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List of ancient Baltic peoples and tribes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of ancient Baltic peoples and tribes.

Background

This is a list of the ancient Baltic peoples and tribes. They spoke the Baltic languages (members of the broader Balto-Slavic), a branch of the Indo-European language family, which was originally spoken by tribes living in area east of Jutland peninsula, southern Baltic Sea coast in the west and Moscow, Oka and Volga rivers basins in the east, to the northwest of the Eurasian steppe. Modern descendants are the Lithuanians and Latvians (they themselves assimilated other related Baltic tribes).

List of ancient Baltic peoples and tribes (table)

Groups Peoples / Nations Tribes Languages Land / Region / Localities
Eastern Balts Dniepr Balts Neuri? (mentioned by Herodotus; possibly a Baltic or Slavic tribe) Unknown Dnieper basin (north of the Pontic Eurasian steppe)
Oka Balts Eastern Galindians Unknown Upper courses of the Dniepr and Oka rivers basins, including Moscow region
Eastern (Middle) Balts Latvians (Latvieši) Latgalians (Latgaļi) Old Latgalian Latvia, Latgalia (Latgola) - Adzele, Gersika or Jersika (Alene, Autine, Casvaine, Ērgļi, Gerdene, Jersika Proper, Lerene, Mārksne, Negeste, Osota, Preiļi), Kūknuojs and Eastern Vāina,

Lotygola or Latgalia Proper (Īdeņa, Ludza, Rēzne, Varka), Pītuolova (Ābelene, Abrene, Bērzene, Purnava) and Tuolova or Tālava (Gulbene, Imera, Piebalga, Smiltene, Trikāta and Idumaa and Vendi)

Lithuanians (Lietuviai) Aukštaitians ("Highlanders") Old Lithuanian (Old Aukštaitian) Aukštaitija - Alšėnai, Deltuva, Lietuva (Lithuania Proper or Lietuvos Žemė),

Nalšia and Nerija

Samogitians ("Lowlanders") Old Lithuanian (Old Samogitian) Samogitia (Žemaitija) - Gaižuva, Karšuva, Knituva, Kulenė, Milžava, Šiauliai (Šiaulių Žemė),

Medininkai and Upytė (Upytės Žemė)

Prussian Lithuanians (Lietuvininkai) Old Lithuanian Lithuania Minor (Mažoji Lietuva)
Transitional Balts[1] Curonians Curonian Curonia or Courland (Kurzeme, Kursa) - Bandava, Ceklis, Curonian Spit (Kuršu kāpas) and Vistula Spit, Duvzare, Megava, Piemare, Pīlsats, Vanema or Miera Kursa, Ventava
Selonians Selonian Selonia (Sēlija) - Alektene, Kalvene, Maleisine, Medene, Pelone, Tovrakste
Semigallians Semigallian Semigalia (Zemgale) - Dobele or Duobele, Dobene or Duobe, Guosta Galis, Mežotne, Nogailene, Plāne, Putelene, Sidabre, Silene, Šiurpe, Spārnene, Tērvete, Upmale, Žagare
Western Balts Yotvingians Yotvingian Yotvingia - Dainava or Dzukija, Jotva or Yotva, Paleksija or Palenke and Sudovia (Sūdava)
Prussians (Prūsai) Scalovians Scalovian Scalovia and Lamata
Bartians Prussian Bartia
Lubavians Prussian Lubavia
Nadruvians Prussian Nadruvia
Natangians Prussian Natangia
Pogesanians Prussian Pogesania
Pomesanians Prussian Pomesania and Kulmerland
Sambians Prussian Sambia
Sasnans Prussian Sasna
Warmians or Varmians Prussian Warmia
Western Galindians Galindian Galindia (Western)
Pomeranian Balts Unknown Unknown Pomerania

Extinct

Ancestors

List of Ancient Baltic peoples and tribes (kinship tree)

Map 2: Distribution area of Baltic hydronyms. This area is considered the urheimat of the Balts.
Map 2: Distribution area of Baltic hydronyms. This area is considered the urheimat of the Balts.
Map 3: Baltic archaeological cultures in the Iron Age from 600 BC to 200 BC. .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Sambian-Nothangian group   Western Masurian group (Galindians?)   Eastern Masurian group (Yotvingians)   Lower Neman and West-Latvian group (Curonians)   Brushed Pottery culture   Milograd culture   Plain-Pottery culture, AKA Dnepr-Dvina culture   Pomeranian culture   Bell-shaped burials group
Map 3: Baltic archaeological cultures in the Iron Age from 600 BC to 200 BC.
  Sambian-Nothangian group
  Western Masurian group (Galindians?)
  Eastern Masurian group (Yotvingians)
  Lower Neman and West-Latvian group (Curonians)
  Brushed Pottery culture
  Plain-Pottery culture, AKA Dnepr-Dvina culture
  Bell-shaped burials group
Map 4: Eastern Europe in 3-4th century CE with archeological cultures identified as Baltic-speaking in purple. Their area extended from the Baltic Sea to modern Moscow region.
Map 4: Eastern Europe in 3-4th century CE with archeological cultures identified as Baltic-speaking in purple. Their area extended from the Baltic Sea to modern Moscow region.
Map 5: During the Migration Period in 5-6th century CE, the area of archeological cultures identified as Baltic is becoming more fragmented.
Map 5: During the Migration Period in 5-6th century CE, the area of archeological cultures identified as Baltic is becoming more fragmented.
Map 6: By the 7th–8th century CE, only Eastern Galindians remain in the east within the Slavic territory.
Map 6: By the 7th–8th century CE, only Eastern Galindians remain in the east within the Slavic territory.
Map 7: Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE. The Eastern Balts are shown in brown hues while the Western Balts are shown in green. The boundaries are approximate.
Map 7: Distribution of the Baltic tribes, circa 1200 CE. The Eastern Balts are shown in brown hues while the Western Balts are shown in green. The boundaries are approximate.

Hypothetical Ancient Baltic peoples and tribes

Notes

  1. ^ Bojtár page 207.

External links

  • Gimbutas, Marija (1963). The Balts. London, New York: Thames & Hudson, Gabriella. Archived from the original on 20 August 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-06. E-book of the original.
  • Baranauskas, Tomas (2003). "Forum of Lithuanian History". Historija.net. Archived from the original on 6 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
  • Sabaliauskas, Algirdas (1998). "We, the Balts". Postilla 400. Samogitian Cultural Association. Archived from the original on 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2008-09-05.
  • Straižys, Vytautas; Libertas Klimka (1997). "The Cosmology of ancient Balts". www.astro.lt. Retrieved 2008-09-05.
This page was last edited on 9 April 2022, at 20:43
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