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List of burial mounds in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of notable burial mounds in the United States built by Native Americans. Burial mounds were built by many different cultural groups over a span of many thousands of years, beginning in the Late Archaic period and continuing through the Woodland period up to the time of European contact.


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From graveyards haunted by the ghost of a dead girl to popular suicide destinations we count 50 of the creepiest burial grounds throughout the world. 1 Huguenot Cemetery is a cemetery located in St Augustine, Florida, USA. The ghost of Judge John B. Stickney is thought to still reside as a spirit in Huguenot Cemetery. 2 The Old Jewish Cemetery is located in Prague in the Czech Republic and currently has as many as 100,000 bodies and gravestones of the departed stacked on top of each other. 3 The Chase Vault in Barbados is well-known for moving coffins. According to the legend of the 'mysterious moving coffins' each time the heavily sealed vault was opened the coffins were noted to have changed positions. 4 St. Louis Cemetery No. 1 located in New Orleans is infamous for the ghost of a Voodoo Priestess who has been seen on multiple occasions by unrelated parties. 5 The Valley of the Kings in Cairo, Egypt is one of the most notorious and ancient tombs in the entire history of mankind. Not only do ancient embalmed bodies of the Pharaohs reside within the crypt, there are multiple legends talking of curses one contracts from disturbing the tomb. 6 The Seventh Day Baptist Cemetery is located in Burlington, Connecticut. This Cemetery is also known as the 'Green Lady' Cemetery because of a green ghost that haunts the grounds. 7 The Isola di San Michele is an island located off of Northern Italy. Back in 1807 it was decided that the entire island would be used as a cemetery. 8 The Catacombe dei Cappuccini or Catacombs of the Capuchins is a small burial ground located in Palermo, Sicily in Italy The walls of the crypt are lined with embalmed bodies that totally aren't creepy in any way whatsoever. 9 The Highgate Cemetery in London, England has around 170,000 'residents' crowded into 53,000 graves and is renowned for being one of the world's most haunted graveyards. 10 The Old Center Cemetery in Andover, New Hampshire is one of the most popular places in America for ghost tours thanks to their resident spirits, such as the 'Waving Woman' and Ben Hargrove. 11 If you like dogs then the Glasnevin Cemetery located in Dublin is for you, that is unless you prefer your dogs to be non-ethereal or actually alive when you see them. 12 There's a graveyard located in a ruined Roman built city in Turkey that contains the ancient bones of gladiators forced to fight to their death, nope definitely no ghosts there. 13 There's an infamous ghost located on Archer Avenue in Chicago USA that hitch-hikes to Resurrection Cemetery. What's she doing at Archer Avenue? Why does she get out at Resurrection Cemetery? Who knows, maybe she likes dancing at the Ballroom before heading home to 6 feet under the ground. 14 There's a Cemetery in Stull, Kansas that has a lot of rumours about Satanism including, but not limited to, having a gateway to hell within the Stull Cemetery; so if you want to have a short vacation in Hell Stull is your best bet. 15 Brookwood Cemetery, or the 'London Necropolis' is in Surrey, England and has has many different people claim that they have heard the voices of the dead, some of them benevolent, some of them not. 16 Brookwood Cemetery is not to be confused with Rookwood Cemetery in Sydney, Australia, it is the largest resting place in the Southern Hemisphere with over 600,000 different bodies under the surface. 17 Bachelor’s Grove Cemetery in Chicago has many different accounts of paranormal activity, perhaps the creepiest of them all is the two headed ghost, however, there are far more than just the one perplexing ghost. 18 Possibly the creepiest of all, the Catacombs of Paris contain thousands of skulls and other bones lined up on the walls underneath the city, and there are over six million people 'buried' in there. 19 Waikumete Cemetery in New Zealand has had multiple people talking about various ghost stories, including one person that frequents the Cemetery (god knows why) and has heard banging coming from under the surface. 20 There's an Ossuary (a type of church) in the Czech republic that's decorated with the bones of the departed. Its name is the 'Sedlec Ossuary' if you want to be cursed, but personally I'd steer clear. 21 There are quite a few important historical figures buried under Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aeries. However, what makes it creepy are the ghosts that haunt the grounds: Rufina Cambaceres, a young girl who was buried alive and David Alleno, a night watchmen who killed himself. 22 Actun Tunichil Muknal is a cave in Belize, near San Ignacio a Maya that has skeletons littered throughout the chambers. The best-known skeleton is 'the Crystal Maiden', the skeleton of a teenage girl that was probably sacrificed, her bones have been calcified to a crystallised appearance. 23 The Ganges River located in India is a sacred place to those of the Hindu faith, its waters cleanse a dead body of their sins. Because of this the waters are a popular place to dispose of dead bodies; this leads to corpses washing up on the shores of the river. 24 Within the Catacombs of Rome there are bodies of saints of the Jewish and Christian faiths. The catacombs have given many people cases of intense panic and claustrophobia, there have also been numerous accounts of poltergeist sightings as well. 25 Stamps 'Witches' Cemetery in Tennessee is a graveyard that earned its namesake because of the pentagrams on the gravestones, not only that but the amount of reports regarding paranormal activity puts other graveyards to shame. 26 Greyfriars Kirkyard in Scotland is infamous for the Mackenzie Poltergeist who has been known to target the weak, sometimes causing them to faint and collapse from the experience. 27 There have been multiple sightings and even some photographs taken of the ghost of St Mary's Cemetery located in Buffalo Grove, Illinois. Of course the photos themselves aren't all that convincing it's still a creepy graveyard through and through. 28 Ever wanted to dine amongst the dead? Well now you can if you make a short trip to the New Lucky Restaurant in India. Inside the restaurant are coffins jutting out from the ground, but they aren't props, dead people really reside within them. Don't worry I'm sure you won't get food poisoning or anything like that. 29 The Howard Street Cemetery in Salem is one of the most infamous graveyards in the world. A man named Giles Corey was accused and killed for practising witchcraft and with his dying breath he cursed the town. 30 The Chapel of Bones is one of the best known landmarks in Évora, Portugal. I suppose you're dying to know why it's called the chapel of bones? Well it's probably because the entire chapel is decorated with the bones of human skeletons. 31 There's a forest north-west of Mount Fuji that has many signs in Japanese and English urging people to not commit suicide. Why do they have those signs? Probably because it's a popular destination for those that want to end their own life, which is also why it's colloquially known as Suicide Forest. 32 The Cemetery in La Noira in Chile is avoided by the locals to the point where they warn tourists against visiting the town because they believe the dead get up and walk at night. Evidence of this can be seen if you brave the cemetery as most of the graves have been disturbed. 33 In Mexico there's an abandoned church near Chamula Cemetery, inside the graveyard there's a seemingly random display of grave-markers that give the place an eerie feel. To top it all off there are numerous chicken sacrifices strewed throughout the site, whether this is a local custom or they're simply there to make it extra creepy is debatable. 34 The Westminster Presbyterian Church Burial Ground in Baltimore, Maryland is a creepy graveyard so well known for being haunted that paranormal investigators have been known to investigate the grounds. 35 Unlike most cultures that view death as a thing to be feared above all else, a prominent culture of Sapanta, Romania believes that death is something to look forward to. The Merry Cemetery (located in the same place) is so colourful and 'cheerful' that it goes right back around to creepy, especially for those of us that think death isn't all fun and games. 36 The Suicide Cliff in San Roque, Saipan gained notoriety on the internet when a video on youtube showed a ghost jumping off the cliff. However, that video alone isn't enough for it to gain a place on this list, back when Saipan was taken by the Americans hundreds of Japanese civilians and soldiers jumped off of that cliff to avoid capture. 37 Okunoin Temple at the base of Mt. Koya is the largest cemetery in Japan with over 200,000 people from different centuries resting in the ground bellow. The assortment of different gravestones as well as the moss covering the stones makes this an uncanny sight and leaves a creepy after-taste. 38 The Waverley Cemetery in Sydney is a self funded graveyard from payments of the living to house the deceased. There are 86,000 inhabitants and around 200 war graves, making it very haunted and also a popular attraction for ghost tours. 39 Next we have one of the most haunted graveyards in the United States of America, Union Cemetery located in Easton, Connecticut. The most famous ghost in the grounds is the 'White Lady' who has been sighted by many people, including police officers and fire-fighters. 40 Cemetery Hill is the scene of the battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War, where 105 soldiers died in battle This spot is not only popular for civil war re-enactments but also for ghost sightings, where people have reported to see ghastly shades haunting the hill. 41 Boot Hill cemetery is located in the aptly named town of Tombstone, Arizona. The site is well known for its ghosts which is probably because those that lie within were often put in the ground because of a violent, untimely and gruesome death. 42 Toowong Cemetery is a heritage site in Brisbane, Australia and it has been the discussion of hauntings online quite frequently, not only that but its dilapidated appearance and uneven ground makes for a creepy visit if you ever so dare. 43 Guess what? It's another haunted graveyard, how crazy is that? Here's Ross Bay Cemetery in Canada and it's super haunted, like really super haunted, in fact I'd go so far as to say that's it's so haunted that it's like full of ghosts and ghouls and stuff. Well at the very least the graveyard is considered at maximum capacity of dead people and they won't let anyone else be buried there now, but if you ask me it's probably because they don't want any more ghosts. 44 The Gallipoli Peninsula is where many soldiers went to die in World War 1, it's commemorated in Australia and New Zealand on the 25th of April as ANZAC day. It's hard to believe that so many soldiers dying in one spot isn't going to have any ghosts haunting the area. 45 The Edinburgh Vaults are found under the South Bridge in Edinburgh, Scotland and they were used by the serial killers Burke and Hare for illegal medical experiments that ultimately lead to the 'patient's' death. 46 Yes, famous people need a final resting place too and the Hollywood Forever Cemetery is home to many of the stars that lived in Los Angeles. And just like famous people need a place to rest, they also sometimes haunt the area around their graves, which is capitalised on by multiple ghost touring groups. 47 While the Woolyburger Cemetery in Ohio has a somewhat ridiculous name it's home to some horrid tales. People have seen the ghost of the butcher's daughter wandering alone in the cemetery as well as hearing the screams of her family at night. 48 Is there anything scarier than a Nazi? As it happens, yes, yes there is. La Cambe Cemetery in Germany houses 21,000 bodies of Nazis. And you just know that Nazis have no will to come back from the dead and haunt people, because they're totally nice and not at all disturbed or bitter in any way whatsoever. 49 South Brisbane cemetery is found in Brisbane, Australia and it boasts a roster of 13 different ghosts that haunt its grounds, the place has gathered so much infamy that someone decided to write a book dedicated to just how haunted the place is. 50 Here's the creepiest and worst cemetery of them all, this one will leave you crying and begging for the torment to stop before you even enter the grounds. It's so terrifying, in fact, that even speaking its name will haunt you, so all I'm going to do is use a bit of my psychic power and speak directly to you right now. Yes you, the one watching this video. You know the cemetery closest to your home? It's that one. So you better look out if you ever go by it, you'll probably be hexed for the rest of your life if you don't burn a whole bunch of sage.

Contents

Adena and Hopewell culture burial mounds

Mound Location Date Culture Notes
Bynum Mound and Village Site Chickasaw County, Mississippi 100 BCE to 100 CE Miller culture (part of the Hopewell tradition) A Middle Woodland period archaeological site located near Houston, Mississippi. The complex of six conical shaped mounds was in use during the Miller 1 and Miller 2 phases of the Miller culture.[1][2] and was built between 100 BCE and 100 CE. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989 as part of the Natchez Trace Parkway at milepost 232.4.
Carl Potter Mound Champaign County, Ohio ? ? Also known as the "Hodge Mound II", it is located in southern Champaign County, Ohio near Mechanicsburg,[3] it lies on a small ridge in a pasture field in southeastern Union Township.
Conus Marietta Earthworks, Marietta, Ohio 100 BCE to 500 CE Adena culture The conical Great Mound at Mound Cemetery is part of a mound complex known as the Marietta Earthworks, which includes the nearby Quadranaou and Capitolium platform mounds, the Sacra Via walled mounds (largely destroyed in 1882), and three enclosures.[4]
Criel Mound South Charleston, West Virginia 250 to 150 BCE Adena culture Located in South Charleston, West Virginia, the mound lies equidistant between two "sacred circles", earthwork enclosures each 556 feet (169 m) in diameter. It was originally 33 feet (10 m) high and 173 feet (53 m) in diameter at the base, making it the second-largest such burial mound in the state.
Crooks Mound La Salle Parish, Louisiana 100 BCE to 400 CE Early Marksville culture A large Marksville culture mound site in La Salle Parish in south central Louisiana. It is a large conical mound that was part of at least six episodes of burials. It measured about 16 ft high (4.9 m) and 85 ft wide (26 m). It contained roughly 1,150 remains that were placed however they were able to be fit into the structure of the mound. Sometimes body parts were removed in order to achieve that goal. Archaeologists think it was a holding house for the area that was emptied periodically in order to achieve this type of setup.[5]
Dunns Pond Mound Logan County, Ohio ca. 300 to 500 CE Ohio Hopewell culture Located in northeastern Ohio near Huntsville,[3] it lies along the southeastern corner of Indian Lake in Washington Township. In 1974, the mound was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a potential archeological site, with much of its significance deriving from its use as a burial site for as much as nine centuries.
Grave Creek Mound Moundsville, West Virginia 250 to 150 BCE Adena culture At 69 feet (21 m) high and 295 feet (90 m) in diameter, the Grave Creek Mound is the largest conical type burial mound in the United States. In 1838, much of the archaeological evidence in this mound was destroyed when several non-archaeologists tunneled into the mound. To gain entrance to the mound, two shafts, one vertical and one horizontal were created. This led to the most significant discovery of two burial vaults.
Grand Gulf Mound Claiborne County, Mississippi 50 to 150 CE Marksville culture An Early Marksville culture site located near Port Gibson in Claiborne County, Mississippi, on a bluff 1 mile (1.6 km) east of the Mississippi River, 2 miles (3.2 km) north of the mouth of the Big Black River.[6] The site has an extant burial mound, and may have possibly had two others in the past. The site is believed to have been occupied from 50 to 200 CE.
Indian Mounds Regional Park Saint Paul, Minnesota 1 to 500 CE Hopewell and Dakota cultures Originally up to 37 mounds constructed, 6 still in existence
Miamisburg Mound Miamisburg, Ohio 800 BCE to 100 CE Adena culture The largest conical mound in the state of Ohio, constructed by the Adena culture on a 100-foot-high bluff, the mound measures 877 feet (267 m) in circumference and its height is 65 feet (20 m).
Mound City Chillicothe, Ohio 200 BCE to 500 CE Ohio Hopewell culture Located on Ohio Highway 104 approximately four miles north of Chillicothe along the Scioto River, it is a group of 23 earthen mounds. Each mound within the Mound City Group covered the remains of a charnel house. After the Hopewell people cremated the dead, they burned the charnel house. They constructed a mound over the remains. They also placed artifacts, such as copper figures, mica, arrowheads, shells, and pipes in the mounds.
Pinson Mounds
Mounds 6, 12, and 31
Madison County, Tennessee 100 to 300 CE Miller culture A mound complex which includes mounds, a geometric enclosure, and numerous habitation areas, it is the largest group of Middle Woodland mounds in the United States. The complex covers approximately 400 acres (1.6 km2) and contains at least 30 mounds, 17 of which have been identified as being completely or partially constructed by prehistoric peoples. It includes at least 3 burial mounds, and a number of ceremonial platform mounds.
Reservoir Stone Mound Licking County, Ohio AD 85 to 135 Probably Adena culture Also known as the Jacksontown Stone Mound, the central, stone-covered structure was largely destroyed by the removal of stones to construct the Licking Reservoir and by a 19th-century treasure-hunter. Around the edge of the large stone mound were a number of earthen mounds, some of which contained burials. [7]

Mississippian culture burial mounds

Mound Location Date Culture Notes
Cahokia Mound 72 Mound 72, Cahokia
Collinsville, Illinois
650 to 1400 CE Middle Mississippian culture A ridge-top burial mound south of Monk's Mound, during excavations archaeologists found the remains of a man in his 40s who was probably an important Cahokian ruler. Archaeologists recovered more than 250 other skeletons from Mound 72. Scholars believe almost 62 percent of these were sacrificial victims, based on signs of ritual execution, method of burial, and other factors.[8]
Castalian Springs Mound 2 Castalian Springs Mound Site in Sumner County, Tennessee 1100 to 1450 CE Middle Mississippian culture Located on the eastern edge of a plaza, a 120 feet (37 m) in diameter 8 feet (2.4 m) tall mound which was found to contain over a hundred burials when excavated by William E. Myer in the early 1890s.[9]
Craig Mound Spiro Mounds, Le Flore County, Oklahoma 800-1200 CE Caddoan Mississippian culture Also called the "Great Mortuary", it is the second-largest mound on the site and the only burial mound. A hollow chamber that began as a burial structure for Spiro's rulers became a cavity within the mound, about 10 feet (3.0 m) high and 15 feet (4.6 m) wide, and allowed for almost perfect preservation of fragile artifacts made of wood, conch shell, and copper. The conditions in this hollow space were so favorable that objects made of perishable materials such as basketry, woven fabric, lace, fur, and feathers were preserved inside it. Craig Mound has been called "an American King Tut's Tomb."
George C. Davis Mound C Caddoan Mounds State Historic Site, Cherokee County, Texas 800-1200 CE Caddoan Mississippian culture Mound C, the northernmost mound of the three at the site, it was used as a ceremonial burial mound, not for elite residences or temples like the other two.[10] The site was the southwestern most ceremonial mound center of all the mound building cultures of North America.[10]
Etowah Mound C Etowah Indian Mounds, Cartersville, Georgia 1000-1550 CE South Appalachian Mississippian Cyrus Thomas and John P. Rogan tested the site for the Smithsonian Institution in 1883, where they discovered the "Rogan plates". But, the first well-documented archaeological inquiry at the site did not begin until the winter of 1925, conducted by Warren K. Moorehead. His excavations into Mound C at the site revealed a rich array of burial goods. These artifacts, along with the collections from Cahokia, Moundville, Lake Jackson, and Spiro Mounds, would comprise the majority of the materials which archeologists used to define the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex.
Fatherland Site Mound C Grand Village of the Natchez, Natchez, Mississippi 1400-1732 CE Plaquemine Mississippian culture Mound C was used as the Sun Temple and charnel house for the Natchez elite.
Gahagan Mound B Gahagan Mounds Site, Red River Parish, Louisiana 1100-1450 CE Caddoan Mississippian culture The burial mound at the site was excavated twice, in 1912 by Clarence Bloomfield Moore and then in 1939 by Clarence H. Webb. Between the 2 excavations, three burial shafts with a total of fourteen burials and more than five hundred grave goods were discovered. The first shaft, found by Moore, was 11 feet in depth and 13 by 8 feet in width and height. The other two, found in the 1939 excavations, were 19 feet (5.8 m) by 15 feet (4.6 m) and 12 feet (3.7 m) by 11 feet (3.4 m) feet in dimensions.[11] Grave goods found included flaked flint knives known as Gahagan blades, a matched pair of Long-nosed god maskette earrings of copper,[12] Missouri flint clay statues,[13] greenstone celts and spuds, and caches of beads and arrow heads. Many of the grave goods were exotic imports from such distant places from across the continent.[14]
Mangum Mound Mangum Mound Site, Claiborne County, Mississippi 1350 to 1500 CE Plaquemine Mississippian culture Located at milepost 45.7 on the Natchez Trace Parkway.[15] Various pottery fragments belonging to the Plaquemine culture, chunkey stones and several Mississippian copper plates, one with an avian design similar to other plates found Etowah in Georgia and Lake Jackson Mounds in Florida. These portray the Birdman motif important to the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex (S.E.C.C.).[16]
Nacoochee Mound Nacoochee Mound, White County, Georgia 1350-1600 CE South Appalachian Mississippian culture Nacoochee Mound, on the banks of the Chattahoochee River in White County, in the northeast part of the U.S. state of Georgia, at the junction of Georgia Georgia State Route 17 and Georgia State Route 75. First occupied as early as 100-500 CE, the site was later developed and occupied more intensively by peoples of the South Appalachian Mississippian culture (a regional variation of the Mississippian culture) from 1350 to 1600 CE.[17] One of their characteristic platform mounds is located at the site. A professional archeological excavation revealed a total of 75 human burials, with artifacts that support dating of the site.
Nodena Site Mound C Nodena Site, Mississippi County, Arkansas 1400–1650 CE Middle Mississippian culture A circular mound, designated as "Mound C", was located at the other end of the chunkey field. It was roughly 93 feet (28 m) in diameter and 3 feet (0.91 m) high. A large number of male graves, 314 of 316, were found buried under it.
Pope County Mound 2 Kincaid Site, Pope County, Illinois 1050-1400 CE Middle Mississippian culture Adjacent to the Ohio River, the site straddles the modern-day counties of Massac County and Pope County in deep southern Illinois, an area colloquially known as Little Egypt. On the eastern edge of the site is a low circular mound which was used as a burial mound, as opposed to all other mounds at the site which were substructure platform mounds. The mound contained a number of stone box graves and log lined tombs similar to those frequently found to the south in the Middle Cumberland Valley of Tennessee.[18]
Shiloh Mound C Shiloh Indian Mounds, Hardin County, Tennessee 1000-1450 CE Middle Mississippian culture Adjacent to the Tennessee River, the site has 6 or 7 substructure platform mounds and one burial mound, Mound C. This mound was excavated in 1899 by Cornelius Cadle, chairman of the Shiloh Park Commission. Amongst the discoveries was a large stone effigy pipe in the shape of a kneeling man. It has since become the site’s most famous artifact and is on display in the Tennessee River Museum in Savannah. The pipe is from a distinctive red stone in the same style as several statuettes from the Cahokia site in Collinsville, Illinois.[19]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Pharr Mounds-Ceramic analysis". National Park Service. Retrieved 2010-11-16.
  2. ^ Peregrine, Peter Neal; Ember, Melvin, eds. (2003). "Middle Eastern Woodland". Encyclopedia of Prehistory Complete set of Volumes 1-8 and Volume 9, the index volume: Published in conjunction with the Human Relations Area Files. Encyclopedia of Prehistory. 6:North America (1 ed.). Springer Publishing. p. 331. ISBN 978-0-306-46264-1.
  3. ^ a b National Park Service (2009-03-13). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  4. ^ Woodward, Susan L.; McDonald, Jerry N. (1986). Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley: A Guide to Mounds and Earthworks of the Adena, Hopewell, Cole, and Fort Ancient People. Blacksburg, Virginia: McDonald & Woodward Publishing. pp. 252–257. ISBN 978-0939923724.
  5. ^ "Tejas-Caddo Ancestors-Woodland cultures". University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2010-10-17.
  6. ^ Brookes, Samuel O. (1976). The Grand Gulf Mound: Salvage Excavation of an Early Marksville Burial Mound in Claiborne County, Mississippi. Mississippi Archaeological Survey Report. Jackson, Mississippi: Mississippi Department of Archives and History.
  7. ^ Lepper, Bradley T., 2016, "A RADIOCARBON DATE FOR A WOODEN BURIAL PLATFORM FROM THE RESERVOIR STONE MOUND (33LI20), LICKING COUNTY, OHIO," Journal of Ohio Archaeology 4:1-11 http://www.ohioarchaeology.org/documents/Article_1--Lepper_2015-final.pdf
  8. ^ Young & Fowler, p. 148.
  9. ^ Kevin E. Smith; James V. Miller (2009). Speaking with the Ancestors-Mississippian Stone Statuary of the Tennessee-Cumberland region. University of Alabama Press. pp. 68–77. ISBN 978-0-8173-5465-7.
  10. ^ a b "Caddo Mounds-Sites-Texas Native Skies". Retrieved 2010-02-05.
  11. ^ "The Caddo Indians of Louisiana". Archived from the original on 2009-12-10. Retrieved 2010-02-24.
  12. ^ "Tejas-Caddo Fundamentals-Mississippian World". Retrieved 2010-02-24.
  13. ^ Girard, Jeffrey S.; Emerson, Thomas E. (July 2004). "DATING GAHAGAN AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR UNDERSTANDING CAHOKIA-CADDO INTERACTIONS". Southeastern Archaeology. 23 (1): 57. Retrieved 2010-02-24.
  14. ^ "The Caddo Indians of Louisiana". Archived from the original on December 10, 2009. Retrieved 2010-02-24.
  15. ^ "Mangum Mound Natchez Trace". Retrieved 2012-04-27.
  16. ^ Cotter, John L. (July 1952). "The Mangum Plate". American Antiquity. 18 (1): 65–68. doi:10.2307/276247. JSTOR 276247.
  17. ^ "Southeastern Prehistory:Mississippian and Late Prehistoric Period". National Park Service. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  18. ^ Brennan, Tamira K. (October 2009). Domestic Diversity at Kincaid Mounds. Midwest Archaeological Conference. Iowa City, Iowa. p. 2. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  19. ^ "Shiloh Indian Mounds". Retrieved 2010-06-30.

External links

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