To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
Languages
Recent
Show all languages
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

List of ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Spain

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

British embassy in Madrid until 2008
British embassy in Madrid until 2008

The Ambassador of the United Kingdom to Spain is the United Kingdom's foremost diplomatic representative in the Kingdom of Spain, and in charge of the UK's diplomatic mission in Spain. The official title is Her Britannic Majesty's Ambassador to the Kingdom of Spain.

The British ambassador to Spain is also non-resident ambassador to the Principality of Andorra.

In 1822, Foreign Secretary George Canning downgraded the Embassy to a Mission, and the Head of Mission from an Ambassador to an Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, to reflect Spain's decreased importance on the world stage. The Mission in Madrid was upgraded to a full Embassy once more on 9 December 1887.[1]

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/2
    Views:
    1 435 244
    556
  • ✪ Is the European Union a Country?
  • ✪ ESL Special Programs - Cultural Ambassadors

Transcription

This is a Wendover Productions video in collaboration with Real Life Lore and made possible by Lootcrate. Is the European Union a country? It’s a bit of strange question, with an easy answer but a difficult explanation. The answer is no. The European Union is not a country, but… you can move between countries without passing through border control, work between countries without a Visa, and they use the same currency, and there are elections to a single parliament, and there’s a single government, and there are official languages, and a single economic market, a single aviation market, and… this is beginning to sound awfully like… a country. Let’s do a 90 second recap of how the EU works. This is the European Union. There are 28 member states including the UK which has voted to leave the EU, but just hasn’t yet gone through the process to leave. Of those, these are in the Schengen Zone meaning that there are no border controls between them. That means that a typical border crossing in the EU looks like this. These four are legally obliged to be in the Schengen Zone but just aren’t, and these two have opt-outs in their treaties that exempt them from being in the Schengen Zone. These countries are part of the Eurozone meaning the euro is their sole legal currency. These guys are obliged to join the Eurozone once they reach a certain economic target, which they haven’t, and these two have opt-outs exempting them from the Eurozone. Each member country of the European Union elects its own Members of the European Parliament, known as MEPs, but the Parliament can’t make laws by itself. Laws are proposed by the European Commission, who kinda work like an executive branch. They then go to the Parliament who, if they approve it, send it to the council of the European Union. While the Parliament represents the people of the European Union since the MEPs are elected by direct election, the Council represents the Governments since its made up of a rotating roster of national ministers. If a proposed piece of legislation makes it through both the Parliament and Council of Europe, it becomes law. So that’s how the European Union works, at least a massively simplified version, but how do countries work… or rather, what makes a country a country. Well calling a country a country is a bit misleading because the word “country” can mean a lot of things. What you’re probably thinking of when I say country is sovereign states—France, Japan, the US, etc—but there are non-sovereign states that are countries. Scotland is a country, indisputably, but it’s not a sovereign state. It’s a part of the Sovereign State of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. So, once again, what makes a country a country? Well, there’s something called the Declaratory Theory of Statehood that sets out four criteria for statehood. The first is “a permanent population”—a country is not a country without people so it needs people in its territory permanently. The EU easily has this. More than half a billion people live within its borders. If it were a country, it would be the third most populous on earth and have one of the second highest gdps in the world. The second requirement is a defined territory. It’s a common misconception that a new country can only form on unclaimed territory—according to the declaratory theory a sovereign state can be created in an area where another sovereign state already exists. Just look at North and South Korea—both claim the territory of each other and yet they’re both sovereign states. The European Union has a territory, but its a bit fuzzy. Any territory that you can call EU territory is also territory of other entities, the countries that make up the EU. But that doesn’t necessarily stop the EU from having a territory. Going back to the example of the UK, the official sovereign state—the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland—really doesn’t have any of its own territory. Any territory of the UK is part of England, Wales, Scotland, or Northern Ireland—each countries by themselves. The US is in a similar situation. States act kinda-like mini-countries and there really is no federal territory that is not part of a state’s territory. Especially given its open border policy, the EU’s territory is in function indistinguishable from that of any sovereign state. The third requirement is a government and the government can’t just be a puppet of another sovereign state. The government needs to have whats called “an essential core of independence.” As I’ve mentioned, the EU has a government but for a few reasons the EU government is different from that a sovereign state. Here’s the problem, the EU’s government is not independent. The power comes from below, as in the power comes from the member states. The power of most sovereign states also comes from below, but in that case its the people that give a state power. In the case of the EU, since power is granted by sovereign states, those states are really above the EU in power and therefore the EU government is a subservient government. That violates the criteria for a truly independent government. Although, what’s the difference between this and UK government then—the country of countries? The United Kingdom is also made up of countries so isn’t their government subservient? Well, in the EU, there is a system and structure to leaving, whereas in the United Kingdom or really any other country, the entities within the sovereign states cannot leave without a change in government structure and procedure. When parts of sovereign states leave sovereign states, they do so typically without a legal right but rather a moral right. It’s called “the Right to Revolution” according to the philosopher John Locke. When a government no longer serves the people, as in it fails to protect the rights of the people or becomes the entity that people need protection from, there is a near universal moral understanding that the people can either overthrow or leave that government. Members of the EU can choose whether or not to continue membership on a legal basis rather than a moral one. The whole structure and system was set up by the member states, so even though it is overseeing the states, the power originates from the states it oversees. The continued existence of the EU relies on the will of its members to continue the system. That is never the case with an independent government. That being said, while the origin of power may be different, the EU government functions in most ways like any other government. It has different branches, agencies, economic systems, leaders, and more, so while its different, the EU does partially fulfill the government requirement for statehood. The last criteria for statehood outlined in the Declaratory Theory is “the capacity to enter into relations with other states” and the EU absolutely has this. There are ambassadors to the EU, ambassadors of the EU, embassies of the EU, embassies to the EU, intergovernmental organizations between the EU and non-EU countries, treaties between the EU and non-EU countries, and more. While most foreign relations are handled by individual member countries, there are absolutely foreign relations of the EU as a whole. So, the European Union has fulfilled each criteria for sovereign statehood on out list, but it still isn’t a state. Here’s the problem: statehood, as in being a sovereign country, is not a natural phenomenon. No part of nature creates countries. You can call salt salt if it’s made of Sodium Chloride. That’s the requirement for salt being salt and we can’t change that. That how nature makes salt. We created the idea of countries. They’re a social construct, so society decides what is a sovereign country and what is not. While we can lay down a number of requisites for statehood, they are just guidelines to achieve the final goal—society’s acceptance of a country. We can’t just say these criteria make a country a country unless individuals believe in those criteria since countries, like all social constructs, only work if there’s a collective belief and following of that system. It’s similar to money. Money only works if everyone believes that pieces of paper equal value. Countries only work if everyone believes that certain imaginary lines separate who and what leads people. In the case of statehood, you can’t just ask every person in society whether or not they think a country is a sovereign country. There are socially accepted countries already and therefore those act as a proxy for society to decide whether a country is sovereign or not. A countries sovereignty is judged off of how many other sovereign countries recognize its sovereignty. The European Union is not a sovereign state because nobody accepts it as one. While it may function in many ways like a sovereign country, it is not one because sovereignty is neither its goal or desire. This shows you just how difficult it is to define what a country is. Supranational organizations like the EU act like countries, but at the same time… so do some subnational entities—as in parts of countries. Most specifically in the US. (Joseph’s part) States have a level of sovereignty that blur the line between what is part of a sovereign country and a county itself. What is the difference between a state in the United States and a country. They fulfill almost all the criteria that you just heard about so that’s why I asked the question in collaboration with Wendover Productions “Is the United States a Country” over on my channel Real Life Lore. Please do be sure to check that out, it’s a great video from a great channel. A lot of you ask how you can support the channel and I have a great, fun way courtesy of Lootcrate. Lootcrate is a monthly mystery crate that brings collectibles, apparel, tech gadgets, art, and other gear right to your door. They have a bunch of different themes to suit what you like, and if you sign up using the link trylootcrate.com/wendover you’ll support the channel so I can keep doing better and better videos. On top of that, if you use that link, you can take 10% off by using the coupon code bridge10. These boxes are a fantastic deal. Each has more than $45 worth of gear for as low as $11.95 a month plus shipping. Thats the cost of about four cups of coffee. It’s a great gift for Christmas, or a great way to reward yourself. Once again, if you sign up using the link trylootcrate.com/wendover and the code bridge10, you’ll get 10% and help support Wendover Productions. Other than that, you can also help this channel by contributing on Patreon where 100% of the funds go right back into the channel. I even release expense reports at the end of each month. You can also get great rewards over there like early access to videos, stickers, hand-written letters, and most recently, t-shirts. You can also order a t-shirt by itself for only $20 through DFTBA. The link is here and also in the description. Other than that, please make sure to follow me on Twitter @WendoverPro, watch my last video on Every Country in the World here, check out my fan-moderated subreddit here, and most of all, subscribe to this channel to receive all my future videos right when they come out. Lastly, this is the final Wendover Productions video of 2016 and I want to sincerely than every one of you for your amazing support. I started this year with about 3,000 subscribers and now I’m almost at 300,000. It’s been an awesome year all thanks to you guys. Happy Holidays, and I’ll see you in 2017 for the best year of videos you’ve ever seen.

List of heads of mission

The following is a partial list of British ambassadors to Spain.

Titles of the heads of mission:

  • From 1509 to 1683: Ambassador
  • From 1683 to 1710: Envoy Extraordinary
  • From 1711 to 1821: Ambassador
  • From 1822 to 1887: Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
  • Since 1887: Ambassador
Appointed/accreditation Envoy Remarks Monarch Envoy to Left post
1505 John Stile[2] Resident Ambassador;[3] left 1511, returned later Henry VIII of England Ferdinand II of Aragon 16 June 1518
3 June 1512 William Knight[4] Commissioned with John Stile to treat with Ferdinand of Aragon about the defence of the Church Henry VIII of England Ferdinand II of Aragon 1 September 1513
15 July 1517 Sir Thomas Spinelly[5] Resident Ambassador Henry VIII of England Charles I of Spain 1522
28 February 1518 John Kite[6]
John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners[7]
Special mission to form an alliance between Henry VIII and Charles of Spain Henry VIII of England Charles I of Spain 1 March 1519
1533 Richard Pate Resident Ambassador Henry VIII of England Charles I of Spain 1537
1537 Sir Thomas Wyatt[8] Resident Ambassador Henry VIII of England Charles I of Spain 1539
12 March 1554 John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford
Thomas Radclyffe, 3rd Earl of Sussex
Mission to arrange marriage of Mary I and Philip II Mary I of England Philip II of Spain 20 July 1554
12 January 1560 Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu Elizabeth I of England Philip II of Spain 24 June 1560
24 June 1560 Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu
Sir Thomas Chamberlain[9]
Elizabeth I of England Philip II of Spain 24 June 1562
30 September 1561 Thomas Chaloner Resident Ambassador Elizabeth I of England Philip II of Spain 15 May 1565
5 March 1565 William Phayre Chargé d'affaires Elizabeth I of England Philip II of Spain 4 April 1566
12 January 1566 John Man[10] Resident Ambassador Elizabeth I of England Philip II of Spain 5 October 1568
18 November 1576 Sir John Smith[11][12] Special mission Elizabeth I of England Philip II of Spain 28 July 1577
December 1577 Thomas Wilkes[13] Special mission Elizabeth I of England Philip II of Spain February 1578
May 1579 Edward Wotton, 1st Baron Wotton Elizabeth I of England Philip II of Spain
January 1583 William Wade Elizabeth I of England Philip II of Spain August 1584
1584 Thomas Wilson Elizabeth I of England Philip II of Spain
2 March 1605 Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham Ambassador Extraordinary Audience: 18. May 1605 Secretary Robert Treswell This was the mission that ceremonially re-inaugurated diplomatic relations. James VI and I Philip III of Spain 4 July 1577
1605 Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington James VI and I Philip III of Spain
1605 Charles Cornwallis[14] James VI and I Philip III of Spain 1609
1608 John Digby, 1st Earl of Bristol James VI and I Philip III of Spain
1609 Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington[15] James VI and I Philip III of Spain 1611
1609 Peter Wyche James VI and I Philip IV of Spain 1611
1616 William Cecil, 17th Baron de Ros James VI and I Philip III of Spain
1617 John Digby, 1st Earl of Bristol[16] kinsman of John Digby, 1st Earl of Bristol James VI and I Philip IV of Spain 1618
1617 John Digby, 1st Earl of Bristol James VI and I Philip III of Spain
1618 Walter Aston, 1st Lord Aston of Forfar James VI and I Philip III of Spain
1622 Mr. Hole Mr. Hole, the secretary of the ambassador, John Digby, 1st Earl of Bristol, having died at Santander, Cantabria in 1622, the body was not allowed to be buried at all; it was put into a shell, and sunk in the sea ; but no sooner was his lordship gone, than the fishermen, we quote from Somers' Tracts, fearing that they should catch no fish as long as the coffin of a heretic lay in their waters, fished it up, and the corpse of our countryman and brother was thrown above ground, to be devoured by the fowls of the air.[17] James VI and I Philip IV of Spain
1622 Simon Digby (fl. 1620–1640s) (fl. 1620–1640s), James VI and I resident ambassador in Vienna (May 1621–Dec. 1622) : asserts succession of Electoral dignity from House Palatine to Bavaria James VI and I Philip IV of Spain 1640
1622 John Digby, 1st Earl of Bristol James VI and I Philip IV of Spain
1623 Endymion Porter James VI and I Philip IV of Spain
1624 Stephen Gardiner James VI and I Philip IV of Spain
1 March 1625 Peter Wyche Charles I of England Philip IV of Spain 30 April 1626
11 August 1628 Endymion Porter Charles I of England Philip IV of Spain 5 January 1629
1 July 1629 Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington Ambassador Extraordinary Charles I of England Philip IV of Spain 20 April 1631
18 December 1630 Arthur Hopton born in 1588 and died in 1650 Charles I of England Philip IV of Spain 23 April 1636
13 July 1634 John Taylor Charles I of England Philip IV of Spain 24 May 1635
26 December 1634 Walter Aston, 1st Lord Aston of Forfar Charles I of England Philip IV of Spain 31 July 1638
April 1638 Sir Richard Fanshawe, 1st Baronet Chargé d'affaires Charles I of England Philip IV of Spain 10 June 1638
21 March 1638 Arthur Hopton born in 1588 and died in 1650 Charles I of England Philip IV of Spain December 1645
25 January 1650 Anthony Ascham Ambassador sent by Rump Parliament born 27 May 1650, assassinated by Royalists English Council of State Philip IV of Spain 27 May 1650
27 May 1650 George Fisher English Council of State Philip IV of Spain 26 September 1651
February 1657 Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington He was sent as Charles's agent to Spain, where he endeavoured to obtain assistance for the royal cause, till after the Restoration. He was not recognized as ambassador by Oliver Cromwell's government. Charles, Prince of Wales (in exile) Philip IV of Spain 1 May 1661
20 December 1659 George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol Charles II of England Philip IV of Spain 1 May 1661
20 February 1666 Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich Charles II of England Charles II of Spain 11 October 1668
26 February 1666 Robert Southwell Charles II of England Charles II of Spain 22 June 1666
10 July 1668 Sir John Werden, 1st Baronet Chargé d'affaires born in 1640 and died in 1716 Charles II of England Charles II of Spain 10 June 1668
10 July 1668 William Godolphin Charles II of England Charles II of Spain 10 June 1668
21 November 1671 Robert Spencer, 2nd Earl of Sunderland Secretary: Thomas Clifford, 1st Baron Clifford of Chudleigh Charles II of England Charles II of Spain 20 May 1672
29 June 1677 Ignatius White Charles II of England Charles II of Spain October 1677
12 June 1679 Sir Henry Goodricke, 2nd Baronet[18] Envoy Extraordinary Charles II of England Charles II of Spain 27 March 1683
10 December 1682 Peter Lefett (fl. 1680s) Charles II of England Charles II of Spain 16 November 1685
13 May 1685 Charles Granville, 2nd Earl of Bath Envoy Extraordinary Charles II of England Charles II of Spain December 1688
13 May 1685 John Stafford Envoy Extraordinary (fl. 1680s) James II of England Charles II of Spain December 1688
May 1689 Viscount Dursley Envoy Extraordinary Mary II of England Charles II of Spain August 1689
1689 Alexander Stanhope[19] Envoy Extraordinary Mary II of England Charles II of Spain 1699
1699 Francis Schonenberg[20] Dutch envoy with British credentials William III of England Charles II of Spain 1702
1702 War of the Spanish Succession No diplomatic relations William III of England Philip V of Spain 1702
1705 Mitford Crowe[21] Envoy to Catalonia Anne, Queen of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1706
1705 Paul Methuen Envoy Extraordinary Anne, Queen of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1706
1706 Charles Mordaunt, 3rd Earl of Peterborough,

James Stanhope, 1st Earl Stanhope (joint envoys)[22][23]

{Ambassador Extraordinary


{Envoy Extraordinary

Anne, Queen of Great Britain Charles III of Hungary {1707


{1710

1711 John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll[24] Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary Anne, Queen of Great Britain Charles III of Hungary 1712
1712 Robert Sutton, 2nd Baron Lexinton[25] Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary Anne, Queen of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1713
1713 Robert Benson, 1st Baron Bingley[26] Ambassador extraordinary Anne, Queen of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1714
1714 Paul Methuen Envoy Extraordinary Anne, Queen of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1715
1715 George Dodington, 1st Baron Melcombe Envoy Extraordinary George I of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1717
1717 John Chetwynd, 2nd Viscount Chetwynd George I of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1718
1718 War of the Quadruple Alliance George I of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1720
1720 Luke Schaub Chargé d'affaires[19] George I of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1720
1720 William Stanhope, 1st Earl of Harrington Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, 1721 Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary George I of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1727
1727 Anglo-Spanish War (1727–29) George I of Great Britain Philip V of Spain
1729 Benjamin Keene Minister Plenipotentiary, 1734 Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary[19] George II of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1739
1739 War of Jenkins' Ear George II of Great Britain Philip V of Spain 1748
1748 Sir Benjamin Keene Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary George II of Great Britain Ferdinand VI of Spain 1757
1758 George Hervey, 2nd Earl of Bristol Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary George II of Great Britain Ferdinand VI of Spain 1761
1761 Anglo-Spanish War (1761) George III of the United Kingdom Charles III of Spain 1763
19 February 1763 John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich appointed but did not go[27] George III of the United Kingdom Charles III of Spain
1763 William Nassau de Zuylestein, 4th Earl of Rochford[28] Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary George III of the United Kingdom Charles III of Spain 1766
1766 Sir James Gray, 2nd Baronet[19][29] Ambassador Extraordinary George III of the United Kingdom Charles III of Spain 1769
1770 George Pitt, 1st Baron Rivers[30] Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary George III of the United Kingdom Charles III of Spain 1771
1771 James Harris[31] Minister Plenipotentiary ad interim George III of the United Kingdom Charles III of Spain
1771 Thomas Robinson, 2nd Baron Grantham Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary George III of the United Kingdom Charles III of Spain 1779
1779 Anglo-Spanish War (1779-1783) George III of the United Kingdom Charles III of Spain 1783
1783 John Crichton-Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute appointed ambassador but did not take up the post until 1795[32] George III of the United Kingdom Charles III of Spain
1783 Robert Liston Minister Plenipotentiary[19][29] George III of the United Kingdom Charles III of Spain 1788
1784 Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl of Chesterfield George III of the United Kingdom Charles III of Spain 1785
1788 William Eden, 1st Baron Auckland[19][33] George III of the United Kingdom Charles IV of Spain 1790
1790 Alleyne FitzHerbert, 1st Baron St Helens George III of the United Kingdom Charles IV of Spain 1794
1794 Francis James Jackson Minister Plenipotentiary ad interim[33] George III of the United Kingdom Charles IV of Spain 1795
1795 John Crichton-Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute George III of the United Kingdom Charles IV of Spain 1796
1796 No diplomatic relations George III of the United Kingdom Charles IV of Spain 1802
1802 John Hookham Frere [33] George III of the United Kingdom Charles IV of Spain 1804
1808 Charles Stuart Special Mission to Junta of Galicia George III of the United Kingdom Ferdinand VII of Spain 1808
1808 John Hookham Frere [33] George III of the United Kingdom Ferdinand VII of Spain 1808
1809 Richard Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley George III of the United Kingdom Ferdinand VII of Spain 1809
1810 Henry Wellesley [33] George III of the United Kingdom Ferdinand VII of Spain 1821
1822 William à Court, 1st Baron Heytesbury George IV of the United Kingdom Ferdinand VII of Spain
1825 Frederick Lamb, 3rd Viscount Melbourne George IV of the United Kingdom Ferdinand VII of Spain
5 December 1827 George Bosanquet Chargé d'Affaires[33] George IV of the United Kingdom Ferdinand VII of Spain 1830
1830 Henry Unwin Addington [33] George IV of the United Kingdom Ferdinand VII of Spain 1833
1833 George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon [33] William IV of the United Kingdom Isabella II of Spain 1839
1839 George Jerningham Queen Victoria Isabella II of Spain
1840 Sir Arthur Ingram Aston [33] Queen Victoria Isabella II of Spain 1843
1843 George Jerningham Chargé d'Affaires, Secretary of Legation The Hon. George SS Jerningham, son of George William Jerningham, 8th Baron Stafford (see Baron Stafford) Queen Victoria Isabella II of Spain
1844 Henry Bulwer, 1st Baron Dalling and Bulwer Queen Victoria Isabella II of Spain 19 May 1848
19 May 1848 Revolutions of 1848 Relations suspended, Bulwer, 1st Baron Dalling and Bulwer served there until Ramón María Narváez y Campos, Duke of Valencia instructed him to leave in 1848, being accused of implicating liberal risings against the former's conservative government. Queen Victoria Isabella II of Spain 1850
1850 John Hobart Caradoc, 2nd Baron Howden Queen Victoria Isabella II of Spain
1858 Sir Andrew Buchanan, 1st Baronet Queen Victoria Isabella II of Spain
1860 John Fiennes Twisleton Crampton Queen Victoria Isabella II of Spain
1869 Austen Henry Layard Queen Victoria Francisco Serrano, 1st Duke of la Torre
1878 Lionel Sackville-West, 2nd Baron Sackville Queen Victoria Alfonso XII of Spain
1881 Robert Morier Queen Victoria Alfonso XII of Spain
1884 Francis Clare Ford Queen Victoria Alfonso XII of Spain 1887
1887 Francis Clare Ford Queen Victoria Alfonso XIII of Spain 1892
1892 Henry Drummond Wolff Queen Victoria Alfonso XIII of Spain 1900
1900 Henry Mortimer Durand Queen Victoria Alfonso XIII of Spain 1903
1903 Edwin Henry Egerton born in November 1841 and died in 1916) QCMQ, KCB, Envoy 1892-1903 Athenes, 1905-1908: Rome Edward VII Alfonso XIII of Spain 1904
1904 Arthur Nicolson, 1st Baron Carnock Edward VII Alfonso XIII of Spain 1905
February 1906 Maurice William Ernest de Bunsen GCMG, G.CV.O., CB (Feb. 1906.) B. '52; E. Rugby and Christ Church, Oxford; Edward VII Alfonso XIII of Spain 1913
1913 Arthur Henry Hardinge George V Alfonso XIII of Spain
1919 Esme Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Penrith George V Alfonso XIII of Spain 1919
1924 Sir Horace Rumbold, 9th Baronet George V Alfonso XIII of Spain
1928 George Dixon Grahame George V Alfonso XIII of Spain
1935 Henry Chilton George V Niceto Alcalá-Zamora
27 February 1939 Maurice Peterson George V Francisco Franco 1940
1940 Samuel Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood MI6: Hugh Pollard (Major) George VI Francisco Franco
1945 Sir Victor Mallet George VI Francisco Franco
1946 Sir Douglas Howard Chargé d'affaires George VI Francisco Franco 1949
10 November 1949 Robert Hankey, 2nd Baron Hankey Chargé d'affaires George VI Francisco Franco 1950
1951 Sir John Balfour George VI Francisco Franco 1954
1954 Sir William Ivo Mallet Elizabeth II Francisco Franco 1960
1960 Sir George Labouchère Elizabeth II Francisco Franco
1966 Sir Alan Meredith Williams Elizabeth II Francisco Franco
1969 Sir John Russell Elizabeth II Francisco Franco
1974 Sir Charles Wiggin Elizabeth II Francisco Franco 1977
1977 Sir Antony Acland Elizabeth II Juan Carlos I of Spain
1980 Sir Richard Parsons Elizabeth II Juan Carlos I of Spain
1984 Lord Nicholas Gordon-Lennox Elizabeth II Juan Carlos I of Spain 1989
1989 Sir Robin Fearn Elizabeth II Juan Carlos I of Spain
1994 David Brighty Elizabeth II Juan Carlos I of Spain
1998 Sir Peter Torry Elizabeth II Juan Carlos I of Spain 1998
2003 Sir Stephen Wright Elizabeth II Juan Carlos I of Spain
2007 Dame Denise Holt Elizabeth II Juan Carlos I of Spain 2009
2009 Giles Paxman Elizabeth II Juan Carlos I of Spain 2013
2013 Simon Manley[34] Elizabeth II Juan Carlos I of Spain

King Felipe VI of Spain

[35]

References

  1. ^ Chris Cook and Brendan Keith, British Historical Facts 1830-1900, Macmillan 1975, page 168
  2. ^ Hillgarth, J.N. The Mirror of Spain, 1500-1700: The Formation of a Myth, University of Michigan Press, 2000, page 11
  3. ^ In the early sixteenth century 'resident ambassador' was the usual title given to an envoy who came to 'reside' rather than on a special mission (different from the later meaning of a lower rank than an ambassador plenipotentiary). Sometimes an emvoy would be sent on a special mission but would stay on and become a formal or informal resident ambassador.
  4. ^ "Knight, William (1476-1547)" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  5. ^ Behrens, Betty The Office of the English Resident Ambassador: Its Evolution as Illustrated by the Career of Sir Thomas Spinelly, 1509-22, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fourth Series, Vol. 16, (1933), pp.161-195
  6. ^ "Kite, John" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  7. ^ "Bourchier, John (1467-1533)" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  8. ^ "Wyatt, Thomas (1503?-1542)" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  9. ^ CHAMBERLAIN, Sir Thomas (c.1504-80), History of Parliament Online
  10. ^ "Man, John" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  11. ^ "Smith, John (1534?-1607)" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  12. ^ Froude, James A., History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Defeat of the Spanish Armada, John Parker & Son, London, 1870, reprinted Cambridge University Press, 2011, volume XI, pp64-68
  13. ^ "Wilkes, Thomas" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  14. ^ Chris R. Kyle, ‘Cornwallis, Sir Charles (c.1555–1629)’, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" (Oxford University Press, 2004), [1], accessed 1 Feb 2011.
  15. ^ Fiona Pogson, ‘Cottington, Francis, first Baron Cottington (1579?–1652)’, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography" (Oxford University Press, 2004),[2], accessed 1 Feb 2011.
  16. ^ , Sir John 1617 Digby sailed for Spain with his kinsman, Sir John, who was English ambassador at Madrid. They returned together 27 April 1618. DIGBY (George lord) son of John, earl of Bristol, was born during his father's embassy to Madrid in 1612.David L. Smith, ‘Digby, John, first earl of Bristol (1580–1653)’, "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", (Oxford University Press, 2004), [3], accessed 1 Feb 2011.
  17. ^ Richard Ford (writer), Gatherings from Spain, chapter 18, LUTHERAN BURIAL, page 253
  18. ^ J. D. Davies, ‘Goodricke, Sir Henry, second baronet (1642–1705)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 [4], accessed 10 April 2009
  19. ^ a b c d e f Horn, D.B., British Diplomatic Representatives 1689-1789 (Camden 3rd Ser. 46, 1932)
  20. ^ McLachlan, Jean O., Trade and Peace with Old Spain, 1667-1750, Cambridge University Press, 1940, page 38
  21. ^ Davies, J.D. "Crowe, Mitford". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/6819.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  22. ^ Davenport, Frances G. & Paullin, Charles O.,European Treaties Bearing on the History of the United States and Its Dependencies, Lawbook Exchange, 2012, page 123
  23. ^ Hanham, A.A. "Stanhope, James". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26248.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  24. ^ "Campbell, John (1678-1743)" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  25. ^ "Sutton, Robert (1661-1723)" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  26. ^ "Benson, Robert (1676-1731)" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  27. ^ Montagu, John, 4th Earl of Sandwich, A voyage round the Mediterranean in the years 1738 and 1739, Lockington, Allen & Co., London, 1807, page 11
  28. ^ The London Gazette, 14 June 1763
  29. ^ a b J. Haydn, Book of Dignities (1851), 83.
  30. ^ "Pitt, George" . Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900.
  31. ^ The London Gazette, 23 February 1771
  32. ^ Thorne, Roland. "Stuart, John, first marquess of Bute (1744–1814)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/64138.(Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i S. T. Bindoff, E. F. Malcolm Smith and C. K. Webster, British Diplomatic Representatives 1789-1852 (Camden 3rd Series, 50, 1934).
  34. ^ Change of Her Majesty’s Ambassador to Spain, Foreign & Commonwealth Office, 19 June 2013
  35. ^ Gary M. Bell, Handlist of British Diplomatic Representatives, 1509-1688

External links

This page was last edited on 10 June 2019, at 01:33
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.