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List of animals by number of neurons

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Brief comparisons of number of whole brain neurons (top) and cerebral cortex neurons (bottom) among five mammals.

This is a list of representative animals by the number of neurons in their whole nervous system and the number of neurons in their brain (for those with a brain). These numbers are estimates derived by multiplying the density of neurons in a particular animal by the average volume of the animal's brain.

The whole human brain contains 86 billion neurons and roughly 16 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex.[1][2]

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Transcription

Contents

Overview

Neurons are the cells that transmit information in an animal's nervous system so that it can sense stimuli from its environment and behave accordingly. Not all animals have neurons; Trichoplax and sponges lack nerve cells altogether.

Neurons may be packed to form structures such as the brain of vertebrates or the neural ganglions of insects.

The number of neurons and their relative abundance in different parts of the brain is a determinant of neural function and, consequently, of behavior.

Whole nervous system

All numbers for neurons but Caenorhabditis and all numbers for synapses are estimations.

Name Neurons in the brain/whole nervous system Synapses Details Image Source
Sponge 0 [3]
Trichoplax 0 [4]
Ciona intestinalis larva (sea squirt) 231 8617 (central nervous system only) [5]

[6]

Asplanchna brightwellii (rotifer) about 200 Brain only [7]
Caenorhabditis elegans (roundworm) 302 ~7,500 [8]
Jellyfish 5,600 Hydra vulgaris (H. attenuate) [9]
Megaphragma mymaripenne 7,400 [10]
Box jellyfish 8,700–17,500 adult Tripedalia cystophora (8 mm diameter) – does not include 1000 neurons in each of the four rhopalia [11]
Medicinal leech 10,000 [12]
Pond snail 11,000 [13]
Sea slug 18,000 [14]
Amphioxus 20,000 central nervous system only [15]

[16]

Fruit fly 250,000 < 1×10^7 [17]

[18]

Larval zebrafish 100,000 [19]
Lobster 100,000 [20]
Ant 250,000 Varies per species [21]

[22]

Honey bee 960,000 ~1×10^9 [23]
Cockroach 1,000,000 [24]
Adult zebrafish ~10,000,000 cells (neurons + other) [25]
Frog 16,000,000 [26]
Naked mole-rat 26,880,000 [27]
Smoky shrew 36,000,000 [28]
Short-tailed shrew 52,000,000
Blarina carolinensisPCSL20933B.jpg
[28]
House mouse 71,000,000 ~1×10^12 [29]
Nile crocodile 80,500,000 [30]
Golden hamster 90,000,000 [29]
Star-nosed mole 131,000,000 [28]
Zebra finch 131,000,000 Brain only
Taeniopygia guttata -Karratha, Pilbara, Western Australia, Australia -male-8 (2).jpg
[31]
Eurasian blackcap 157,000,000 [31]
Goldcrest 164,000,000 [31]
Brown rat 200,000,000 ~4.48×10^11 [32]
Eastern mole 204,000,000 [28]
Red junglefowl 221,000,000 [31]
Great tit 226,000,000 [31]
Green-rumped parrotlet 227,000,000 [31]
Guinea pig 240,000,000 [29]
Gray mouse lemur 254,710,000 [33]
Common treeshrew 261,000,000 [34]
Pigeon 310,000,000 Brain only [31]
Budgerigar 322,000,000 [31]
Common blackbird 379,000,000 [31]
Ferret 404,000,000 [35]
Cockatiel 453,000,000 [31]
Banded mongoose 454,000,000 [35]
Gray squirrel 453,660,000 [27]
Prairie dog 473,940,000 [27]
Common starling 483,000,000 [31]
European rabbit 494,200,000 [27]
Octopus 500,000,000 [36]
Common marmoset 636,000,000 [34]
Eastern rosella 642,000,000 [31]
Barn owl 690,000,000 [31]
Monk parakeet 697,000,000 [31]
Azure-winged magpie 741,000,000 [31]
Cat 760,000,000 ~1×10^13 [37]
Black-rumped agouti 857,000,000 [29]
Magpie 897,000,000 [31]
Common hill myna 906,000,000 [31]
Northern greater galago 936,000,000 [34]
Western jackdaw 968,000,000 [31]
Eurasian jay 1,085,000,000 [31]
Alexandrine parakeet 1,096,000,000 [31]
Tanimbar corella 1,161,000,000 [31]
Emu 1,335,000,000 [31]
Three-striped night monkey 1,468,000,000 [34]
Rook 1,509,000,000 [31]
Grey parrot 1,566,000,000 [31]
Capybara 1,600,000,000 [29]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 2,122,000,000 [31]
Raccoon 2,148,000,000 [35]
Kea 2,149,000,000 [31]
Raven 2,171,000,000 Brain only [31]
Domestic pig 2,220,000,000 [38]
Dog 2,253,000,000 [35]
Springbok 2,720,000,000 [38]
Blesbok 3,060,000,000 [38]
Blue-and-yellow macaw 3,136,000,000 Brain only [31]
Common squirrel monkey 3,246,000,000 [34]
Crab-eating macaque 3,440,000,000 [33]
Tufted capuchin 3,691,000,000 [34]
Bonnet macaque 3,780,000,000 [33]
Striped hyena 3,885,000,000 [35]
Lion 4,667,000,000 [35]
Greater kudu 4,910,000,000 [38]
Rhesus macaque 6,376,000,000 [34]
Brown bear 9,586,000,000 [35]
Giraffe 10,750,000,000 [38]
Yellow baboon 10,950,000,000 [33]
Orangutan 32,600,000,000 [39]
Gorilla 33,400,000,000 [39]
Human 86,000,000,000 ~1.5×10^14 Synapses for average adult [40][41][42]
African elephant 257,000,000,000 [43][44]

Cerebral cortex

Non-mammals are included in this list because, although only mammals have a cerebral cortex, the pallium of reptiles and birds is functionally similar to the mammalian cortex and is therefore also frequently referred to as "cortex".

Name Neurons in the cerebral cortex Details Image Source
Mouse 4,000,000 Genus Mus, musculus [13]
Naked mole-rat 6,150,000 H. glaber [27]
Rat 18,000,000 Genus Rattus, unknown species [45]

[46]

Gray mouse lemur 22,310,000 Microcebus murinus [33]
Hedgehog 24,000,000 Subfamily Erinaceinae, unknown genus and species [45]
Opossum 27,000,000 Family Didelphidae, unknown genus and species [45]
ferret 39,000,000 Mustela putorius furo [35]
Guinea pig 43,510,000 Cavia porcellus [27]
Eurasian blackcap 52,000,000 Sylvia atricapilla [31]
Prairie dog 53,770,000 Cynomys sp. [27]
Zebra finch 55,000,000 Taeniopygia guttata [31]
Red junglefowl 61,000,000 Gallus gallus [31]
Goldcrest 64,000,000 Regulus regulus [31]
European rabbit 71,450,000 O. cuniculus [27]
Rock dove 72,000,000 Columba livia [31]
Eastern gray squirrel 77,330,000 S. carolinensis [27]
Great tit 83,000,000 Parus major [31]
Green-rumped parrotlet 103,000,000 Forpus passerinus [31]
Black-rumped agouti 113,000,000 Dasyprocta prymnolopha [2]
Banded mongoose 116,000,000 Mungos mungo [35]
Common blackbird 136,000,000 Turdus merula [31]
Budgerigar 149,000,000 Melopsittacus undulatus [31]
Common starling 226,000,000 Sturnus vulgaris [31]
Cat 250,000,000 Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus [35]
Brown bear 251,000,000 Ursus arctos [35]
Cockatiel 258,000,000 Nymphicus hollandicus [31]
Capybara 306,500,000 Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris [27]
Tarsius 310,000,000 Genus Tarsius, unknown species [47]
Eastern rosella 333,000,000 Platycercus eximius [31]
Goeldi's marmoset 357,130,000 Callimico goeldii [33]
Monk parakeet 396,000,000 Myiopsitta monachus [31]
Springbok 396,900,000 Antidorcas marsupialis [38]
Azure-winged magpie 400,000,000 Cyanopica cyanus [31]
Common hill myna 410,000,000 Gracula religiosa [31]
Domesticated pig 425,000,000 Sus scrofa [48]
Squirrel monkey 430,000,000 Genus Saimiri, unknown species [49]
Barn owl 437,000,000 Tyto alba [31]
Emu 439,000,000 Dromaius novaehollandiae [31]
Three-striped night monkey 442,000,000 Aotus trivirgatus [2]
Eurasian magpie 443,000,000 Pica pica [31]
Raccoon 453,000,000 Procyon lotor [50]
Western jackdaw 492,000,000 Coloeus monedula [31]
Striped hyena 495,000,000 Hyaena hyaena [35]
Eurasian jay 529,000,000 Garrulus glandarius [31]
Dog 530,000,000 Canis lupus familiaris [35]
Lion 545,000,000 Panthera leo [35]
Blesbok 570,670,000 Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi [38]
Alexandrine parakeet 575,000,000 Psittacula eupatria [31]
Tanimbar corella 599,000,000 Cacatua goffiniana [31]
Gracile capuchin monkey 650,000,000 Genus Cebus, unknown species [49]
Greater kudu 762,570,000 Tragelaphus strepsiceros [38]
Crab-eating macaque 800,960,000 Macaca fascicularis [33]
Rook 820,000,000 Corvus frugilegus [31]
Grey parrot 850,000,000 Psittacus erithacus [31]
Tufted capuchin 1,100,000,000 Sapajus apella [2]
Sulphur-crested cockatoo 1,135,000,000 Cacatua galerita [31]
Horse 1,200,000,000 Equus ferus caballus [28]
Raven 1,200,000,000 Corvus corax [31]
Kea 1,281,000,000 Nestor notabilis [31]
Bonnet macaque 1,660,000,000 Macaca radiata [33]
Rhesus macaque 1,710,000,000 Macaca mulatta [51]
Giraffe 1,730,000,000 Giraffa camelopardalis [38]
Blue and yellow macaw 1,900,000,000 Ara ararauna [31]
Guenon 2,500,000,000 Genus Cercopithecus, unknown species [47]
Yellow baboon 2,880,000,000 Papio cynocephalus [33]
African elephant 5,600,000,000 Genus Loxodonta, unknown species [43]
Harp seal 6,100,000,000 Pagophilus groenlandicus [52]
Chimpanzee 6,200,000,000 Genus Pan, unknown species [13]
Orangutan 8,900,000,000 Genus Pongo, unknown species [39]
Gorilla 9,100,000,000 Genus Gorilla, unknown species [39]
False killer whale 10,500,000,000 Pseudorca crassidens [28]
Common minke whale 12,800,000,000 Balaenoptera acutorostrata [53]
Harbor porpoise 14,900,000,000 Phocoena phocoena [52]
Fin whale 15,000,000,000 Balaenoptera physalus [54]
Human 16,000,000,000 For average adult
"The human cerebral cortex, with an average 1233 g and 16 billion neurons, is slightly below expectations for a primate brain of 1.5 kg, while the human cerebellum, at 154 g and 69 billion neurons, matches or even slightly exceeds the expected"
[40][2][55]
Long-finned pilot whale 37,200,000,000 Globicephala melas: "For the first time, we show that a species of dolphin has more neocortical neurons than any mammal studied to date including humans." [56]

See also

References

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