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List of United States Senators from Louisiana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Current delegation

Louisiana was admitted to the Union on April 30, 1812, and elects senators to Class 2 and Class 3. Its current senators are Republicans John Kennedy and Bill Cassidy.

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  • ✪ Congressional Elections: Crash Course Government and Politics #6
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Transcription

Hi, I'm Craig and this is Crash Course Government and Politics, and today we're going to talk about what is, if you ask the general public, the most important part of politics: elections. If you ask me, it's hair styles. Look at Martin Van Buren's sideburns, how could he not be elected? Americans are kind of obsessed with elections, I mean when this was being recorded in early 2015, television, news and the internet were already talking about who would be Democrat and Republican candidates for president in 2016. And many of the candidates have unofficially been campaigning for years. I've been campaigning; your grandma's been campaigning. Presidential elections are exciting and you can gamble on them. Is that legal, can you gamble on them, Stan? Anyway, why we're so obsessed with them is a topic for another day. Right now I'm gonna tell you that the fixation on the presidential elections is wrong, but not because the president doesn't matter. No, today we're gonna look at the elections of the people that are supposed to matter the most, Congress. Constitutionally at least, Congress is the most important branch of government because it is the one that is supposed to be the most responsive to the people. One of the main reasons it's so responsive, at least in theory, is the frequency of elections. If a politician has to run for office often, he or she, because unlike the president we have women serving in Congress, kind of has to pay attention to what the constituents want, a little bit, maybe. By now, I'm sure that most of you have memorized the Constitution, so you recognize that despite their importance in the way we discuss politics, elections aren't really a big feature of the Constitution. Except of course for the ridiculously complex electoral college system for choosing the president, which we don't even want to think about for a few episodes. In fact, here's what the Constitution says about Congressional Elections in Article 1 Section 2: "The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature." So the Constitution does establish that the whole of the house is up for election every 2 years, and 1/3 of the senate is too, but mainly it leaves the scheduling and rules of elections up to the states. The actual rules of elections, like when the polls are open and where they actually are, as well as the registration requirements, are pretty much up to the states, subject to some federal election law. If you really want to know the rules in your state, I'm sure that someone at the Board of Elections, will be happy to explain them to you. Really, you should give them a call; they're very, very lonely. In general though, here's what we can say about American elections. First stating the super obvious, in order to serve in congress, you need to win an election. In the House of Representatives, each election district chooses a single representative, which is why we call them single-member districts. The number of districts is determined by the Census, which happens every 10 years, and which means that elections ending in zeros are super important, for reasons that I'll explain in greater detail in a future episode. It's because of gerrymandering. The Senate is much easier to figure out because both of the state Senators are elected by the entire state. It's as if the state itself were a single district, which is true for states like Wyoming, which are so unpopulated as to have only 1 representative. Sometimes these elections are called at large elections. Before the election ever happens, you need candidates. How candidates are chosen differs from state to state, but usually it has something to do with political parties, although it doesn't have to. Why are things so complicated?! What we can say is that candidates, or at least good candidates, usually have certain characteristics. Sorry America. First off, if you are gonna run for office, you should have an unblemished record, free of, oh I don't know, felony convictions or sex scandals, except maybe in Louisiana or New York. This might lead to some pretty bland candidates or people who are so calculating that they have no skeletons in their closet, but we Americans are a moral people and like our candidates to reflect our ideals rather than our reality. The second characteristic that a candidate must possess is the ability to raise money. Now some candidates are billionaires and can finance their own campaigns. But most billionaires have better things to do: buying yachts, making even more money, building money forts, buying more yachts, so they don't have time to run for office. But most candidates get their money for their campaigns by asking for it. The ability to raise money is key, especially now, because running for office is expensive. Can I get a how expensive is it? "How expensive is it?!" Well, so expensive that the prices of elections continually rises and in 2012 winners of House races spent nearly 2 million each. Senate winners spent more than 10 million. By the time this episode airs, I'm sure the numbers will be much higher like a gajillion billion million. Money is important in winning an election, but even more important, statistically, is already being in Congress. Let's go to the Thought Bubble. The person holding an office who runs for that office again is called the incumbent and has a big advantage over any challenger. This is according to political scientists who, being almost as bad at naming things as historians, refer to this as incumbency advantage. There are a number of reasons why incumbents tend to hold onto their seats in congress, if they want to. The first is that a sitting congressman has a record to run on, which we hope includes some legislative accomplishments, although for the past few Congresses, these don't seem to matter. The record might include case work, which is providing direct services to constituents. This is usually done by congressional staffers and includes things like answering questions about how to get certain government benefits or writing recommendation letters to West Point. Congressmen can also provide jobs to constituents, which is usually a good way to get them to vote for you. These are either government jobs, kind of rare these days, called patronage or indirect employment through government contracts for programs within a Congressman's district. These programs are called earmarks or pork barrel programs, and they are much less common now because Congress has decided not to use them any more, sort of. The second advantage that incumbents have is that they have a record of winning elections, which if you think about it, is pretty obvious. Being a proven winner makes it easier for a congressmen to raise money, which helps them win, and long term incumbents tend to be more powerful in Congress which makes it even easier for them to raise money and win. The Constitution give incumbents one structural advantage too. Each elected congressman is allowed $100,000 and free postage to send out election materials. This is called the franking privilege. It's not so clear how great an advantage this is in the age of the internet, but at least according to the book The Victory Lab, direct mail from candidates can be surprisingly effective. How real is this incumbency advantage? Well if you look at the numbers, it seems pretty darn real. Over the past 60 years, almost 90% of members of The House of Representatives got re-elected. The Senate has been even more volatile, but even at the low point in 1980 more than 50% of sitting senators got to keep their jobs. Thanks, Thought Bubble. You're so great. So those are some of the features of congressional elections. Now, if you'll permit me to get a little politically sciencey, I'd like to try to explain why elections are so important to the way that Congressmen and Senators do their jobs. In 1974, political scientist David Mayhew published a book in which he described something he called "The Electoral Connection." This was the idea that Congressmen were primarily motivated by the desire to get re-elected, which intuitively makes a lot of sense, even though I'm not sure what evidence he had for this conclusion. Used to be able to get away with that kind of thing I guess, clearly David may-not-hew to the rules of evidence, pun [rim shot], high five, no. Anyway Mayhew's research methodology isn't as important as his idea itself because The Electoral Connection provides a frame work for understanding congressman's activities. Mayhew divided representatives' behaviors and activities into three categories. The first is advertising; congressmen work to develop their personal brand so that they are recognizable to voters. Al D'Amato used to be know in New York as Senator Pothole, because he was able to bring home so much pork that he could actually fix New York's streets. Not by filling them with pork, money, its money, remember pork barrel spending? The second activity is credit claiming; Congressmen get things done so that they can say they got them done. A lot of case work and especially pork barrel spending are done in the name of credit claiming. Related to credit claiming, but slightly different, is position taking. This means making a public judgmental statement on something likely to be of interest to voters. Senators can do this through filibusters. Representatives can't filibuster, but they can hold hearings, publicly supporting a hearing is a way of associating yourself with an idea without having to actually try to pass legislation. And of course they can go on the TV, especially on Sunday talk shows. What's a TV, who even watches TV? Now the idea of The Electoral Connection doesn't explain every action a member of Congress takes; sometimes they actually make laws to benefit the public good or maybe solve problems, huh, what an idea! But Mayhew's idea gives us a way of thinking about Congressional activity, an analytical lens that connects what Congressmen actually do with how most of us understand Congressmen, through elections. So the next time you see a Congressmen call for a hearing on a supposed horrible scandal or read about a Senator threatening to filibuster a policy that may have significant popular support, ask yourself, "Is this Representative claiming credit or taking a position, and how will this build their brand?" In other words: what's the electoral connection and how will whatever they're doing help them get elected? This might feel a little cynical, but the reality is Mayhew's thesis often seems to fit with today's politics. Thanks for watching, see you next week. Vote for me; I'm on the TV. I'm not -- I'm on the YouTube. Crash Course: Government and Politics is produced in association with PBS Digital Studios. Support for Crash Course US Government comes from Voqal. Voqal supports nonprofits that use technology and media to advance social equity. Learn more about their mission and initiatives at Voqal.org. Crash Course is made by all of these nice people. Thanks for watching. That guy isn't nice.

Contents

List of senators

Class 2

Class 2 U.S. senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 1996, 2002, 2008, and 2014. The next election will be in 2020.

C
o
n
g
r
e
s
s

Class 3

Class 3 U.S. senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 1998, 2004, 2010, and 2016. The next election will be in 2022.

# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
e
r
m
T
e
r
m
Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
Vacant April 30, 1812 –
September 3, 1812
Louisiana did not elect its senators until four months after statehood. 1 12th 1 Louisiana did not elect its senators until four months after statehood. April 30, 1812 –
September 3, 1812
Vacant
1
Jean Noel Destrehan.jpg

Jean Noel Destréhan
Democratic-Republican September 3, 1812 –
October 1, 1812
Resigned Elected in 1812. September 3, 1812 –
March 3, 1813
Democratic-Republican Allan B. Magruder 1
Vacant October 1, 1812 –
October 8, 1812
 
2
Thomas Posey Portrait.jpg

Thomas Posey
Democratic-Republican October 8, 1812 –
February 4, 1813
Appointed to continue Destréhan's term.

Lost election to finish Destréhan's term.
3
Senator James Brown of Louisiana (1766-1835).jpg

James Brown
Democratic-Republican February 5, 1813 –
March 3, 1817
Elected to finish Destréhan's term.

Lost election to full term.
13th 2 Elected in 1813
Retired.
March 4, 1813 –
March 3, 1819
Democratic-Republican Eligius Fromentin 2
14th
4
Wcc claiborne.jpg

William C. C. Claiborne
Democratic-Republican March 4, 1817 –
November 23, 1817
Elected in 1817.

Died.
2 15th
Vacant November 23, 1817 –
January 12, 1818
 
5
H.S.Johnson.jpg

Henry Johnson
Democratic-Republican January 12, 1818 –
May 27, 1824
Elected to finish Claiborne's term.
16th 3 Elected in 1819.

Resigned to become U.S. Minister to France.
March 4, 1819 –
December 10, 1823
Democratic-
Republican
Senator James Brown of Louisiana (1766-1835).jpg

James Brown
3
17th
Adams-Clay Democratic-
Republican
Elected to full term in 1823.

Resigned to become Governor of Louisiana.
3 18th Adams-Clay Democratic-
Republican
  December 10, 1823 –
January 15, 1824
Vacant
Appointed to finish Brown's term January 15, 1824 –
May 19, 1833
Adams-Clay
Republican
JosiahSJohnston.jpg

Josiah S. Johnston
4
Vacant May 27, 1824 –
November 19, 1824
 
6
CharlesBouligny.jpg

Charles D.J. Bouligny
Adams-Clay
Republican
November 19, 1824 –
March 3, 1829
Elected to finish Johnson's term.
Anti-Jacksonian 19th 4 Elected to full term in 1825. Anti-Jacksonian
20th
7
Edward Livingston of New York.jpg

Edward Livingston
Jacksonian March 4, 1829 –
May 24, 1831
Elected in 1829.[1]

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State.
4 21st
22nd 5 Re-elected in 1831.

Died.
Vacant May 24, 1831 –
November 15, 1831
 
8
GeoAWagga.jpg

George A. Waggaman
Anti-
Jacksonian
November 15, 1831 –
March 3, 1835
Elected to finish Livingston's term.
23rd
  May 19, 1833 –
December 19, 1833
Vacant
Elected to finish Johnson's term.

Resigned due to ill health.
December 19, 1833 –
January 5, 1837
Anti-Jacksonian
Alex-Porter.jpg

Alexander Porter
5
Vacant March 4, 1835 –
January 13, 1836
Charles Gayarré was elected in 1835, but resigned due to ill health. 5 24th
9
Robert Carter Nicholas.jpg

Robert C. Nicholas
Jacksonian January 13, 1836 –
March 3, 1841
Elected to finish Gauarré's term.

[Data unknown/missing.]
  January 5, 1837 –
January 12, 1837
Vacant
Elected to finish Porter's term. January 12, 1837 –
March 1, 1842
Jacksonian
A Mouton Senator from Louisiana.jpg

Alexander Mouton
6
Democratic 25th 6 Re-elected in 1837.

Resigned.
Democratic
26th
10
Alexander Barrow.jpg

Alexander Barrow
Whig March 4, 1841 –
December 29, 1846
Elected in 1840.

Died.
6 27th
  March 1, 1842 –
April 14, 1842
Vacant
Appointed to finish Mouton's term.

Lost election to full term.
April 14, 1842 –
March 3, 1843
Whig
Charles Magill Conrad.jpg

Charles Magill Conrad
7
28th 7 Elected in 1843, but due to ill health did not take his seat.

Died.
March 4, 1843 –
January 13, 1844
Whig
Alex-Porter.jpg

Alexander Porter
8
  January 13, 1844 –
February 12, 1844
Vacant
Elected to finish Porter's term

Lost election to full term in 1849.
February 12, 1844 –
March 3, 1849
Whig
H.S.Johnson.jpg

Henry Johnson
9
29th
Vacant December 29, 1846 –
January 21, 1847
 
11
PSoule.jpg

Pierre Soulé
Democratic January 21, 1847 –
March 3, 1847
Elected to finish Barrow's term.

[Data unknown/missing.]
12
SolomonDowns.jpg

Solomon W. Downs
Democratic March 4, 1847 –
March 3, 1853
Elected in 1847.

[Data unknown/missing.]
7 30th
31st 8 Elected in 1848.

Resigned to become U.S. Minister to Spain.
March 3, 1849 –
April 11, 1853
Democratic
PSoule.jpg

Pierre Soulé
10
32nd
13
Judah P Benjamin crop.jpg

Judah P. Benjamin
Whig March 4, 1853 –
February 4, 1861
Elected in 1852. 8 33rd
  April 11, 1853 –
December 5, 1853
Vacant
Elected to finish Soulés term. December 5, 1853 –
February 4, 1861
Democratic
JSlidell.jpg

John Slidell
11
34th 9 Re-election year unknown.

Resigned.
Democratic 35th
Re-elected in 1859.

Withdrew.
9 36th
Vacant February 4, 1861 –
July 8, 1868
American Civil War and Reconstruction American Civil War and Reconstruction February 4, 1861 –
July 9, 1868
Vacant
37th 10
38th
10 39th
40th 11
14
John S. Harris - Brady-Handy.jpg

John S. Harris
Republican July 8, 1868 –
March 3, 1871
Elected to finish incomplete term in 1868.

[Data unknown/missing.].
Elected to finish incomplete term.

Resigned to become Governor of Louisiana.
July 9, 1868 –
November 1, 1872
Republican
William P. Kellogg - Brady-Handy.jpg

William P. Kellogg
12
41st
15
Joseph R. West - cwpbh 03614.jpg

Joseph R. West
Republican March 4, 1871 –
March 3, 1877
Election year unknown.

Retired.
11 42nd
Senate declined to seat rival claimants William L. McMillen and P. B. S. Pinchback[2] November 1, 1872 –
January 12, 1876
Vacant.
43rd 12
44th
Elected to finish incomplete term in 1876.

Lost re-election.
January 12, 1876 –
March 3, 1879
Democratic
JamesBEustis.jpg

James B. Eustis
13
16
William P. Kellogg - Brady-Handy.jpg

William P. Kellogg
Republican March 4, 1877 –
March 3, 1883
Elected in 1876.

Retired to run for member of the U.S. House of Representatives.
12 45th
46th 13 Elected in 1879.

Lost re-election.
March 4, 1879 –
March 3, 1885
Democratic
Benjamin F. Jonas - Brady-Handy.jpg

Benjamin F. Jonas
14
47th
17
Randall L. Gibson - Brady-Handy.jpg

Randall L. Gibson
Democratic March 4, 1883 –
December 15, 1892
Elected in 1882. 13 48th
49th 14 Election year unknown.

Retired.
March 4, 1885 –
March 3, 1891
Democratic
JamesBEustis.jpg

James B. Eustis
15
50th
Re-elected in 1889.

Died.
14 51st
52nd 15 Elected in 1891.

Resigned to become U.S. Supreme Court Justice.
March 4, 1891 –
March 12, 1894
Democratic
Edward White, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left, 1905.jpg

Edward Douglass White
16
Vacant December 15, 1892 –
December 31, 1892
 
18
Donelson Caffery.jpg

Donelson Caffery
Democratic December 31, 1892 –
March 3, 1901
Appointed to continue Gibson's term.

Elected May 23, 1894 to finish Gibson's term.[3]
53rd
Appointed to continue White's term.

Elected May 23, 1894 to finish White's term.[4]

Retired.
March 12, 1894 –
March 3, 1897
Democratic
Newton Crain Blanchard.jpg

Newton C. Blanchard
17
Re-elected in 1894.

Retired.
15 54th
55th 16 Elected May 28, 1896.[5] March 4, 1897 –
June 28, 1910
Democratic
Samuel Douglas McEnery.jpg

Samuel D. McEnery
18
56th
19
Murphy James Foster.jpg

Murphy J. Foster
Democratic March 4, 1901 –
March 3, 1913
Elected May 22, 1900.[6] 16 57th
58th 17 Re-elected early May 22, 1900.[6]
59th
Re-elected early May 18, 1904.[7]

Lost renomination.
17 60th
61st 18 Re-elected May 19, 1908.[8]

Died.
  June 28, 1910 –
December 7, 1910
Vacant
Elected to finish McEnery's term.[4]

Retired.
December 7, 1910 –
March 3, 1915
Democratic
JohnRThornton.jpg

John Thornton
19
62nd
20
JosephERansdell.jpg

Joseph E. Ransdell
Democratic March 4, 1913 –
March 3, 1931
Elected May 21, 1912. 18 63rd
64th 19 Elected early May 21, 1912.

Died.
March 4, 1915 –
April 12, 1918
Democratic
Robert Foligny Broussard.jpg

Robert F. Broussard
20
65th
  April 12, 1918 –
April 22, 1918
Vacant
Appointed to continue Broussard's term.

Retired when elected successor qualified.
April 22, 1918 –
November 5, 1918
Democratic
WalterGuion.jpg

Walter Guion
21
Elected to finish Broussard's term.

Retired.
November 6, 1918 –
March 3, 1921
Democratic
EdwardJGay.jpg

Edward James Gay
22
Re-elected in 1918. 19 66th
67th 20 Elected in 1920. March 4, 1921 –
March 3, 1933
Democratic
EdwinSBroussard.jpg

Edwin S. Broussard
23
68th
Re-elected in 1924.

Lost renomination.
20 69th
70th 21 Re-elected in 1926.

Lost renomination.
71st
21
HueyPLong.jpg

Huey Long
Democratic March 4, 1931 –
September 10, 1935
Elected in 1930, but continued to serve as Governor of Louisiana, until finally taking his Senate seat on January 25, 1932. However, he was still elected and qualified as senator.

Died.
21 72nd
73rd 22 Elected in 1932. March 4, 1933 –
May 14, 1948
Democratic
John Overton.jpg

John H. Overton
24
74th
Vacant September 10, 1935 –
January 31, 1936
 
22
RoseLong.jpg

Rose McConnell Long
Democratic January 31, 1936 –
January 2, 1937
Appointed to continue Huey Long's term.

Elected April 21, 1936 to finish Huey Long's term.[3]

Retired.
23
AllenJosephEllender.jpg

Allen J. Ellender
Democratic January 3, 1937 –
July 27, 1972
Elected in 1936. 22 75th
76th 23 Re-elected in 1938.
77th
Re-elected in 1942. 23 78th
79th 24 Re-elected in 1944.

Died.
80th
  May 14, 1948 –
May 18, 1948
Vacant
Appointed to continue Overton's term.

Retired when elected successor qualified.
May 18, 1948 –
December 30, 1948
Democratic
William Feazel.jpg

William C. Feazel
25
Elected to finish Overton's term. December 31, 1948 –
January 3, 1987
Democratic
Russell Billiu Long.jpg

Russell B. Long
26
Re-elected in 1948. 24 81st
82nd 25 Re-elected in 1950.
83rd
Re-elected in 1954. 25 84th
85th 26 Re-elected in 1956.
86th
Re-elected in 1960. 26 87th
88th 27 Re-elected in 1962.
89th
Re-elected in 1966.

Died.
27 90th
91st 28 Re-elected in 1968.
92nd
Vacant July 27, 1972 –
August 1, 1972
 
24
Elaine Edwards (D-LA).jpg

Elaine Edwards
Democratic August 1, 1972 –
November 13, 1972
Appointed to continue Ellender's term.

Retired when successor qualified and resigned early.
25
J000189.jpg

J. Bennett Johnston
Democratic November 14, 1972 –
January 3, 1997
Appointed to finished the term, having already been elected to the next term.
Elected in 1972. 28 93rd
94th 29 Re-elected in 1974.
95th
Re-elected in 1978. 29 96th
97th 30 Re-elected in 1980.

Retired.
98th
Re-elected in 1984. 30 99th
100th 31 Elected in 1986. January 3, 1987 –
January 3, 2005
Democratic
John Breaux, official photo portrait, standing.jpg

John Breaux
27
101st
Re-elected in 1990.

Retired.
31 102nd
103rd 32 Re-elected in 1992.
104th
26
Mary Landrieu Senate portrait.jpg

Mary Landrieu
Democratic January 3, 1997 –
January 3, 2015
Elected in 1996. 32 105th
106th 33 Re-elected in 1998.

Retired.
107th
Re-elected in 2002. 33 108th
109th 34 Elected in 2004. January 3, 2005 –
January 3, 2017
Republican
DVitterOfficial.jpg

David Vitter
28
110th
Re-elected in 2008.

Lost re-election.
34 111th
112th 35 Re-elected in 2010.

Retired.[9]
113th
27
Bill Cassidy official Senate photo.jpg

Bill Cassidy
Republican January 3, 2015 –
Present
Elected in 2014. 35 114th
115th 36 Elected in 2016. January 3, 2017 –
Present
Republican
John Neely Kennedy, official portrait, 115th Congress 2.jpg

John Kennedy
29
116th
To be decided in the 2020 election. 36 117th
118th 37 To be decided in the 2022 election.
# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
e
r
m
  T
e
r
m
Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
Class 2 Class 3

Living former U.S. Senators from Louisiana

As of January 2019, there are four living former U.S. Senators from Louisiana. The most recent senator to die was Elaine Edwards (served August 1, 1972 to November 13, 1972) on May 14, 2018. The most recently serving senator to die was Russell B. Long (served 1948–1987), who died on May 9, 2003.

Senator Term of office Date of birth (and age)
J. Bennett Johnston November 14, 1972 – January 3, 1997 (1932-06-10) June 10, 1932 (age 86)
John Breaux January 3, 1987 – January 3, 2005 (1944-03-01) March 1, 1944 (age 75)
Mary Landrieu January 3, 1997 – January 3, 2015 (1955-11-23) November 23, 1955 (age 63)
David Vitter January 3, 2005 – January 3, 2017 (1961-05-03) May 3, 1961 (age 58)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "The Hon. Edward Livingston, at present a member of Congress from the State of Louisiana, was on the 12th ult. appointed by the Legislature of that State, a Senator in Congress, vice Mr. Bouligny, whose term of service expires on the 3d of March next". Raleigh Register. Raleigh, NC. February 6, 1829. p. 3.
  2. ^ Taft, et al., p. 483–512.
  3. ^ a b Byrd, p. 114.
  4. ^ a b Byrd, p. 115.
  5. ^ "M'ENERY ELECTED SENATOR". The New York Times. May 29, 1896. p. 5.
  6. ^ a b "Louisiana Senators Elected". The New York Times. May 23, 1900. p. 2.
  7. ^ Official Journal of the Proceedings of House of Representatives of the State of Louisiana at the Regular Session of the General Assembly. 1904. p. 76.
  8. ^ "Senator McEnery Succeeds Himself". The New York Times. May 20, 1900. p. 2.
  9. ^ Robillard, Kevin (November 21, 2015). "Edwards beats Vitter in Louisiana governor's race". Politico. Retrieved November 21, 2015.

References

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