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List of Soviet Union–United States summits

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Soviet Union–United States summits were held from 1943 to 1991. The topics discussed at the summits between the President of the United States and either the General Secretary or the Premier of the Soviet Union ranged from fighting the Axis Powers during World War II to arms control between the two superpowers themselves during the Cold War.[1]

Allies of World War II

The "Big Three" Allied leaders (left to right) at the Yalta Conference, February 1945: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin.
The "Big Three" Allied leaders (left to right) at the Yalta Conference, February 1945: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin.
Clement Attlee, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945.
Clement Attlee, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945.
Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
November 28–December 1, 1943 Tehran  Iran [2] Franklin D. Roosevelt Joseph Stalin

Held at the Soviet Embassy in Tehran. Also in attendance Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom. Ended with the Western Allies committing themselves to open a second front against Nazi Germany through the planned amphibious invasion of Normandy. They also agreed to provide full support to the Yugoslav Partisans over the Chetniks. In return, the Soviet Union agreed to support the creation of the United Nations after the war and eventually enter the Allied campaign against Japan. They also agreed to divide Germany into occupation zones and recognize Iran as an independent state after the war.

February 4–11, 1945 Yalta  Soviet Union[2]

Held at the Livadia Palace. Also in attendance Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom. First visit by a United States President to the Soviet Union.[3] Produced declaration calling for the formation of democratic institutions in Europe after the war while dividing Germany and Berlin into American, British, French, and Soviet zones of occupation. Imposed reparations, denazification, and demilitarization on postwar Germany. Obtained Western recognition of Soviet puppet government in Poland. Obtained Soviet commitment to enter the United Nations in exchange for allowing all 16 Soviet Socialist Republics membership. Mandated trials for Nazi war criminals after the war.

July 17–August 2, 1945 Potsdam Allied-occupied Germany[4] Harry S. Truman

Held at the Cecilienhof Palace. Also in attendance Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee of the United Kingdom, with a switch caused by the Labour Party's victory in the 1945 general election. Planned for the postwar order and terms of peace treaties after World War II. Mandated complete abolition of Nazi political institutions and laws in Germany, initiated democratization reforms, and planned dismantlement of industry. Set the Oder-Neisse line as the western border of Poland and Germany. Allowed expulsions of ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe. Created conditions which allowed the Soviet Union to establish satellite states in Eastern Europe after the war.

Cold War (1953–1962)

Nikita Khrushchev meeting John F. Kennedy at the Vienna Summit, June 1961
Nikita Khrushchev meeting John F. Kennedy at the Vienna Summit, June 1961
Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
July 18–23, 1955 Geneva   Switzerland[5] Dwight D. Eisenhower Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Bulganin

Also in attendance Prime Minister Anthony Eden of the United Kingdom and Prime Minister Edgar Faure of France. First Four-Power conference since World War II. It was intended to reduce rising international tensions during the Cold War, and included discussions of trade policy, the nuclear arms race, and disarmament. Failed to achieve settlement on German reunification due to Western refusal to withdraw West Germany from NATO.

September 15, 26–27, 1959 Washington, D.C. and Camp David  United States[6][7] Nikita Khrushchev First visit by a Soviet leader to the United States.
May 16–17, 1960 Paris  France[5] Also in attendance Prime Minister Harold Macmillan of the United Kingdom and President Charles de Gaulle of France. Khrushchev left the summit due to the dispute over the 1960 U-2 incident.
June 3–4, 1961 Vienna  Austria[8] John F. Kennedy

Convened after the botched Bay of Pigs invasion and the Berlin Crisis. Achieved a settlement on the Laotian Civil War but failed to achieve final settlement regarding the status of Berlin. The breakdown of the conference contributed to a more hardline American stance towards the Soviet Union.

Cold War (1962–1979)

Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
June 23 and 25, 1967 Glassboro  United States[6] Lyndon B. Johnson Alexei Kosygin

Held at Hollybush Mansion in Glassboro State College. Convened due to the intensifying Vietnam War and the Six-Day War. Failed to reach concrete agreements but resulted in improved Soviet Union–United States relations and the period of détente

May 22–30, 1972 Moscow  Soviet Union[9] Richard Nixon Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin

First visit by an American head of state to the Soviet Union since World War II. Held at the Kremlin Palace. Signing of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), and the U.S.–Soviet Incidents at Sea Agreement. The treaties limited strategic nuclear weapons and specifically anti-ballistic missiles

June 18–25, 1973 Washington, D.C.  United States[6]

Signing of the Agreement on the Prevention of Nuclear War at the White House.

June 28–July 3, 1974 Moscow  Soviet Union[9] Leonid Brezhnev

Ended in the signing of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty limiting nuclear weapons tests.

November 23–24, 1974 Vladivostok  Soviet Union[10] Gerald Ford

Held at the Okenskaya Sanitorium. Ended in agreement establishing parity for strategic nuclear delivery vehicles, including intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles

July 30 and August 2, 1975 Helsinki  Finland[10]

Final phase of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe. Established the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the Moscow Helsinki Group. Included commitments from the United States, the Soviet Union, and most of Europe to support their territorial integrity

June 15–18, 1979 Vienna  Austria[11] Jimmy Carter Signing of the second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II) at the Hofburg Palace.
Leonid Brezhnev meets with Richard Nixon during the Soviet leader's trip to the U.S. in June 1973
Leonid Brezhnev meets with Richard Nixon during the Soviet leader's trip to the U.S. in June 1973
Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev signing SALT II Treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna
Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev signing SALT II Treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna

Cold War (1985–1991)

Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House in December 1987
Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House in December 1987
Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
November 19–21, 1985 Geneva   Switzerland[12] Ronald Reagan Mikhail Gorbachev

First international summit between American and Soviet heads of state since the end of détente. Failed to produce agreements due to the American refusal to abandon the Strategic Defense Initiative but ended in improved American-Soviet relations.

October 11–12, 1986 Reykjavík  Iceland[12]

Held at Höfði House. Nearly achieved agreement on bilateral nuclear disarmament but suddenly collapsed due to the American refusal to abolish the SDI. Nevertheless resulted in major diplomatic gains between the United States and the Soviet Union

December 8–10, 1987 Washington, D.C.  United States[6]

Ended in the signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty limiting short-range and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. Also included discussions on conventional and chemical weapons; human rights; and proxy conflicts in the Third World.

May 29–June 3, 1988 Moscow  Soviet Union[12]

Held in the Kremlin Palace. Continued negotiations on topics from the Washington Summit and produced a joint statement on arms control.

December 7, 1988 New York City  United States[6]

Held on Governors Island. Also in attendance President-elect George H. W. Bush. Gorbachev left the summit early due to the 1988 Spitak earthquake which struck the Armenian S.S.R. that same day.

December 2–3, 1989 Valletta  Malta[13] George H. W. Bush

Conference convened several weeks after the Monday demonstrations and the fall of the Berlin Wall ending Marxist-Leninist rule in East Germany. Held aboard the Soviet cruise ship Maksim Gorky. Conference ended with a symbolic declaration that the Cold War had ended.

May 30–June 3, 1990 Washington, D.C.  United States[6] Signing of the 1990 Chemical Weapons Accord.
September 9, 1990 Helsinki  Finland[13]

Discussed the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and German reunification.[14]

November 19, 1990 Paris  France [13] Signing of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.
July 17, 1991 London  United Kingdom[13] Held in conjunction with the 17th G7 Summit.
July 30–31, 1991 Moscow  Soviet Union[13] Signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I).
October 29–30, 1991 Madrid  Spain[13] Held in conjunction with the Madrid Conference of 1991 at the Royal Palace of Madrid, which also included Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir. Final meeting between American and Soviet heads of state due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the transfer of power to President Boris Yeltsin of the new Russian Federation in December 1991.

See also

References

  1. ^ Fain III, W. Taylor "Chronology: US-Soviet summits, 1943-1991" Archived 2011-11-09 at the Wayback Machine US Department of State Dispatch, August 12, 1991
  2. ^ a b "Travels of President Franklin D. Roosevelt". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  3. ^ "Presidents Travels to Russia". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2012-01-03.
  4. ^ "Travels of President Harry S. Truman". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  5. ^ a b "Travels of President Dwight D. Eisenhower". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Visits By Foreign Leaders of Russia". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2012-01-05.
  7. ^ "1959 Year In Review Khrushchev Visits the United States". United Press International. Archived from the original on 2012-01-05.
  8. ^ "Travels of President John F. Kennedy". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  9. ^ a b "Travels of President Richard M. Nixon". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  10. ^ a b "Travels of President Gerald R. Ford". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  11. ^ "Travels of President Jimmy Carter". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  12. ^ a b c "Travels of President Ronald Reagan". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Travels of President George H. W. Bush". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  14. ^ "Joint News Conference of President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev in Helsinki, Finland September 9, 1990". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on January 5, 2012.

External links

This page was last edited on 8 October 2020, at 13:09
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