - geograph.org.uk - 149295 (cropped).jpg
Private apartments Incorporated in later country house.[308]
Cartington Castle Pele tower and extensions 14–15th century Fragmentary remains
Cartington Castle (geograph 3470758).jpg
Private [309]
Chillingham Castle Quadrangular castle 1344 Intact
Chillingham Castle 011.jpg
HH icon.svg
Altered in the 17–19th centuries, restored after 1982.[310]
Chipchase Castle Tower house 14th century Intact
Chipchase Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1255527.jpg
HH icon.svg
Incorporated in Jacobean house, altered in the 18–19th centuries.[311]
Cocklaw Tower Tower house 14–15th century Shell
Cocklaw Tower - geograph.org.uk - 1176584.jpg
Private, farm Near Wall.[312]
Cockle Park Tower Tower house c. 1517 Substantially intact
Cockle Park - geograph.org.uk - 93673.jpg
Newcastle University [313]
Corbridge Vicar's Pele Pele tower 1318 Intact
Corbridge Vicar's Pele 105.jpg
UKAL icon.svg
Re-roofed in 1910.[314]
Coupland Castle Tower house 16–17th century Restored
Coupland Castle.jpg
Private Later additions.[315]
Craster Tower Pele tower 14–15th century Intact Holiday accommodation Incorporated in later building.[316]
Crawley Tower Pele tower 14th century Ruins
Crawley Tower - geograph.org.uk - 330608.jpg
Private A cottage was built within the walls in the 18th century.[317]
Cresswell Castle Pele tower 15th century Ruin
Cresswell Tower - geograph.org.uk - 1163700.jpg
18th century-parapet.[318]
Dilston Castle Tower house 15th century Ruins
Dilston Castle.jpg
CL icon.svg
Altered in the 16–17th century, later buildings demolished.[319]
Dunstanburgh Castle Keep and bailey 14th century Fragmentary ruins
Gatehouse and curtain wall of Dunstanburgh Castle, 2009.jpg
EH icon.svg
Spectacular coastal setting.[320]
Edlingham Castle Keep and bailey 14th century Fragmentary ruins
Edlingham Castle - Northumberland - England - 2004-10-31.jpg
EH icon.svg
[321]
Elsdon Tower Pele tower 16th century Intact
Elsdon Tower - geograph.org.uk - 374282 cropped.jpg
Private Altered, rectory until 1960, restored in the 1990s.[322]
Embleton Tower Pele tower 14th century Intact
Embleton Tower (cropped).jpg
Private 19th-century vicarage attached.[323]
Etal Castle Castle 14th century Fragmentary ruins
Etal Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1254407.jpg
EH icon.svg
[324]
Featherstone Castle Castle 14th century Intact
Featherstone Castle.jpg
Private 14th-century tower, three further towers added in the 18–19th century.[325]
Ford Castle Quadrangular castle 14th century Substantially intact
Ford Castle - geograph.org.uk - 354895.jpg
Private Converted into mansion in the 17th century.[326]
Halton Castle Tower house 13–14th century Intact
Halton Castle, Northumberland 124.jpg
Private Attached to later house.[327]
Harbottle Castle Keep and bailey 12–14th century Fragmentary ruins
Harbottle castle - geograph.org.uk - 583589.jpg
UKAL icon.svg

Northumberland National Park
Captured by Robert Bruce in 1318.[328]
Haughton Castle Tower house 13–14th century Restored
Haughton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1272590.jpg
Private Altered in the 18–19th centuries.[329]
Hexham Moot Hall and Old Gaol Fortified towers 14–15th century Intact
The Moot Hall and the Old Gaol - geograph.org.uk - 530386.jpg
Museum icon (red).svg
Probably once connected by bailey wall, AD1415 list of castles has "Turris de Hexham".[330][331]
Horsley Tower, Longhorsley Pele tower 16th century Intact
Horsley Tower - geograph.org.uk - 626935.jpg
Private [332]
Langley Castle Tower house c. 1350 Restored
Langley Castle.jpg
Hotel Restored in the 1890s.[333]
Lemmington Hall Tower house 15th century Restored
Lemmington Hall - rear.jpg
Wedding venue Incorporated in later house.[334]
Lindisfarne Castle Artillery fort 16th century Restored
LindisfarneCastleHolyIsland.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Remodelled by Edwin Lutyens 1901.[335]
Mitford Castle Keep and bailey 11–13th century Fragmentary ruins
Mitford Castle.jpg
CL icon.svg
[336]
Morpeth Castle Castle 1342–9 Fragments
Morpeth Castle Gatehouse.jpg
Landmark Trust Only gatehouse and a section of wall remain.[337]
Norham Castle Keep and bailey 12th century Ruins
Norham Castle.jpg
EH icon.svg
Keep remodelled in 1422–25, partly rebuilt in 1513–15.[338]
Preston Tower, Ellingham Pele tower c. 1400 Fragment
Preston Tower - geograph.org.uk - 1192634.jpg
CL icon.svg
South wall remains, with two of the original four turrets.[339]
Prior Castell's Tower Tower house 15–16th century Substantially intact
Pele Tower, Inner Farne Island - geograph.org.uk - 2010838.jpg
NTE icon.svg
[340]
Prudhoe Castle Castle 12–14th century Ruins
Prudhoe Castle 2.jpg
EH icon.svg
[341]
Shilbottle Tower Pele tower 15th century Restored
File-St James' Church graveyard, Shilbottle, Northumberland - Geograph-2156100 cropped.jpg
Private Incorporated into a vicarage.[342]
Shortflatt Tower Pele tower 14–15th century Restored Wedding venue Incorporated in later house.[343]
Thirlwall Castle Tower house 14th century Fragmentary ruins
Thirlwall Castle - geograph.org.uk - 127117.jpg
UKAL icon.svg

Northumberland National Park
Built with stone from Hadrian's Wall.[344]
Warkworth Castle Keep and bailey 12–14th century Ruins
Warkworth Castle interior, 2007.jpg
EH icon.svg
[345]
Whittingham Tower Pele tower 13–14th century Restored
Whittingham Tower - geograph.org.uk - 1332545.jpg
Private Converted for use as almshouses in 1845.[346]
Whitton Tower Pele tower c. 1386 Intact Holiday accommodation Near Rothbury, well-preserved.[347]
Willimoteswick Castle Fortified manor house 16th century Ruins
Willimoteswick Bastle, Haltwhistle - geograph.org.uk - 124371.jpg
Private, farm Incorporates remains of earlier building, largely rebuilt in 1900.[348]

North Yorkshire

Castles of which little remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Ayton Castle Castle 13–14th century Fragment
Ayton Castle.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local authority
[349]
Barden Tower Castle 15th century Ruins
Barden Tower - geograph.org.uk - 38331.jpg
CL icon.svg
[350]
Bolton Castle Quadrangular castle 14th century Ruins
Bolton Castle.JPG
CL icon.svg
Besieged and slighted during English Civil War.[351]
Cawood Castle Quadrangular castle 1374–88 Fragments
Cawood Castle.jpg
Landmark Trust Largely demolished in 1750, gatehouse survives.[352]
Clifford's Tower Keep 13th century Restored
CLIFFOR1.JPG
EH icon.svg
Reduced in height 1596.[353]
Crayke Castle Tower house 15th century Restored
Crayke Castle, Hambledon, North Yorkshire.jpg
Private 18th- and 19th-century additions and alterations.[354]
Danby Castle Quadrangular castle 14th century Fragmentary ruins
Danby Castle Ruins - geograph.org.uk - 146101.jpg
Private, farm Partly used as farm buildings.[355]
Gilling Castle Tower house 14th century Intact St. Martin's Ampleforth School 16th- and 18th-century additions and alterations.[356]
Hazlewood Castle Castle 13–18th century Rebuilt
Hazlewood Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1752647.jpg
Hotel Altered in the 18th and 20th centuries, formerly Carmelite retreat centre.[357]
Hellifield Peel Tower house 14–15th century Restored
Hellifield Peel - geograph.org.uk - 640957.jpg
Hotel Restored 2005.[358]
Helmsley Castle Castle 12–13th century Fragmentary ruins
Helmsley Castle3.jpg
EH icon.svg
Severely slighted in 1645.[359]
Hornby Castle Courtyard castle 14–15th century Restored
Hornby castle 2932 large.jpg
Private Converted to country house by John Carr, 18th century.[360]
Knaresborough Castle Keep and bailey 12–14th century Fragmentary ruins
Knaresborough Castle ruins.jpg
CL icon.svg

Duchy of Lancaster
[361]
Marmion Tower Fortified manor house 15th century Fragment
Marmion Tower - geograph.org.uk - 1690757.jpg
EH icon.svg
Surviving gatehouse of Tanfield Castle.[362]
Middleham Castle Keep and bailey 12–14th century Ruins
MiddlehamCJW.jpg
EH icon.svg
[363]
(Old) Mulgrave Castle Enclosure castle 12–13th century Fragmentary ruins
Eastern Guard Tower, Mulgrave Castle - geograph.org.uk - 401799.jpg
CL icon.svg

Marquess of Normanby
Superseded by 18–19th-century castellated mansion also known as Mulgrave Castle.[364]
Nappa Hall Fortified manor house 1459 Intact
Nappa Hall (geograph 1809781).jpg
Private Enlarged in the 17th century, little altered since.[365]
Pickering Castle Keep and bailey 12–14th century Ruins
PickeringCastle.jpg
EH icon.svg
[366]
Ravensworth Castle Castle 14th century Fragmentary remains
Ravensworth Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1709271.jpg
Private [367]
Richmond Castle Keep and bailey 11–14th century Ruins
The Keep at Richmond Castle.jpg
EH icon.svg
Keep 100 ft (30 m) high.[368]
Ripley Castle Tower house 15–16th century Rebuilt
Ripley Castle - geograph.org.uk - 778601.jpg
HH icon.svg
Extended in 1783–36 in Gothic Revival style.[369]
Scarborough Castle Keep and bailey 12–13th century Ruins
Scarborough Castle 3.jpg
EH icon.svg
[370]
Sheriff Hutton Castle Quadrangular castle 1382 Fragmentary ruins
Sheriff Hutton Castle. - geograph.org.uk - 1036360.jpg
Private [371]
Skelton Castle Castellated house 13–19th century Intact
Skelton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 92653.jpg
Private 18–19th-century house incorporates remains of medieval castle.[372]
Skipton Castle Castle 12–17th century Restored
Skipton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1202627.jpg
HH icon.svg
Partly demolished in 1649, rebuilt in 1657–58.[373]
Snape Castle Castle 15–18th century Partly ruined
Snape Castle.jpg
Private Mostly reconstructed in the 17th century.[374]
South Cowton Castle Tower house 15th century Restored
Cowton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1104614 cropped.jpg
Private Altered in the 19th century, farmhouse.[375]
Spofforth Castle Fortified manor house 13–15th century Fragmentary ruins
Spofforth Castle.jpg
EH icon.svg
[376]
Whorlton Castle Castle 14–16th century Fragmentary ruins
Whorlton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 517497.jpg
CL icon.svg
Remains of gatehouse.[377]
Wilton Castle Neo-romantic castle c. 1810 Intact
Wilton Castle, Teesside (geograph 2264814).jpg
Private apartments By Smirke on site of medieval castle.[378]

Nottinghamshire

Castles of which little remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Halloughton Manor House Pele tower 14th century Intact
Halloughton Village - geograph.org.uk - 40839.jpg
Private Attached to later building.[379]
Newark Castle Castle 12–14th century Ruins
Newark Castle, 06-2013 (9).jpg
CL icon.svg
/ Newark District Council
Gatehouse, part of curtain wall and a tower remain.[380]
Nottingham Castle Keep and bailey 12–13th century Fragmentary remains
Nottingham Castle Gate 2009.jpg
Museum icon (red).svg

Nottingham City Council
Demolished in 1651, later mansion on site, a much-restored 14th-century gatehouse remains.[381]

Oxfordshire

Castles of which little or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Bampton Castle Quadrangular castle c. 1315 Fragment
BamptonCastle.jpg
Private Parts of gatehouse and curtain wall survive in later house, Ham Court.[382]
Broughton Castle Fortified manor house 14–15th century Intact
Broughton Castle entrance - geograph.org.uk - 1464252.jpg
HH icon.svg
Remodelled in the 15–18th centuries.[383]
Hanwell Castle Castellated house 15–16th century Fragment
Hanwell Castle Geograph-2517778-by-Ian-Rob.jpg
Private Large surviving tower of unfortified building.[384]
Oxford Castle Motte and bailey 11–12th century Fragment
Tidmarsh Lane - geograph.org.uk - 1621185 cropped.jpg
Hotel Motte and the unusual, possibly Saxon, St. George's Tower.[385]
Rotherfield Greys Castle Fortified manor house 14th century Fragment
Tower and ruined wall, Grey's Court.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Towers and section of wall survive, close to Greys Court.[386]
Shirburn Castle Quadrangular castle c. 1378 Rebuilt
Shirburn-cropped.jpg
Private Originally stone, largely rebuilt in brick c. 1720, remodelled in the 19th century.[387]
Wallingford Castle Motte and bailey 11–13th century Fragmentary remains
Wallingford castle ruins.jpg
CL icon.svg
Slighted in 1652, impressive earthworks remain.[388]

Rutland

Castles of which little or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Oakham Castle Motte and bailey 12–13th century Fragment
Oakham Castle.jpg
CL icon.svg
/ Rutland County Council
Aisled great hall built in 1180–1190 survives.[389]

Shropshire

Castles of which only earthworks or vestiges remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Acton Burnell Castle Fortified manor house 13th century Ruins
ActonBurnellCastlec.jpg
EH icon.svg
Shell, used as a barn in the 18th century.[390]
Alberbury Castle Castle 13th century Fragmentary remains
Alberbury Castle.jpg
UKAL icon.svg
[391]
Bridgnorth Castle Keep and bailey 12th century Fragmentary remains
Bridgnorth castle DSC00377.JPG
CL icon.svg
Slighted in 1645.[392]
Broncroft Castle Fortified manor house 14th century Intact
Broncroft Castle - geograph.org.uk - 148456.jpg
Private Renovated in the 19th century.[393]
Cheney Longville Castle Fortified manor house 14–17th century Part habitable
Castle Farm, Cheney Longville, Shropshire (cropped).jpg
Private Building At Risk.[394]
Clun Castle Keep and bailey 13th century Fragmentary remains
Clun Castle 03.jpg
EH icon.svg
Ruins of keep built onto side of motte.[395]
Hopton Castle Keep and bailey 14th century Ruins
Hopton Castle.jpg
CL icon.svg
[396]
Ludlow Castle Keep and bailey 11–14th century Ruins
Ludlow Castle from Whitcliffe, 2011.jpg
CL icon.svg

Earl of Powis
One of the great Welsh border castles.[397]
Moreton Corbet Castle Keep 12th century Fragmentary remains
Moretoncorbet2c.jpg
EH icon.svg
Adjoining ruins of a 16th-century building.[398]
Quatford Castle Neo-romantic castle c. 1830 Intact
Quatford Castle - geograph.org.uk - 423490.jpg
Private Nearby are earthwork remains of the medieval Quatford Castle.[399]
Red Castle Castle 13th century Fragmentary remains.
Redcastle1854.jpg
CL icon.svg
Overgrown, feature of Hawkstone Park landscape garden. Building At Risk.[400]
Rowton Castle Sham castle 18–19th century Intact
Rowton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 630094.jpg
Hotel On site of medieval castle, remodelled in 1809–12 by George Wyatt.[401]
Shrewsbury Castle Castle 12th century Rebuilt
Shrewsbury Schloss.JPG
Museum icon (red).svg

Shropshire Council
Restored and extended in 1642, altered c. 1790 by Telford.[402]
Stokesay Castle Fortified manor house 13–14th century Intact
Exterior of Stokesay Castle, 2006.jpg
EH icon.svg
Restored in the 19th century.[403]
Wattlesborough Castle Castle 13–14th century Fragment
Wattlesborough Hall - geograph.org.uk - 757775.jpg
Private Near Rowton, keep/tower survives, adjoining Wattlesborough Hall.[404]
Whittington Castle Keep and bailey 12–13th century Fragments
Whittington Castle 04.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local community
Gatehouse towers survive.[405]

Somerset

Castles of which only earthworks or no traces remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Banwell Castle Neo-romantic castle c. 1848 Intact
Banwell Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1126175.jpg
Restaurant Architect not known.[406]
Beckington Castle 17th century Rebuilt
Beckington Castle - geograph.org.uk - 814491.jpg
Company HQ Medieval remains incorporated in later building.[407]
Dunster Castle Castle 13–19th century Rebuilt
Dunster Castle.jpg
NTE icon.svg
Existing house dates largely from c. 1571, with 18–19th-century alterations.[408]
Farleigh Hungerford Castle Enclosure castle 14–15th century Ruins
Farleigh Hungerford Castle gate.JPG
EH icon.svg
On high ground above the River Frome.[409]
Newton St Loe Castle Fortified manor house 14th century Fragment
Castle Keep in Newton St. Loe College - geograph.org.uk - 642177 cropped.jpg
Bath Spa University Large tower and gatehouse, altered in the 16–17th century.[410]
Nunney Castle Quadrangular castle 1373 Ruins
Nunney Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1214430.jpg
EH icon.svg
Towers originally had conical roofs, north wall collapsed in 1910.[411]
Stogursey Castle Motte and bailey 11–12th century Fragmentary remains
Stogursey Castle - geograph.org.uk - 878178.jpg
Landmark Trust 17th-century house built within the remains of the castle.[412]
Sutton Court Fortified manor house 14–15th century Fragment
Sutton Court.JPG
Private apartments Short length of embattled wall and a tower survive, incorporated in large house, restored in the 19th century.[413]
Taunton Castle Shell keep 13th century Restored
Taunton Castle.JPG
Museum icon (red).svg
Now houses the Museum of Somerset, Castle Hotel incorporates remains of an outer gatehouse.[414]
Walton Castle Sham castle 1615–20 Restored
Walton Castle.jpg
Private Restored as private house 20th century.[415]
Wells Bishop's Palace Fortified palace 13–15th century Substantially intact
Gatehouse to Bishop's Palace at Wells - geograph.org.uk - 916441.jpg
HH icon.svg

Church of England
Adjacent to cathedral, residence of the Bishop of Bath and Wells.[416]

South Yorkshire

Castles of which only earthworks, fragments or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Conisbrough Castle Keep and bailey 12th century Ruins
Conisbrough Castle Doncaster winter time.jpg
EH icon.svg
Cylindrical keep, castle ruinous before English Civil War, so escaped slighting.[417]
Tickhill Castle Motte and bailey 11–14th century Fragmentary remains
Tickhill Castle.JPG
Duchy of Lancaster Ruined gatehouse and parts of curtain walls remain.[418]

Staffordshire

Castles of which little or nothing remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Alton Castle Castle 12–13th century Fragmentary remains
Alton Castle.jpg
Youth centre Cliff-top position, site partly occupied by a 19th-century building.[419]
Caverswall Castle Enclosure castle c. 1275 Substantially intact
Caverswall Castle.jpg
Private Moated, walls and towers reduced in height, a 17th-century mansion built within.[420]
Chartley Castle Motte and bailey 11–13th century Fragmentary remains
Chartley Castle ruins 2.jpg
Private Altered in 13th century to form enclosure castle, abandoned by 1485.[421]
Eccleshall Castle Castle 14th century Fragmentary remains
EccleshallCastle.jpg
Private Remains partly incorporated into house of c. 1695, rebuilt in the 19th century.[422]
Stafford Castle Motte and bailey 11–12th century Earthworks
Stafford Castle 2.jpg
CL icon.svg
/ Stafford Borough Council
Medieval keep partly rebuilt in the 19th century, then partly demolished.[423]
Stourton Castle Castle 14–15th century Fragment
Stourton Castle - geograph.org.uk - 196085.jpg
Private Remains incorporated in later buildings.[424]
Tamworth Castle Shell keep 11–13th century Rebuilt
Tamworth Castle 343714.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local authority
Largely rebuilt in the 16–18th centuries.[425]
Tutbury Castle Motte and bailey 12–15th century Fragmentary ruins
The entrance to Tutbury Castle - geograph.org.uk - 632661.jpg
CL icon.svg
Slighted in 1647–48, a 19th-century folly stands on the motte.[426]

Suffolk

Castles of which only earthworks or no traces remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Bungay Castle Keep and bailey 12–13th century Fragmentary remains
Bungay - Castle Remains.jpg
CL icon.svg
/ Bungay Castle Trust
Abandoned c. 1365.[427]
Clare Castle Motte and bailey 11th century Fragmentary remains
Remains of Clare castle keep - geograph.org.uk - 980544.jpg
CL icon.svg
Motte 53 ft (16 m) high.[428]
Eye Castle Motte and bailey 11th century Fragmentary remains
Eye Castle - geograph.org.uk - 712956.jpg
CL icon.svg
Motte over 40 ft (12 m) high.[429]
Framlingham Castle Enclosure castle 12th century Ruins
Franglingham Castle 01.jpg
EH icon.svg
Used as a poor house in the 17–19th centuries.[430]
Mettingham Castle Fortified manor house c. 1342 Fragmentary remains
Entrance to Mettingham Castle - geograph.org.uk - 984718.jpg
Private Gatehouse survives.[431]
Orford Castle Keep 1165–73 Ruins
2008-05-17 GreatBritain OrfordCastle.jpg
EH icon.svg
Unique polygonal keep survives.[432]
Wingfield Castle Castle c. 1385 Fragment
Wingfield Castle - geograph.org.uk - 354164.jpg
Private South curtain wall, gatehouse and east drawbridge survive, with a 16–17th-century house.[433]

Surrey

Castles of which only little or no traces remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Farnham Castle Keep and bailey 12th century Substantially intact
Farnham Castle keep.jpg
EH icon.svg
Shell keep replaced earlier keep part buried, part remodelled in the 17th century.[434]
Guildford Castle Keep and bailey 12–13th century Ruins
Guildford castle 1.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local authority
Tower keep survives, roofless since c. 17th century.[435]

Tyne and Wear

Castles of which little remains include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Hylton Castle Tower house c. 1400 Ruins
Hylton Castle.jpg
EH icon.svg
Large gatehouse tower, incorporated into an 18th-century house, since demolished.[436]
Newcastle Castle Keep and bailey 1172–77 Restored
Black Gate and Keep - Newcastle Upon Tyne - geograph.org.uk - 514240.jpg
CL icon.svg
/ Newcastle City Council
Keep and gatehouse survive.[437]
Old Hollinside Fortified manor house 13th century Ruins
Old Hollinside - geograph.org.uk - 853962.jpg
On slope overlooking River Derwent.[438]
Ravensworth Castle Quadrangular castle 14–19th century Ruins
Ravensworth Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1558897.jpg
Private Two towers of medieval castle survive, amidst ruins of later building. Building At Risk.[439]
Tynemouth Castle Enclosure castle 13–14th century Ruins
Tynemouth Castle1.jpg
EH icon.svg
Built to enclose and protect the priory, modified as artillery castle 16th century.[440]

Warwickshire

Castles of which only earthworks or vestiges remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Astley Castle Fortified manor house 13–14th century Shell
Astley Castle - geograph.org.uk - 480702.jpg
Landmark Trust Altered 15–19th centuries, hotel prior to fire in 1978. Modern living space constructed within shell, winner of Stirling Prize 2013.[441]
Kenilworth Castle Keep and bailey 12–14th century Ruins
Kenilworth Castle gatehouse landscape.jpg
EH icon.svg
Altered in the 16th century, slighted in 1650.[442]
Maxstoke Castle Quadrangular castle 14–15th century Substantially intact
Maxstoke Castle, 2010.jpg
NGS Moated, domestic buildings of 15–19th centuries within curtain walls.[443]
Warwick Castle Castle 13–15th century Intact
WarwickCastle FromStMarysChurch 2.jpg
HH icon.svg
Guy's tower rises 128 ft (39 m), 17th-century residential block, remodelled by Anthony Salvin after fire.[444]

West Midlands

Castles of which little or no traces remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Dudley Castle Keep and bailey 13–14th century Ruins
Dudley Castle -England-8.jpg
CL icon.svg

Dudley Zoo
Slighted in 1647, then rebuilt and inhabited until destroyed by fire in 1750, partly restored in the 19th century.[445]

West Sussex

Castles of which only little or no traces remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Amberley Castle Castle 1377–82 Partly habitable
Amberley castle.jpg
Hotel Remodelled in the 16th century and later, incorporates a 12th-century manor, working portcullis.[446]
Arundel Castle Keep and bailey 12–13th century Heavily restored
Arundel, the castle from the southeast - geograph.org.uk - 479538.jpg
HH icon.svg

Duke of Norfolk
Remodelled in 1791–1815 and 1890–1903.[447]
Bramber Castle Keep and bailey 11–12th century Fragmentary remains
Bramber Castle from Bramber churchyard.jpg
EH icon.svg
Commanding position, earthworks and fragment of wall remain.[448]
Halnaker House Fortified manor house 13–14th century Ruins
Halnaker House.jpg
Private Altered in the 18th century, fell into ruin 1880s, replaced by later house of same name.[449]
(Old) Knepp Castle Keep and motte 1214 Ruins
Knepp Castle 5.jpg
Private 11th century motte, with keep added in 1214. Mostly demolished in 1726.[450]

West Yorkshire

Castles of which only earthworks or no traces remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Dobroyd Castle Sham Castle 1866–9 Intact
Dobroyd Castle, Todmorden - geograph.org.uk - 94344.jpg
Activity centre By John Gibson.[451]
Harewood Castle Tower house 14th century Ruins
Harewood Castle.jpg
Private Shell of tower, substantially intact, within Harewood House estate.[452]
Pontefract Castle Enclosure castle 12–13th century Fragmentary remains
Pontefract Castle Keep1.jpg
CL icon.svg

Local authority
Royal castle, withstood three sieges during English Civil War, afterwards dismantled.[453]
Sandal Castle Motte and bailey 12th century Fragmentary remains
SandalCastleMotte.jpg
CL icon.svg
Well-preserved earthworks, excavated site with visitor centre.[454]

Wiltshire

Castles of which only little or no traces remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Devizes Castle Neo-romantic castle 19th century Intact
Entrance, Devizes Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1022978.jpg
Private apartments Present building begun 1842 on site of important medieval castle.[455]
Longford Castle Sham castle 1591 Intact
Longford Castle rear.jpg
Earl of Radnor Remodelled in the 18th century.[456]
Ludgershall Castle Ringwork 11–13th century Fragmentary remains
Ludgershall Castle - geograph.org.uk - 218171.jpg
EH icon.svg
Remains of a tower and extensive earthworks.[457]
Old Sarum Castle Motte and bailey 11–13th century Fragmentary remains
Old Sarum Castle - geograph.org.uk - 1188552.jpg
EH icon.svg
On site of Iron Age hill fort.[458]
Old Wardour Castle Castle c. 1393 Ruins
Old Wardour Castle, Wiltshire - geograph.org.uk - 1758573.jpg
EH icon.svg
Remodelled in the 16–17th centuries, superseded by Palladian building known as New Wardour Castle.[459]

Worcestershire

Castles of which only earthworks remain include:[2]

Name Type Date Condition Image Ownership / Access Notes
Caldwall Castle Fortified manor house 15–16th century Fragment
Caldwell Tower, Kidderminster (cropped).jpg
Private Single surviving tower, in Kidderminster, Caldwall or Caldwell.[460]
Hartlebury Castle Fortified manor house 15th century Rebuilt
Hartlebury Castle - geograph.org.uk - 419175.jpg
Museum icon (red).svg

Church of England
15th-century remains incorporated in later buildings, residence of Bishop of Worcester until 2007, houses Worcestershire County Museum.[461]
Holt Castle Castle 14–19th century Intact
Holt castle 850843 62546082.jpg
Wedding venue Medieval tower incorporated in later buildings.[462]
Worcester Castle Castle 13–14th century Fragment
The Edgar Tower, Worcester - geograph.org.uk - 503034.jpg
Church of England Edgar Tower, now the entrance to College Green, may incorporate the remains of a castle gatehouse.[463]

See also

References

Key to sources
  • BLB – British Listed Buildings website (retrieved March 2011; last accessed 5 October 2012)
  • PSC – Pastscape website (retrieved September 2011; last accessed 5 October 2012)
  1. ^ Brown (1962), p.16.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw King (1983).
  3. ^ Brown (1962), p.24.
  4. ^ Brown (1962), p.43.
  5. ^ Brown (1962), p.50.
  6. ^ Brown (1962), p.84
  7. ^ Higham & Barker (1992), pp.194–198.
  8. ^ Brown (1962), p.95.
  9. ^ Brown (1962), p.221.
  10. ^ Brown (1962), p.129.
  11. ^ Brown (1962), p.131.
  12. ^ Brown (1962), p.172.
  13. ^ Brown (1962), p.15.
  14. ^ Elton (1991), p.154.
  15. ^ Harrington (2007), p.8.
  16. ^ Brown (1962), p.128.
  17. ^ Harrington (2007), p.2.
  18. ^ a b "Pendennis Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  19. ^ a b Brown (1962), p.146.
  20. ^ Creighton & Higham (2003), p.64.
  21. ^ a b "Bamburgh Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  22. ^ a b c "Belvoir Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  23. ^ Thompson (1987), pp.161–163.
  24. ^ Impey & Parnell (2000), pp.118–121.
  25. ^ a b "Peckforton Castle" Archived 2011-07-10 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  26. ^ Renn (1984) pp.277–278. See King (1988), p.173 for how some people criticised the inclusion of Henry VIII's artillery forts in King's index of castles, Castellarium Anglicanum.
  27. ^ a b "PastScape - information on England's archaeology and architecture". www.pastscape.org.uk. Archived from the original on 26 April 2015. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  28. ^ a b "Portchester Castle" Archived 2015-06-26 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  29. ^ a b c "Gatehouse; a Comprehensive Listing of the Medieval Fortifications of England and Wales". www.gatehouse-gazetteer.info. Archived from the original on 16 October 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  30. ^ "Greystoke Castle " Archived 2012-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  31. ^ a b "Thurland Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  32. ^ a b c Stuff, Good. "British Listed Buildings - History in Structure". www.britishlistedbuildings.co.uk. Archived from the original on 4 March 2018. Retrieved 30 April 2018.
  33. ^ a b "Corby Castle " Archived 2011-08-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  34. ^ "Bedford Castle" Archived 2012-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  35. ^ "Someries Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  36. ^ "Donnington Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  37. ^ "Windsor Castle" Archived 2012-01-27 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  38. ^ "Boarstall Tower" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  39. ^ "Buckden Palace" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  40. ^ "Elton Hall" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  41. ^ "Kimbolton Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  42. ^ "Kirtling Tower" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  43. ^ "Longthorpe Tower" Archived 2011-10-02 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  44. ^ "Northborough Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  45. ^ "Woodcroft Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  46. ^ "Beeston Castle" Archived 2012-03-10 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  47. ^ "Chester Castle" Archived 2012-03-10 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  48. ^ "Cholmondeley Castle" Archived 2012-01-23 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  49. ^ "Delves Hall" Archived 2012-02-25 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  50. ^ "Halton Castle" Archived 2012-03-10 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  51. ^ "Auckland Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  52. ^ "Barnard Castle" Archived 2012-10-02 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  53. ^ "Bowes Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  54. ^ "Brancepeth Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  55. ^ "Durham Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  56. ^ "Lambton Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  57. ^ "Lumley Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  58. ^ "Mortham Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  59. ^ "Raby Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  60. ^ "Lambton Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  61. ^ "Scargill Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  62. ^ "Walworth Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  63. ^ "Witton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  64. ^ "Caerhays Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  65. ^ "Carn Brea Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  66. ^ "Ince Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  67. ^ "Launceston Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  68. ^ "Pengersick Castle" Archived 2012-09-27 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  69. ^ "Place House" Archived 2012-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  70. ^ "Restormel Castle" Archived 2012-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  71. ^ "St. Catherine's Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  72. ^ "St. Mawes Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  73. ^ "St. Michael's Mount" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  74. ^ "Tintagel Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  75. ^ "Trematon Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  76. ^ "Appleby Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  77. ^ "Armathwaite Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  78. ^ "Arnside Tower" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  79. ^ "Askerton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  80. ^ "Beetham Hall" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  81. ^ "Bewcastle Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  82. ^ "Bewley Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  83. ^ "Blencow Hall" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  84. ^ "Brackenburgh Old Tower" Archived 2012-10-03 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  85. ^ "Brackenhill Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  86. ^ "Branthwaite Hall" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  87. ^ "Brough Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  88. ^ "Brougham Castle" Archived 2015-09-24 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  89. ^ "Brougham Hall" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  90. ^ "Broughton Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  91. ^ "Burneside Hall" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  92. ^ "Carlisle Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  93. ^ "Catterlen Hall" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  94. ^ "Clifton Hall" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  95. ^ "Cockermouth Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  96. ^ "Dacre Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  97. ^ "Dalston Hall" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  98. ^ "Dalton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  99. ^ "Drawdykes Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  100. ^ "Drumburgh Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  101. ^ "Gleaston Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  102. ^ "Greystoke Castle" Archived 2012-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  103. ^ "Harbybrow Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  104. ^ "Hayton Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  105. ^ "Hazelslack Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  106. ^ "Howgill Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  107. ^ "Hutton-in-the-Forest" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  108. ^ "Hutton John" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  109. ^ "Ingmire Hall" Archived 2012-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  110. ^ "Isel Hall" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  111. ^ "Kendal Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  112. ^ "Kentmere Hall" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  113. ^ "Kirkandrews Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  114. ^ "Linstock Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  115. ^ "Lowther Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  116. ^ "Middleton Hall" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  117. ^ "Millom Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  118. ^ "Muncaster Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  119. ^ "Naworth Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  120. ^ "Newbiggin Hall" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  121. ^ "Pendragon Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  122. ^ "Penrith Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  123. ^ "Piel Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  124. ^ "Prior's Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  125. ^ "Rose Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  126. ^ "Scaleby Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  127. ^ "Sizergh Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  128. ^ "Toppin Castle" Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  129. ^ "Ubarrow Hall" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  130. ^ "Wharton Hall" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  131. ^ "Whitehall, Allhallows" Archived 2012-01-19 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  132. ^ Emery (1996), p.256.
  133. ^ "Workington Hall" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  134. ^ "Wray Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  135. ^ "Wraysholme Tower" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  136. ^ "Yanwath Hall" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  137. ^ "Bolsover Castle" Archived 2015-06-30 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  138. ^ "Codnor Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  139. ^ "Elvaston Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  140. ^ "Haddon Hall" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  141. ^ "Mackworth Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  142. ^ "Peveril Castle" Archived 2012-09-24 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  143. ^ "Riber Castle" Archived 2010-09-27 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  144. ^ "Wingfield Manor" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  145. ^ "Affeton Castle" Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  146. ^ "Berry Pomeroy Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  147. ^ "Bickleigh Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  148. ^ "Compton Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  149. ^ "Dartmouth Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  150. ^ "Castle Drogo" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  151. ^ "Gidleigh Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  152. ^ "Hemyock Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  153. ^ "Kingswear Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  154. ^ "Lydford Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  155. ^ "Marisco Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  156. ^ "Okehampton Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  157. ^ "Plympton Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  158. ^ "Powderham Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  159. ^ "Rougemont Castle" Archived 2015-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  160. ^ "Salcombe Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  161. ^ "Tiverton Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  162. ^ "Totnes Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  163. ^ "Watermouth Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  164. ^ "Brownsea Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  165. ^ "Christchurch Castle" Archived 2012-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  166. ^ "Corfe Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  167. ^ "Lulworth Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  168. ^ "Pennsylvania Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  169. ^ "Portland Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  170. ^ "Rufus Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  171. ^ "Sherborne Old Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  172. ^ "Woodsford Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  173. ^ "Paull Holme Tower" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  174. ^ "Skipsea Castle" Archived 2016-03-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  175. ^ "Wressle Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  176. ^ "Bodiam Castle" Archived 2012-09-26 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  177. ^ "Camber Castle" Archived 2016-03-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  178. ^ "Hastings Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  179. ^ "Herstmonceux Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  180. ^ "Lewes Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  181. ^ "Pevensey Castle" Archived 2015-05-18 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  182. ^ "Ypres Tower" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  183. ^ "Pleshey Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  184. ^ "Colchester Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  185. ^ "Hadleigh Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  186. ^ "Hedingham Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  187. ^ "Walden Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  188. ^ "Berkeley Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  189. ^ "Beverstone Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  190. ^ "St. Briavel's Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  191. ^ "Sudeley Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  192. ^ "Thornbury Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  193. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-03-30. Retrieved 2017-03-29.
  194. ^ "White Tower" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  195. ^ "Radcliffe Tower" Archived 2008-05-24 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  196. ^ "Calshot Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  197. ^ "Hurst Castle" Archived 2016-06-08 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  198. ^ "Netley Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  199. ^ "Odiham Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  200. ^ "Southampton Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  201. ^ "Southsea Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  202. ^ "Winchester Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  203. ^ "Wolvesey Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  204. ^ "Ewyas Harold Castle" Archived 2012-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  205. ^ "Brampton Bryan Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  206. ^ "Clifford Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  207. ^ "Croft Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  208. ^ "Downton Castle" Archived 2012-01-29 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  209. ^ "Eastnor Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  210. ^ "Goodrich Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  211. ^ "Hampton Court" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  212. ^ "Kentchurch Court" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  213. ^ "Kinnersley Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  214. ^ "Longtown Castle" Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  215. ^ "Pembridge Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  216. ^ "Snodhill Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  217. ^ "Treago Castle" Archived 2016-03-12 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  218. ^ "Wigmore Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  219. ^ "Wilton Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  220. ^ "Defending the Castle". Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  221. ^ "Berkhamsted Castle" Archived 2012-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  222. ^ "Hertford Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  223. ^ "Carisbrooke Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  224. ^ "Norris Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  225. ^ "Yarmouth Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  226. ^ "West Cowes Castle" Archived 2016-03-10 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  227. ^ "Cromwell's Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  228. ^ "Star Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  229. ^ "Allington Castle" Archived 2015-07-22 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  230. ^ "Canterbury Castle" Archived 2012-02-25 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  231. ^ "Chiddingstone Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  232. ^ "Chilham Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  233. ^ "Cooling Castle" Archived 2015-07-11 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  234. ^ "Deal Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  235. ^ "Dover Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  236. ^ "Eynsford Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  237. ^ "Hever Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  238. ^ "Kingsgate Castle" Archived 2011-11-13 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  239. ^ "Leeds Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  240. ^ "Leybourne Castle" Archived 2012-04-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  241. ^ "Lullingstone Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  242. ^ "Lympne Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  243. ^ "Otford Palace 1" Archived 2015-10-16 at the Wayback Machine. "Otford Palace 2" Archived 2014-09-03 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  244. ^ "Penshurst Place" Archived 2012-01-28 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  245. ^ Brown (1962), p.69.
  246. ^ "Rochester Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  247. ^ "St. Leonard's Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  248. ^ "Saltwood Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  249. ^ "Sandgate Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  250. ^ "Scotney Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  251. ^ "Sissinghurst Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  252. ^ "Starkey Castle" Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  253. ^ "Stone Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  254. ^ "Sutton Valence Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  255. ^ "Tonbridge Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  256. ^ "Upnor Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  257. ^ "Walmer Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  258. ^ "Westenhanger Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  259. ^ "Ashton Hall" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  260. ^ "Borwick Hall" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  261. ^ "Clitheroe Castle" Archived 2012-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  262. ^ "Hornby Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  263. ^ "Lancaster Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  264. ^ "Turton Tower" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  265. ^ "Ashby de la Zouch Castle" Archived 2015-12-16 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  266. ^ "Kirby Muxloe Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  267. ^ "Leicester Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  268. ^ "Goltho Castle" Archived 2012-10-08 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  269. ^ "Bolingbroke Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  270. ^ "Grimsthorpe Castle" Archived 2012-10-01 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  271. ^ "Hussey Tower" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  272. ^ "Kyme Tower" Archived 2012-10-02 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  273. ^ "Lincoln Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  274. ^ "Rochford Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  275. ^ "Somerton Castle" Archived 2012-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  276. ^ "Tattershall Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  277. ^ "Torksey Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  278. ^ "Brimstage Hall" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  279. ^ "Leasowe Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  280. ^ Brown (1962), p.59.
  281. ^ "Thetford Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  282. ^ "Baconsthorpe Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  283. ^ "Burgh Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  284. ^ "Caister Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  285. ^ "Castle Acre Castle" Archived 2016-02-01 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  286. ^ "Castle Rising Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  287. ^ "Claxton Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  288. ^ "Norwich Castle" Archived 2010-12-30 at Wikiwix PSC.
  289. ^ "Oxburgh Hall" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  290. ^ "Weeting Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  291. ^ "Fotheringhay Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  292. ^ "Astwell Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  293. ^ "Barnwell Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  294. ^ "Rockingham Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  295. ^ "Thorpe Waterville Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  296. ^ "Alnham Vicars Pele" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  297. ^ "Alnwick Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  298. ^ "Aydon Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  299. ^ "Barmoor Castle" Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  300. ^ "Beaufront Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  301. ^ "Bellister Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  302. ^ "Belsay Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  303. ^ "Berwick Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  304. ^ "Bitchfield Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  305. ^ "Blenkinsop Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  306. ^ "Bothal Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  307. ^ "Bywell Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  308. ^ "Callaly Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  309. ^ "Cartington Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  310. ^ "Chillingham Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  311. ^ "Chipchase Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  312. ^ "Cocklaw Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  313. ^ "Cockle Park Tower" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  314. ^ "Corbridge Vicar's Pele" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  315. ^ "Coupland Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  316. ^ "Craster Tower" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  317. ^ "Crawley Tower" Archived 2012-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  318. ^ "Cresswell Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  319. ^ "Dilston Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  320. ^ "Dunstanburgh Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  321. ^ "Edlingham Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  322. ^ "Elsdon Tower" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  323. ^ "Embleton Tower" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  324. ^ "Etal Castle" Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  325. ^ "Featherstone Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  326. ^ "Ford Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  327. ^ "Halton Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  328. ^ "Harbottle Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  329. ^ "Haughton Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  330. ^ "Hexham Moot Hall" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  331. ^ "Hexham Old Gaol" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  332. ^ "Horsley Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  333. ^ "Langley Castle" Archived 2015-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  334. ^ "Lemmington Hall" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  335. ^ "Lindisfarne Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  336. ^ "Mitford Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  337. ^ "Morpeth Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  338. ^ "Norham Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  339. ^ "Preston Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  340. ^ "Prior Castell's Tower" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  341. ^ "Prudhoe Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  342. ^ "Shilbottle Tower" Archived 2012-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  343. ^ "Shortflatt Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  344. ^ "Thirlwall Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  345. ^ "Warkworth Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  346. ^ "Whittingham Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  347. ^ "Whitton Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  348. ^ "Willimoteswick Castle" Archived 2013-12-03 at the Wayback Machine. Gatehouse
  349. ^ "Ayton Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  350. ^ "Barden Tower" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  351. ^ "Bolton Castle" Archived 2011-10-02 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  352. ^ "Cawood Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  353. ^ "Clifford's Tower" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  354. ^ "Crayke Castle" Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  355. ^ "Danby Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  356. ^ "Gilling Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  357. ^ "Hazlewood Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  358. ^ "Hellifield Peel" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  359. ^ "Helmsley Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  360. ^ "Hornby Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  361. ^ "Knaresborough Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  362. ^ "Marmion Tower" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  363. ^ "Middleham Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  364. ^ "Old Mulgrave Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  365. ^ "Nappa Hall" Archived 2012-01-18 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  366. ^ "Pickering Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  367. ^ "Ravensworth Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  368. ^ "Richmond Castle" Archived 2012-04-18 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  369. ^ "Ripley Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  370. ^ "Scarborough Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  371. ^ "Sheriff Hutton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  372. ^ "Skelton Castle" Archived 2011-01-09 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  373. ^ "Skipton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  374. ^ "Snape Castle" Archived 2012-01-27 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  375. ^ "South Cowton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  376. ^ "Spofforth Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  377. ^ "Whorlton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  378. ^ "Wilton Castle" Archived 2012-01-27 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  379. ^ "Halloughton Manor House" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  380. ^ "Newark Castle" Archived 2015-10-18 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  381. ^ "Nottingham Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  382. ^ "Bampton Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  383. ^ "Broughton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  384. ^ "Hanwell Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  385. ^ Blair (1998), p.137.
  386. ^ "Greys Court" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  387. ^ "Shirburn Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  388. ^ "Wallingford Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  389. ^ "Oakham Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  390. ^ "Acton Burnell Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  391. ^ "Alberbury Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  392. ^ "Bridgnorth Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  393. ^ "Broncroft Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  394. ^ "Cheney Longville Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  395. ^ "Clun Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  396. ^ "Hopton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  397. ^ "Ludlow Castle" Archived 2015-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  398. ^ "Moreton Corbet Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  399. ^ "Quatford Castle" Archived 2012-01-20 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  400. ^ "Red Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  401. ^ "Rowton Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  402. ^ "Shrewsbury Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  403. ^ "Stokesay Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  404. ^ "Wattlesborough Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  405. ^ "Whittington Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  406. ^ "Banwell Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  407. ^ Buildings of England, Somerset: South & West (1958) ISBN 978-0-300-09644-6.
  408. ^ "Dunster Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  409. ^ "Farleigh Hungerford Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  410. ^ "Newton St Loe" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  411. ^ "Nunney Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  412. ^ "Stogursey Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  413. ^ "Sutton Court" Archived 2012-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  414. ^ "Taunton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  415. ^ "Walton Castle" Archived 2012-10-02 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  416. ^ "Wells Bishop's Palace" Archived 2012-01-27 at the Wayback Machine. BLB.
  417. ^ "Conisbrough Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  418. ^ "Tickhill Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  419. ^ "Alton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  420. ^ "Caverswall Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  421. ^ "Chartley Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  422. ^ "Eccleshall Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  423. ^ "Stafford Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  424. ^ "Stourton Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  425. ^ "Tamworth Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  426. ^ "Tutbury Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  427. ^ "Bungay Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  428. ^ "Clare Castle" Archived 2012-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  429. ^ "Eye Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  430. ^ "Framlingham Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  431. ^ "Mettingham Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  432. ^ "Orford Castle" Archived 2012-09-30 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  433. ^ "Wingfield Castle" Archived 2012-10-07 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  434. ^ "Farnham Castle" Archived 2012-10-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  435. ^ "Guildford Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  436. ^ "Hylton Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  437. ^ "Newcastle Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  438. ^ "Old Hollinside" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  439. ^ "Ravensworth Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  440. ^ "Tynemouth Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  441. ^ "Astley Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  442. ^ "Kenilworth Castle" Archived 2012-10-05 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  443. ^ "Maxstoke Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  444. ^ "Warwick Castle" Archived 2009-02-06 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  445. ^ "Dudley Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  446. ^ "Amberley Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  447. ^ "Arundel Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  448. ^ "Bramber Castle" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  449. ^ "Halnaker House" Archived 2012-10-09 at the Wayback Machine. PSC.
  450. ^ "Archived copy".