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List of Turkic dynasties and countries

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following is a list of dynasties, states or empires which are Turkic-speaking, of Turkic origins, or both. There are currently six recognized Turkic sovereign states. Additionally, there are six federal subjects of Russia in which a Turkic language is a majority, and five where Turkic languages are the minority, and also Crimea, a disputed territory between Ukraine and Russia where Turkic languages are the minority. There have been numerous Turkic confederations, dynasties, and empires throughout history across Eurasia.

World map with present-day independent recognized Turkic countries highlighted in red

Contemporary entities with at least one Turkic language recognized as official

Current independent states

Name Years Republic Day
Turkey Turkey 1923 75% Turkish October 29, 1923
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 1991 2009 - 91.6% Azerbaijanis, 0.43% Turkish, 0.29% Tatars.[1] May 28, 1918
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1991 63.1% Kazakhs, 2.9% Uzbeks, 1.4% Uyghurs, 1.3% Tatars, 0.6% Turkish, 0.5% Azerbaijanis, 0.1% Kyrgyz.[2] June 19, 1925
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan 1991 70.9% Kyrgyz, 14.3% Uzbeks, 0.9% Uyghurs, 0.7% Turkish, 0.6% Kazakhs, 0.6% Tatars, 0.3% Azerbaijanis.[3] October 14, 1924
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan 1991 75.6% Turkmens, 9.2% Uzbeks, 2.0% Kazakhs, 1.1% Turkish 0.7% Tatars[4] October 27, 1991
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan 1991 71.4% Uzbeks, 4.1% Kazakhs, 2.4% Tatars, 2.1% Karakalpaks, 1% Crimean Tatars, 0.8% Kyrgyz, 0.6% Turkmens, 0.5% Turkish, 0.2% Azerbaijanis, 0.2% Uyghurs, 0.2% Bashkirs.[5] October 27, 1924

Partially recognized state

Recognized only by Turkey.

Name Years
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus[6] 1983 67.54% Turkish Cypriots, 32.45% Turkish[citation needed]

Federal subjects (Republics) of Russia

Federal subjects of Russia where Turkic peoples are a majority
 Bashkortostan 2010 – 29.5% Bashkirs, 25.4% Tatars, 2.7% Chuvash
 Chuvashia 2010 – 67.7% Chuvash, 2.8% Tatars
 Karachay-Cherkessia 2010 – 41.0% Karachays, 3.3% Nogais
 Tatarstan 2010 – 53.2% Tatars, 3.1% Chuvash
 Tuva 2010 – 82% Tuvans, 0.4% Khakas
Yakutia Sakha Republic 2010 – 49.9% Yakuts, 0.2% Dolgans, 0.9% Tatars
Federal subjects of Russia where Turkic peoples are a minority
 Altai Republic 2010 – 34.5% Altaians, 6.2% Kazakhs
 Kabardino-Balkaria 2010 – 12.7% Balkars
 Crimea 2014 – 12.6% Crimean Tatars, 2.3% Tatars
 Khakassia 2010 – 12.1% Khakas
 Dagestan 2010 – 14.9% Kumyks, 4.5% Azerbaijanis, 1.4% Nogais

Autonomous regions

Gagauzia Gagauzia in Moldova 2004 – 82.1% Gagauz.[7]
Karakalpakstan Karakalpakstan in Uzbekistan 36% Uzbeks, 32% Karakalpaks, 25% Kazakhs[8]
Azerbaijan Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic in Azerbaijan 99% Azerbaijanis[9]
Flag of Taymyr Autonomous Okrug.svg
Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District in Krasnoyarsk, Russia
2010 – 15.7% Dolgans
China Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region 2000 – 45.21% Uyghurs, 6.74% Kazakhs, 0.86% Kyrgyz, 0.066% Uzbeks, 0.024% Chinese Tatars, 0.02% Salars
China Kizilsu Kyrgyz Autonomous Prefecture 2010 – 64.68% Uyghurs, 27.32% Kyrgyz
China Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture 2015 – 26.77% Kazakhs, 17.45% Uyghur
China Barköl Kazakh Autonomous County 2000 – 34.01% Kazakhs, 0.16% Uyghur, 0.03% Chinese Tatars
China Mori Kazakh Autonomous County Kazakhs
China Xunhua Salar Autonomous County 2000 – 61.14% Salars
China Jishishan Bonan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County Salars
China Sunan Yugur Autonomous County Yugur
China Aksay Kazakh Autonomous County Kazakhs

Historical Turkic confederations, dynasties, and states

Tribal confederations

Tiele people Dingling Cumans Basmyl Chigils Alat Kutrigurs
Onogurs Sir-Kıvchak Toquz Oghuz Kipchaks Kankalis Yagma Yenisei Kyrgyz
Oghuz Sabirs Bulgars Shatuo Nushibi Duolu Xueyantuo
Tuoba Bulaqs Saragurs Yabaku Karluks

Royal clans

Turkic dynasties and states

Name Notes Years Capital map
Turkic Khaganate
Founded by Bumin Qaghan after breaking away from Rouran Khaganate. 552–ca. 580 Otuken
Western Turkic Khaganate 593–659 Navekat and Suyab
Western Gokturk.jpg
Eastern Turkic Khaganate 581–630
Ordu Baliq
Eastern Gokturk.png
Xueyantuo 628–646
Kangar union 659–750 Located in Ulytau
AD 659KangarUnion.png
Turk shahi tamga.png
Turk Shahi
665–850 Kabul
Turk Shahi 700ad.jpg
Second Turkic Khaganate Founded by Ilterish Qaghan. It was preceded by the First Turkic Khaganate (552-630) and then a period of Tang rule (630-682). 682–744 Otuken
Second Göktürk in the 8th century.png
Türgesh Türgesh were a Turkic tribal confederation of Dulu Turks believed to have descended from the Turuhe tribe situated along the banks of the Tuul River. They emerged as an independent power after the demise of the Western Turkic Khaganate and established a khaganate in 699. The Turgesh Khaganate lasted until 766 when the Karluks defeated them. 699–766 Balasagun
Transoxiana 8th century.svg
Kimek–Kipchak confederation 743–1220 Khagan-Kimek Imekia
Uyghur Khganate Flag.jpg
Uyghur Khaganate
744–848 Ordu Baliq
East-Hem 800ad.jpg
Oghuz Yabgu State 750–1055 Yangikent
AD 750OguzYabgu.png
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940 Suyab later Balasagun
Qaraxanlı bayrağı.jpg
Kara-Khanid Khanate
840–1212 Balasagun, Kashgar, Samarkand
Yenisei Kyrgyz Khaganate 840–1207
Kirgisen-Reich (840-924).PNG
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036 Zhangye
East-Hem 900ad.jpg
Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335 Gaochang, Beshbalik
East-Hem 900ad.jpg
Coat of arms of Cumania.svg
Cuman–Kipchak confederation[10][11]
State of Cuman-Kipchak (13.) en.png
Anatolia composite NASA.png
Anatolian Beyliks
11th–16th century Many such as Karaman, Sinop, Adana, Alanya, Kahramanmaraş.
Anadolu Beylikleri.png
Ahmadilis 1122–1209 Maragha
East-Hem 1200ad.jpg
Eldiguzids ca.1135–1225 Nakhchivan (city) and Hamadan
Salghurids 1148–1282 Fars Province
Ottoman flag.svg
Ottoman Empire
Also known as the Turkish Empire, Ottoman Turkey or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia 1299–1923 Söğüt 1299–1335, Bursa 1335–1413, Edirne 1413–1453, Istanbul 1453–1922
Kara Koyunlu Kara Koyunlu was an Turkmen tribal federation.[12] 1375–1468 Tabriz
Qara Qoyunlu Turcomans 1407–1468.png
Emirate of Kasgharia A short lived emirate in Kashgar region.[13] 1865–1877 Kashgar


Name Notes Years Capital Map
Khazar Empire The Khazars were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Kaganate.[14] 6th–11th century Balanjar 650–720 ca., Samandar (city) 720s–750, Atil 750-ca.965–969
The Monogram of Kubrat.png
Great Bulgaria
632–668 Phanagoria 632–665
Pontic steppe region around 650 AD.png
Khans Dulo of Bulgaria.jpg
First Bulgarian Empire
Tengrist Turkic pre-Christianization;[15] became Slavic post-Christianization 681–1018 Pliska 681–893, Preslav 893–972, Skopje 972–992, Ohrid 992–1018
First Bulgarian Empire Xc.png
Volga Bulgaria 7th century–1240s Bolghar, Bilär
Terter dynasty 1280–1323
Bulgaria-Theodore Svetoslav.png

Middle East and North Africa

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Tulunids The Tulunids were a dynasty of Turkic origin[16] and were the first independent dynasty to rule Islamic Egypt, as well as much of Syria. 868–905 al-Qatta'i
Tulunid Emirate 868 - 905 (AD).PNG
Ikhshidid Dynasty Founded by a Turkic[17][18][19] slave soldier, was appointed governor by the Abbasid Caliph.[20] 935–969
Ikhshidid Dynasty 935 - 969 (AD).PNG
Burid Dynasty 1104–1154 Damascus
Map Crusader states 1135-en.svg
Zengid Dynasty Dynasty of Oghuz Turk origin.[21] 1127–1250 Aleppo
Zengid Dynasty 1127 - 1250 (AD).PNG
Mameluke Flag.svg
Bahri dynasty
The first half of the Mamluk Sultanate was dominated by the Kipchak Turkic Bahri dynasty, after the Mongol conquest of the Kipchak steppes. 1250–1389 Cairo
Assaf dynasty Controlled region between Beirut and Jbeil 1306–1591 Ghazir

Maghreb region

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Karamanli dynasty The Karamanli dynasty was an independent or quasi-independent,[22] who ruled from 1711 to 1835 in Tripolitania (Tripoli and its surroundings in present-day Libya). At their peak, the Karamanlis' influence reached Cyrenaica and Fezzan, covering most of Libya. The founder of the dynasty was Pasha Ahmed Karamanli, a descendant of the Karamanids. 1711–1835 Tripoli
Map of traditional provinces of Libye-en.svg

Indian subcontinent

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Mamluk Dynasty (Delhi) Mamluk Dynasty was directed into Northern India by Qutb ud-Din Aibak, a Turkic Mamluk slave general from Central Asia. The Mamluk Dynasty ruled from 1206 to 1290.[23][24][25] 1206–1290 Delhi
Mamluk dynasty 1206 - 1290 ad.GIF
Qarlughid Dynasty 1224–1266 Ghazna, Binban
Khalji Dynasty 1290–1320 Delhi
Delhi Sultanate under Khalji dynasty - based on A Historical Atlas of South Asia.svg
Tughlaq Dynasty 1320–1414 Delhi
Tughlaq dynasty 1321 - 1398 ad.PNG
Ilyas Shahi dynasty 1342–1487 Sonargaon
Bengal Sultanate.png
Bahmani Sultanate 1347–1527 Gulbarga (1347–1425)
Bidar (1425–1527)
Bengal Sultanate Flag.gif
Bengal Sultanate

Sultanate of Bengal.png
Malwa Sultanate 1392–1562 Dhar and Mandu
Bidar Sultanate 1489–1619
Deccan sultanates 1490 - 1687 ad.png
Adil Shahi dynasty 1490–1686 Bijapur
Qutb Shahi Dynasty
1518–1687 Golconda / Hyderabad
Deccan sultanates 1490 - 1687 ad.png
Alam of the Mughal Empire.svg
Mughal Empire
Founded by Turco-Mongol ruler Babur, adopted the Persian language in later periods.[26][27][28][29] 1526–1857 Agra 1526–1571, Fatehpur Sikri 1571–1585, Lahore 1585–1598, Agra 1598–1648, Shahjahanabad/Delhi 1648–1857
The Mughal Empire.jpg
Tarkhan Dynasty 1554–1591 Sindh
Hyderabad Coat of Arms.jpg
Asaf Jahi Dynasty
1724–1948 Hyderabad
Hyderabad princely state 1909.svg

Sinicized Turkic dynasties

The Shatuo Turks founded several sinicized dynasties in northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The official language of these dynasties was Chinese and they used Chinese titles and names.

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Great Yan General An Lushan rebelled against Tang Dynasty 756–763 Luoyang 756–757, Yecheng 757–759, Fanyang 759, Luoyang 759–762
Later Tang 923–936 Daming County 923, Luoyang 923–936
Later Jin[30] The Later Jin founder, Shi Jingtang, claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry. 936–947 Taiyuan 936, Luoyang 937, Kaifeng 937–947
Later Han Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors; some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[31] 947–951 Kaifeng
Northern Han Same family as Later Han. Sources conflict as to the origin of the Later Han and Northern Han Emperors; some indicate Shatuo ancestry while another claims that the Emperors claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[31] 951–979 Taiyuan

Turko-Persian states

The Turko-Persian tradition was an Islamic tradition of the interpretation of literary forms, practiced and patronized by Turkic rulers and speakers. Many Turko-Persian states were founded in modern-day Eastern Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.[32]

Name Years Capital Map
Ghaznavid Empire Ruled by a thoroughly Persianized family of Turkic mamluk origin[33][34] 962–1186 Ghazna 977–1163, Lahore 1163–1186
Ghaznavid Empire 975 - 1187 (AD).PNG
Seljuk Empire Ruled by Qiniq branch[35][36] of Oghuz Turks.[33][37][38][39] 1037–1194 Nishapur 1037–1043, Rey, Iran 1043–1051, Isfahan 1051–1118, Hamadan Western capital 1118–1194, Merv Eastern capital (1118–1153)
Seljuk Empire locator map.svg
Sultanate of Rûm Persianized Oghuz Turkic dynasty[40] 1077–1307 İznik, Iconium (Konya)
Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate.JPG
Khwarazmian dynasty Ruled by a family of Turkic mamluk origin.[41] 1077–1231/1256 Gurganj 1077–1212, Samarkand 1212–1220, Ghazna 1220–1221, Tabriz 1225–1231
Khwarezmian Empire 1190 - 1220 (AD).PNG
Aq Qoyunlu Aq Qoyunlu was an tribal federation from Bayandur clan of the Oghuz Turks[42] 1378–1501 Diyarbakır 1453–1471, Tabriz 1468 – January 6, 1478
Map Aq Qoyunlu 1478-en.png

Turco-Mongol states

Turco-Mongol is a term describing the synthesis of Mongol and Turkic cultures by several states of Mongol origin throughout Eurasia. These states adopted Turkic languages, either among the populace or among the elite, and converted to Islam, but retained Mongol political and legal institutions.

Name Years Capital Notes Map
Chagatai Khanate 1225–1340s Almaliq, Qarshi
Golden Horde flag 1339.svg
Golden Horde
1240s–1502 Sarai Batu Founded as an appanage of the Mongol Empire, the Golden Horde gradually became Turkicized after the Empire's fragmentation
Sufids 1361–1379
Timurid Empire
1370–1506 Samarkand 1370–1505, Herat 1505–1507 Belonging to Barlas were a Mongol and later Turkicized nomadic confederation in Central Asia.
Das Reich Timur-i Lenks (1365-1405).GIF
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg
Shaybanid Khanate
1428–1599 Semerkand
Flag of the Kazan Khanate.svg
Kazan Khanate
1438–1552 Kazan
Crimean Khanate
1441–1783 Bakhchisaray Crimean Khanate was established by Hacı I Giray, a descendant of Toqa Temür, thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan.
Crimean Khanate 1600.gif
Nogai flag.svg
Nogai Khanate
1440s–1634 Saray-Jük Founded by Nogay Khan, a direct descendant of Genghis Khan through Jochi, formed an army of the Manghits joined by numerous Turkic tribes. A century later the Nogays were led by Edigu, a commander of Manghit paternal origin and Jochid maternal origin.[43]
Nogay Horde.svg
Flag of the Kazakh Khanate.svg
Kazakh Khanate
1456–1847 Turkistan Founded by Kerei Khan and Janibek Khan, descendants of the thirteenth son of Jochi, Toqa Timur.
Казахское ханство1520.png
Great Horde 1466–1502 Sarai
Wielka Orda.svg
Coat of Arms of Astrakhan.png
Astrakhan Khanate
1466–1556 Xacitarxan
Astrakhan Khanate map.svg
Siberia Khanate 1490–1598 Tyumen until 1493, Qashliq from 1493
Siberian Khanate map English revised.svg
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg
Khanate of Bukhara
1500–1785 Bukhara
Bandera de Khiva 1917-1920.svg
Khanate of Khiva
Yadigarids: 1511–1804[44] Qungrats 1804–1920 Khiva
Хивинское ханство.png
Yarkent Khanate 1514–1705 Yarkent
Arghun dynasty 1520–1554 Bukkur
Lesser Nogai Horde 1449 or 1557–1783 Voli Sarai
Budzhak Horde 17th century–18th century
Flag of the Turkestan (Kokand) Autonomy.svg
Khanate of Kokand
1709–1876 Kokand
Flag of the Emirate of Bukhara.svg
Emirate of Bukhara
1785–1920 Bukhara

Vassal khanates

The following list is only of vassal khanates of Turkic origin, which were ruled by of another descent peoples.

Name Notes Years Capital Map
Qasim Khanate Turco-Mongol state 1452–1681 Kasimov
Qasim scheme.svg
Kumul Khanate Turco-Mongol state 1696–1930 Hami City
China Xinjiang Hami.svg

Former Provisional Governments and Republics

Name Notes Years Map Capital
Provisional Government of Western Thrace later Independent Government of Western Thrace Republic of Western Thrace was a small, short-lived partially recognized republic established in Western Thrace from August 31 to October 25, 1913. It encompassed the area surrounded by the rivers Maritsa (Evros) in the east, Mesta (Nestos) in the west, the Rhodope Mountains in the north and the Aegean Sea in the south. Its total territory was c. 8.600 km².[45] 1913 Komotini
Crimean People's Republic Crimean People's Republic existed from December 1917 to January 1918 in Crimea. Crimean People's Republic was the first Turkic and Muslim democratic republic in the history. 1917–1918 Bakhchysarai
Idel-Ural State 1917–1918
Alash Autonomy A provisional autonomous Kazakh-Kyrgyz administration. Later integrated into Soviet Union under Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic umbrella. 1917–1920 Semey
Republic of Aras 1918–1919 Nakhchivan (city)
Provisional National Government of the Southwestern Caucasus 1918–1919 Kars
Azerbaijan Democratic Republic 1918–1920
Ganja, Azerbaijan until Sep 1918, Baku
Government of the Grand National Assembly Government of the Grand National Assembly, also called Ankara Government was a provisional and revolutionary Turkish government based in Ankara during the Turkish War of Independence. It was succeeded by Turkey after the Treaty of Lausanne. 1920–1923
Treaty of Sèvres 1920.svg
People's Republic of Tannu Tuva 1921–1944
First East Turkestan Republic First East Turkestan Republic was a short-lived breakaway would-be Islamic republic founded in 1933. It was centered on the city of Kashgar in what is today the People's Republic of China-administered Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. 1933–1934
First ETR in China.svg
Republic of Hatay Hatay State, also known informally as the Republic of Hatay, was a transitional political entity that existed from September 7, 1938, to June 29, 1939, in the territory of the Sanjak of Alexandretta of the French Mandate of Syria. The state was transformed de jure into the Hatay Province of Turkey on July 7, 1939, de facto joining the country on July 23, 1939. 1938–1939
French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon map en.svg
East Turkistan Republic 1944–1949
Second ETR in China.svg
Azerbaijan People's Government Established in Iranian Azerbaijan, the APG's capital was the city of Tabriz. Its establishment and demise were a part of the Iran crisis, which was a precursor to the Cold War. 1945–1946
Republic of mahabad and iranian azerbaijan 1945 1946.png
Turkish Cypriot General Committee[46] 1963–1967
NCyprus location.svg
Provisional Cypriot Turkish Administration[46] 1967–1974
NCyprus location.svg
Autonomous Turkish Cypriot Administration 1974–1975
NCyprus location.svg
Turkish Federated State of Cyprus Was declared in 1975 and existing until 1983. It was not recognized by the international community. It was succeeded by the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 1975–1983
NCyprus location.svg

Soviet Republics

Name Notes Years Map Capital
Khorezm People's Soviet Republic 1920–1924
Bukhara People's Soviet Republic 1920–1924
Azerbaijan SSR 1920–1991
Soviet Union - Azerbaijan SSR.svg
Uzbek SSR 1924–1991
Soviet Union - Uzbek SSR.svg
Samarkand 1924–1930, Tashkent 1930–1991
Turkmen SSR 1924–1991
Soviet Union - Turkmen SSR.svg
Kazakh SSR 1936–1991
Soviet Union - Kazakh SSR.svg
Kyrgyz SSR 1936–1991
Soviet Union - Kirghiz SSR.svg

Autonomous Soviet Republics

Name Notes Years Map Capital
Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1918–1924
Bashkir ASSR 1919–1990 Ufa
Kirghiz Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic 1920–1925 Orenburg
Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1920–1990 Kazan
Yakut ASSR 1922–1991
Flag-map of Yakut ASSR.svg
Mountain Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1921–1924
Map of Mountain ASSR.png
Nakhchivan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1921–1990
Nakhchivan (city)
Kazak Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic 1925–1936
Карта КАССР.png
Chuvash ASSR 1925–1992 Cheboksary
Karakalpak ASSR 1932–1992 Nukus
Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1936–1991
Russia - Kabardino-Balkar Republic (2008-01).svg
Kabardin Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1944–1957
Crimean ASSR 1921–1945 Simferopol
Tuvan ASSR 1961–1992
Gorno-Altai Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic 1990–1992
Map of Russia - Altai Republic (2008-03).svg

Autonomous oblasts of the Soviet Union

Name Notes Years Map Capital
Chuvash Autonomous Oblast 1920–1925 Cheboksary
Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Oblast 1921–1936 Nalchik
Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast 1922–1926 Cherkessk
Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast 1922–1991
Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast 1924–1936 Bishkek
Karakalpak Autonomous Oblast 1925–1932 To‘rtko‘l
Karachay Autonomous Oblast 1926–1957
Mikoyan Shakhar
Khakassian Autonomous Oblast 1930–1992
Tuvan Autonomous Oblast 1944–1961
Uryankhay-Tuva AO.png

See also


  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Demographics of Kazakhstan.
  3. ^ Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
  4. ^ Demographics of Turkmenistan
  5. ^ Demographics of Uzbekistan
  6. ^ Recognized only by Turkey and the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, see Cyprus dispute.
  7. ^ Gagauzia
  8. ^ Der Fischer Weltalmanach 2011, Artikel „Karakalpakstan“, S. 496
  9. ^
  10. ^ Encyclopedia of European peoples, Vol.1, Ed. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, (Infobase Publishing Inc., 2006), 475; "The Kipchaks were a loose tribal confederation of Turkics...".
  11. ^ Vásáry, István, Cumans and Tatars: Oriental military in the pre-Ottoman Balkans, 1185–1365, (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 6; "..two Turkic confederacies, the Kipchaks and the Cumans, had merged by the twelfth century.".
  12. ^ [2] Kara Koyunlu, also spelled Qara Qoyunlu, Turkish Karakoyunlular, English Black Sheep, Turkmen tribal federation that ruled Azerbaijan, Armenia, and Iraq from about 1375 to 1468.
  13. ^ [3]
  14. ^ Sneath 2007, p. 25 .
  15. ^ Peter Sarris (2011). Empires of Faith: The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500–700. p. 308.
  16. ^ The Emergence of Muslim Rule in India: Some Historical Disconnects and Missing Links, Tanvir Anjum, Islamic Studies, Vol. 46, No. 2 (Summer 2007), 233.
  17. ^ Abulafia, David (2011). The Mediterranean in History. p. 170.
  18. ^ Haag, Michael (2012). The Tragedy of the Templars: The Rise and Fall of the Crusader States.
  19. ^ Bacharach, Jere L. (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: A-K, index. p. 382.
  20. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 62.
  21. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The New Islamic Dynasties, (Columbia University Press, 1996), 191.
  22. ^ Marshall Cavendish (2006). World and Its Peoples. p. 1213.
  23. ^ Walsh, pp. 68-70
  24. ^ Anzalone, p. 100
  25. ^ Sen, Sailendra (2013). A Textbook of Medieval Indian History. Primus Books. pp. 72–80. ISBN 978-9-38060-734-4.
  26. ^ Thackston 1996
  27. ^ Findley 2005
  28. ^ Saunders 1970, p.177
  29. ^ "The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Tamarind Empire)". Archived from the original on 2009-08-16. Retrieved 2011-07-06.; "The Islamic World to 1600: Rise of the Great Islamic Empires (The Mughal Empire)". Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. Retrieved 2011-07-06.
  30. ^ Wudai Shi, ch. 75. Considering the father was originally called Nieliji without a surname, the fact that his patrilineal ancestors all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Shi Jingtang became a "Chinese" emperor. Shi Jingtang actually claimed to be a descendant of Chinese historical figures Shi Que and Shi Fen, and insisted that his ancestors went westwards towards non-Han Chinese area during the political chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty in the early 3rd century.
  31. ^ a b According to Old History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 99, and New History of the Five Dynasties, vol. 10. Liu Zhiyuan was of Shatuo origin. According to Wudai Huiyao, vol. 1 Liu Zhiyuan's great-great-grandfather Liu Tuan (劉湍) (titled as Emperor Mingyuan posthumously, granted the temple name of Wenzu) descended from Liu Bing (劉昞), Prince of Huaiyang, a son of Emperor Ming of Han
  32. ^ Lewis, Bernard. "Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire", p29. Published 1963, University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-1060-0.
  33. ^ a b M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK Archived 2007-03-11 at the Wayback Machine): "... here one might bear in mind that non-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  34. ^ Muhammad Qāsim Hindū Šāh Astarābādī Firištah, "History Of The Mohamedan Power In India", Chapter I, "Sultān Mahmūd-e Ghaznavī", p.27: "... "Sabuktegin, the son of Jūkān, the son of Kuzil-Hukum, the son of Kuzil-Arslan, the son of Fīrūz, the son of Yezdijird, king of Persia. ..."
  35. ^ Jonathan Dewald, "Europe 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", Charles Scribner's Sons, 2004, p. 24
  36. ^ Jackson, P. (2002). "Review: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens: The History of the Seljuq Turkmens". Journal of Islamic Studies. Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies. 13 (1): 75–76. doi:10.1093/jis/13.1.75.
  37. ^ K.A. Luther, "Alp Arslān" in Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... Saljuq activity must always be viewed both in terms of the wishes of the sultan and his Khorasanian, Sunni advisors, especially Nezām-al-molk ..."
  38. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  39. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine)
  40. ^ 1.Bernard Lewis, Istanbul and the Civilization of the Ottoman Empire, 29; "Even when the land of Rum became politically independent, it remained a colonial extension of Turco-Persian culture which had its centers in Iran and Central Asia","The literature of Seljuk Anatolia was almost entirely in Persian...".
  41. ^ M. Ismail Marcinkowski, Persian Historiography and Geography: Bertold Spuler on Major Works Produced in Iran, the Caucasus, Central Asia, India and Early Ottoman Turkey, with a foreword by Professor Clifford Edmund Bosworth, member of the British Academy, Singapore: Pustaka Nasional, 2003, ISBN 9971-77-488-7.
  42. ^ C.E. Bosworth and R. Bulliet, The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual , Columbia University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-231-10714-5, p. 275.
  43. ^ Khodarkovsky, Russia's Steppe Frontier p. 9
  44. ^ Compiled after Y. Bregel, ed. (1999), Firdaws al-iqbal; History of Khorezm. Leiden: Brill.
  45. ^ "Panayotis D. Cangelaris – The Western Thrace Autonomous Government "Muhtariyet" Issue (1913) Philatelic Exhibit". Retrieved 2016-09-25.

Further reading

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