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List of autonomous areas by country

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Countries with at least one autonomous area
Countries with at least one autonomous area

This list of autonomous areas arranged by country gives an overview of autonomous areas of the world. An autonomous area is defined as an area of a country that has a degree of autonomy, or has freedom from an external authority. It is typical for it to be geographically distant from the country, or to be populated by a national minority. Countries that include autonomous areas are often federacies.[1] The autonomous areas differ from federal units and independent states in the sense that they, in relation to the majority of other sub-national territories in the same country, enjoy a special status including some legislative powers, within the state (for a detailed list of federated units, see Federated state).[2]

This list includes areas that are internationally recognized, as well as some that are generally unrecognized.AB The definition of an autonomous area varies from country to country, so the native term as defined by the respective country's government is listed, and the English translation of the term is included.

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Transcription

Spain is a country that functions a lot like Federation, without actually being a federation. When the country is a federation, what that means is that it is a union of partially self-governing states under central government. This sounds like Spain, which along the countrywide government, has many autonomous communities that are self-governing. These include not only the communities in the iberian peninsula but also the insular territories such as one community for the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, and another for the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa. The cities of Ceuta and Melilla on Morocco's side of the straight in north africa have special status as autonomous cities. While gibraltar on Spain side is not a part of Spain and instead and overseas territory of the UK. The autonomous communities were established during Spain's transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco Franco. The framers of the new spanish constitution in 1978 wanted to maintain a unified, indivisible, Spanish state. So they were careful to deliberately not make Spain a federation, but at the same time needed to keep the Galicians, Catalans, and Basques happy, who wanted more autonomy after being suppressed by highly centralized Franco Regime. Those communities can sometimes have powers that you even exceed those of states in Federation's. Some have recognized distinct nationalities, have their own official languages, and some even collect taxes independent of the spanish government. So in practice Spain behaves like a federation, but in theory the Constitution only guaranteed a process through which regions could become self-governing, but did not itself established or list the powers of these entities. Instead the regions would later gain their rights through a statute of autonomy, which is similar to the process of awarding devolved powers in non-federations called unitary states. This is an important distinction because in general the Constitutions of Federations clearly outline the division of powers between the federal government and the members. In unitary states the central government can change the powers of its sub-national divisions, while in Federation the federal government must respect the members rights and often constitutional reforms require consent from the members. But at the same time the members must respect the powers of the federal state and cannot unilaterally secede. This distinguishes Federation's from Confederations which are union of sovereign states which retain the right to secede at any time. For example, Spain is a member of the European Union with is like a confederation, since member states can leave by invoking article 50 of the Treaty of Lisbon which established the EU. Spain's complicated internal structure is the result of its history. After the fall of the Roman Empire the local varieties of Latin used by the common people known as vulgar latin slowly diverged into the various Romance languages. For centuries the north of Iberia was split between many Christian kingdoms while the south was under Muslim rule. In each of the Christian kingdoms, vulgar latin diverged into different languages, such as Galician which is related to portuguese, Leonese, Aragonese, and Castilian, which are related to each other, and Catalan which is distantly related to French, but is more closely related to the Occitan language that exists in southern France before being mostly replaced by french. The basque language in the Pyrenees Mountains, is not a Romance language. It's not even in the indo-european language family of most modern European languages, and so it's likely descended from a language that existed in those mountains from before indo-european languages spread into Europe. The castilian language became dominant following its spread during the Reconquista, and became language of a unified Spanish kingdom and is commonly known as Spanish in other languages as well as among some Spanish speakers. However, Galician, Basque and Catalan identities remain strong so they were allowed to quickly established autonomous communities by the method outlined in the Constitution when Spain became a democracy. The rest of Spain gradually created their own autonomous communities and now the cover all of Spain's territory. The autonomous communities are composed of one or more provinces of spain, which are themselves composed of municipalities. This means most of Spain has four levels of government: municipal, provincial, the regional governments of the communities, and the national government. The autonomous cities in North Africa take on the powers of a municipality, province and a community. Some communities are large and cover many provinces, but some like Madrid, established specifically to make administering the capital easier, contain just one. In general all the communities have control over their finances and are in charge of education, health, and social services. But other powers are unequally distributed among the communities. Some communities have their own Civil Code, which means they have their own method of dealing with non-criminal legal decisions, and these communities have co-official languages along with Spanish: Galicia has Galician and basque is a co-official language in the Basque Country along with the Basque speaking areas of neighboring Navarre. Valencia has a variety of catalan called Valencian, and Catalan itself is co-official in the Balearic islands and Catalonia. Additionally Catalonia recognizes occitan as co-official as it is spoken by some in border regions. As well, Aragonese and Asturian are considered protected languages in their namesake regions, and both Asturian and Galician are protected in Castile and Leon. Catalonia, Navarre, and the Basque Country have their own police forces, while Navarre and the Basque Country are communities of chartered regime, which means they collect the taxes within their territory and then send a portion to the national government to cover its responsibilities. All the other communities are part of the common regime where the situation is reversed. Some communities notably catalonia want more powers devolved, and there are some desire in Spain to become fully federalized. But currently Spain is still technically a unitary state. If you enjoyed this video you might like this one about Russia or this one about Spain's tiny neighbor Andorra which speaks Catalan and has two princes: one is a bishop in Catalonia, and the other is the President of France.

Contents

Autonomous areas

Created by international agreements

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the treaty and year(s) indicated, if available) References
 China (PRC) 特別行政區 (Chinese, an official language of both Hong Kong and Macau)
região administrativa especial (Portuguese, another official language of Macau)
special administrative region (English, another official language of Hong Kong)
 Hong Kong (1997)  · Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984[3]
 Macau (1999)  · Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration of 1987[4]
[5]
 Finland itsehallinnollinen maakunta (Finnish)
självstyrande landskap (Swedish)
autonomous province
 Åland (1922)  · Åland convention[6][7] [8]
 United Kingdom UK constituent country with devolution  Northern Ireland (1998)  · Good Friday Agreement (1998) [9]
 Italy autonome Provinz (German)
provincia autonoma (Italian)
autonomous province
 South Tyrol (1946, 1972)  · Gruber–De Gasperi Agreement (1946) [10]

Notes:

Created by internal statutes

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year(s) indicated, if available) References
 Antigua and Barbuda autonomous island Barbuda
 Australia regional authority Torres Strait Islands (1994)
 Azerbaijan muxtar respublika
autonomous republic
Nakhchivan (1924) [16][17]
 China (PRC) 自治区 (zìzhìqū)
autonomous region
Guangxi (1958)  · Inner Mongolia (1947)  · Ningxia (1958)  · Xinjiang (1955)  · Tibet (1965) [5]
自治州 (zìzhìzhōu)
autonomous prefecture
Bayingolin · Bortala · Changji · Chuxiong · Dali · Dehong · Dêqên · Enshi · Gannan · Garzê · Golog · Yushu · Haibei · Hainan · Haixi · Honghe · Huangnan · Ili · Kizilsu · Liangshan · Linxia · Ngawa · Nujiang · Qiandongnan · Qiannan · Qianxinan · Wenshan  · Xiangxi · Xishuangbanna (Sibsongbanna) · Yanbian [5]
自治县 (zìzhìxiàn)
autonomous county
117 (full list) [5]
自治旗 (zìzhìqí)
autonomous banner
Evenki · Morin Dawa · Oroqen [5]
 Denmark rigsfællesskabet
country with devolution
 Faroe Islands (1948) ·  Greenland (1979) [8]
 Fiji autonomous region Rotuma [18]
 France collectivité territoriale
territorial collectivity
 Corsica (2003)
 Georgia avtonomiuri respublika
autonomous republic
Abkhazia (1991) ·  Adjara (1991) [19]
provisional administrative entity South Ossetia South Ossetia (2007) [20]
 Greece aftonomi monastiki politia
autonomous monastic state
Mount Athos (1913) [21]
 India autonomous district and territorial council Bodoland (2003)  · Chakma (1972)  · Dima Hasao (1970)  · Garo Hills (1952)  · Gorkhaland (2011)  · Jaintia Hills (1972)  · Karbi Anglong (1970)  · Kargil Hills (1995)  · Khasi Hills (1952)  · Lai (1972)  · Leh Hills (1995)  · Mara (1972)  · Mising  · Rabha Hasong (1995)  · Sadar Hills (1995)  · Tripura Tribal Areas (1982) and de facto autonomous area – North Sentinel Island (1947) [22]
 Indonesia daerah istimewa
special region
Coat of arms of Yogyakarta.svg
Yogyakarta (1950)  ·
Coat of arms of Aceh.svg
Aceh (2005)
daerah otonomi khusus
special autonomous region
Coat of arms of Papua.svg
Papua (2000) ·
Coat of arms of West Papua.svg
West Papua (2008)  ·
Coat of arms of Jakarta.svg
Jakarta (1961)
 Iraq kurdistan region
autonomous region
Iraqi Kurdistan Kurdistan Region (1992) [23]
 Italy regione autonoma
autonomous region
 Aosta Valley (1948)  ·  Friuli-Venezia Giulia (1963)  ·  Sardinia (1948)  ·  Sicily (1946)  ·  Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol (1948) [8]`
provincia autonoma
autonomous province
Suedtirol CoA.svg
South Tyrol (1972)  ·
Trentino CoA.svg
Trentino (1972)
 Mauritius autonomous island  Rodrigues (2002) [24]
 Mexico autonomous city Mexico City (2016) [25]
 Moldova unitate teritorială autonomă
autonomous territorial unit
 Găgăuzia (1995)  · Transnistria Transnistria (2005) [8]
 Myanmar self-administered zones Danu Self-Administered Zone · Kokang Self-Administered Zone  · Naga Self-Administered Zone  · Pa Laung Self-Administered Zone  · Pa-O Self-Administered Zone  · Wa Self-Administered Division (2011)
 Nicaragua región autónoma
autonomous region
 Atlántico Norte (1986)  · Atlántico Sur (1986) [26]
 Panama comarca indígena
indigenous territory
Emberá-Wounaan (1983)  · Kuna de Madugandí (1996)  · Kuna de Wargandí (2000)  · Kuna Yala (1938)  · Ngöbe-Buglé (1997) [27]
 Papua New Guinea autonomous region  Bougainville (2000) [28]
 Philippines rehiyong awtonomus
autonomous region
 Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (1989) [29]
 Portugal região autónoma
autonomous region
 Azores (1976)  ·  Madeira (1976) [8]
 Russia respublika
(autonomous) republic
 Adygea ·  Altai Republic ·  Bashkortostan ·  Buryatia ·  Chechnya ·  Chuvashia ·  Republic of Crimea[30] ·  Dagestan ·  Ingushetia ·  Kabardino-Balkaria ·  Kalmykia ·  Karachay-Cherkessia ·  Karelia ·  Khakassia ·  Komi ·  Mari El ·  Mordovia ·  North Ossetia-Alania ·  Sakha Republic ·  Tatarstan ·  Tuva ·  Udmurtia [8]
avtonomnaya oblast
autonomous province
 Jewish Autonomous Oblast (1934) [8]
avtonomny okrug
autonomous district
 Chukotka ·  Khanty-Mansi ·  Nenets ·  Yamalo-Nenets [8]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis autonomous island  Nevis (1967) [31]
 São Tomé and Príncipe região autónoma
autonomous region
Autonomous Region of Príncipe (1995) [32]
 Serbia autonomna pokrajina
autonomous province
Vojvodina (1945)  · Kosovo and Metohija (1963) [33]
 Somalia autonomous state Puntland (1998) [34]
 South Korea teukbyeol jachido
special autonomous province
 Jejudo (2006) [35]
 Tajikistan viloyat mukhtor
autonomous province
Gorno-Badakhshan (1925) [36]
 Tanzania Serikali ya Mapinduzi Zanzibar
revolutionary government
 Zanzibar (1964) [37]
 Trinidad and Tobago autonomous island Tobago
 Ukraine avtonomna respublika
autonomous republic
 Crimea (1992)[38] [8]
 United Kingdom UK constituent country with devolution  Scotland (1999) ·  Wales (1999)  · Northern Ireland [8]
 Uzbekistan respublika
(autonomous) republic
 Karakalpakstan

All territories called "autonomous"

In a number of countries, all territories or regions of a particular type are called "autonomous". Depending on the case, this may or may not reflect a special devolution of powers or freedom from external authority.

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year indicated, if available) References
 Bolivia departamento
(autonomous) department
Beni (2006)  · Pando (2006)  · Santa Cruz (2006)  · Tarija (2006)  · La Paz (2009)  · Cochabamba (2009)  · Chuquisaca (2009) · Oruro (2009) · Potosi (2009) [39]
provincia autónoma
autonomous province
Gran Chaco [40]
municipio autónomo
autonomous municipality
Huacaya · Tarabuco · Mojocoya · Charazani · Jesús de Machaca · Pampas Aullagas · San Pedro de Totora · Chipaya · Salinas de Garci Mendoza · Chayanta · Charagua [41]
territorio indígena
indigenous territory
All native community lands (tierras comunitarias de origen): Asamblea del Pueblo Guaraní, Central de Pueblos Nativos Guarayos, Central de Pueblos Indigenas del Beni, Central Indigena de la Region Amazonica de Bolivia, Central Indigena de Pueblos Amazonicos de Pando, Central de Pueblos Indigenas del Tropico de Cochabamba, Central de Pueblos Indigenas de La Paz, Organizacion de la Capitania Wehenayek Tapiete.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina entitet
entity
Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (1994)  ·  Republika Srpska (1992) [42]
 Comoros île autonome
autonomous island
 Anjouan (2002)  · Grande Comore (2002)  ·  Mohéli (2002) [43]
 Spain comunidad autónoma (in Spanish)[44]
autonomia erkidegoa (in Basque)[45]
comunautat autonòma (in Occitan)[46]
comunitat autònoma (in Catalan/Valencian)[47]
comunidade autónoma (in Galician)[48]
autonomous community
(nationalities and regions of Spain)
 Andalusia (1981)  ·  Aragon (1982)  ·  Asturias (1981)  ·  Balearic Islands (1983)  ·  Basque Country (1979)  ·  Canary Islands (1982)  ·  Cantabria (1982)  ·  Castile–La Mancha (1982)  ·  Castile and León (1983)  ·  Catalonia (1979)  ·  Extremadura (1983)  ·  Galicia (1981)  ·  La Rioja (1982)  ·  Madrid (1983)  ·  Murcia (1982)  ·  Navarre (1982)  ·  Valencian Community (1982) [8]
ciudad autónoma
autonomous city
 Ceuta (1995)  ·  Melilla (1995) [8]

Dependent and associated territories with autonomy

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year(s) indicated, if available) References
 France sui generis collectivité
collectivity sui generis
 New Caledonia (1999) [49]
 Netherlands autonoom land
autonomous country
 Aruba (1986) ·  Curaçao (2010) ·  Sint Maarten (2010)
 New Zealand state in free-association  Cook Islands (1965) ·  Niue (1974)
self-administering territory  Tokelau (1948) [49]
 United Kingdom Crown dependency  Guernsey  ·  Isle of Man ·  Jersey [8]
British Overseas Territory  Falkland Islands  ·  Gibraltar  ·  Bermuda  ·  Cayman Islands  ·  British Virgin Islands  ·  Montserrat  ·  Anguilla [8]
 United States commonwealth  Puerto Rico (1952)  ·  Northern Mariana Islands (1978) [50]

Other entities called "autonomous"

A number of entities are also officially called "autonomous", though they do not have an exceptional freedom from external authority, and would not fall under the definition of autonomous area. They are listed here for clarity.

Capitals called "autonomous"

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year indicated, if available) References
 Argentina ciudad autónoma
autonomous city
Buenos Aires Buenos Aires (1994) [51]
 Cambodia krong
autonomous municipality
Phnom Penh, along with independent cities under the same classification [52]
 Central African Republic commune autonome
autonomous commune
Bangui [53]
 Guinea-Bissau sector autónomo
autonomous sector
Bissau Region [54]
 Indonesia daerah khusus ibukota
special capital region
Coat of arms of Jakarta.svg
Jakarta
[55]
 Uzbekistan shahar
autonomous city
Tashkent (1918) [56]

Independent cities called "autonomous"

Country Native term
Translation or equivalent
Instances (areas became autonomous in the year indicated, if available) References
 South Korea 특별자치시
special autonomous city
Sejong
 Cambodia krong
autonomous municipality
Phnom Penh · Sihanoukville · Pailin · Kep [52]

See also

Notes

  • ^ For example: "China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region". United Nations. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  • ^ See International recognition of Kosovo for states that do and do not recognize the Republic of Kosovo.

References

  1. ^ Lucas I. González (2008-02-11). "Political Power, Fiscal Crises, and Decentralization in Latin America: Federal Countries in Comparative Perspective (and some Contrasts with Unitary Cases)". Publius: the Journal of Federalism. Oxford University Press. 38 (2): 211. doi:10.1093/publius/pjn001. Archived from the original on 2012-07-12. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
  2. ^ Olausson, Pär M. (2007) Autonomy and Islands: A Global Study of the Factors that Determine Island Autonomy, Turku: Åbo Akademi University Press, pp. 21–25
  3. ^ "The Joint Declaration (and following pages)". Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, The Government of the HKSAR. 1 July 2007.
  4. ^ "Joint declaration of the Government of the People's Republic of China and  The Government of the Republic of Portugal on the question of Macao". io.gov.mo.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Provinces of China". Statoids. 2006-06-26. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  6. ^ (in French) Edouard Gourdon, Histoire du Congrès de Paris, Paris, 1857, full text at google Print
  7. ^ Later confirmated by the Act on the Autonomy of Åland of 1920 (which was later replaced by new legislations by the same name in 1951 and 1991) and the League of Nations in 1922 following the Åland crisis.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Benedikter, Thomas (2006-06-19). "The working autonomies in Europe". Society for Threatened Peoples. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  9. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-03.
  10. ^ http://www.regione.taa.it/codice/accordo.aspx
  11. ^ "Treaty concerning the Archipelago of Spitsbergen, and Protocol [1925] ATS 10". austlii.edu.au.
  12. ^ Article 6 of Council Directive 2006/112/EC of 28 November 2006 (as amended) on the common system of value added tax (OJ L 347, 11.12.2006, p. 1) Eur-lex.europa.eu.
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  14. ^ It is legal tender in Campione d'Italia
  15. ^ "2.1.2 Erhebungsgebiet". admin.ch. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013.
  16. ^ "Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh". BBC News. 2008-01-15. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  17. ^ Treaty of Moscow (1921) and Treaty of Kars (1921)
  18. ^ "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. Archived from the original on 19 April 2005. Retrieved 10 July 2010..
  19. ^ "Regions of Georgia". Statoids. 2007-11-30. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  20. ^ "Sanakoev Appointed as Head of S.Ossetia Administration". Civil.ge. 2007-05-10. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  21. ^ "Departments of Greece". Statoids. 2007-09-01. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  22. ^ "The World's Working Regional Autonomies, Thomas Benedikter". Anthem Press. 2007. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved 25 June 2008.
  23. ^ "Provinces of Iraq". Statoids. 2007-08-29. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  24. ^ "Districts of Mauritius". Statoids. 2007-05-08. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  25. ^ http://dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5424043&fecha=29/01/2016. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  26. ^ "Departments of Nicaragua". Statoids. 2005-04-12. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  27. ^ "Panama Provinces". Statoids. Retrieved 2008-02-27.
  28. ^ "Provinces of Papua New Guinea". Statoids. 2005-06-01. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  29. ^ "Provinces of the Philippines". Statoids. 2008-01-31. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  30. ^ Recognized as a part of Ukraine by most of the international community
  31. ^ See section 3 and 4 about Nevis Island Legislature and Administration in The Saint Christopher and Nevis Constitution Order 1983. Published online by Georgetown University and also by University of the West Indies. Retrieved 8 August 2006.
  32. ^ "Sao Tome and Principe". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  33. ^ "Districts of Serbia". Statoids. 2008-02-17. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  34. ^ Constitucional act granting special status of Easter Island and Juan Fernández Islands. As the special charter is being discussed, they remain being governed as provinces of the Valparaíso Region Archived 30 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  35. ^ "Jeju City". Galbijim. 2007-04-08. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  36. ^ "Regions of Tajikistan". Statoids. 2005-10-16. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  37. ^ "Regions and territories: Zanzibar". BBC News. 2007-08-16. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  38. ^ Was annexed by the Russian Federation in March 2014
  39. ^ Doug Hertzler. "Debunking Myths Part II: Bolivia's Autonomy Initiatives". Retrieved 2010-04-01.
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  43. ^ "Autonomous Islands of Comoros". Statoids. 2005-10-16. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  44. ^ Spanish (aka Castilian) is official in
  45. ^ Basque is official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Basque Country and Navarre.
  46. ^ Occitan is official in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia.
  47. ^ Catalan/Valencian is official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, Balearic Islands Valencian Community.
  48. ^ Galician is official in the Spanish autonomous community of Galicia.
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