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List of Soviet Union–United States summits

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Soviet Union–United States summits were held from 1943 to 1991. The topics discussed at the summits between the President of the United States and either the General Secretary or the Premier of the Soviet Union ranged from fighting the Axis Powers during World War II to arms control between the two superpowers themselves during the Cold War.[1]

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  • ✪ Joseph Stalin, Leader of the Soviet Union (1878-1953)
  • ✪ Russian Strategy and Cyber Influence Operations Against the United States
  • ✪ Gorbachev's Speech at University of Wyoming, October 2011
  • ✪ Russian Federation - History of Russia in 100 Minutes (Part 34 of 36)
  • ✪ D-Day

Transcription

Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin was born on December 18th 1878 in Gori, Georgia in the Russian Empire to a poor family at age 7 he called smallpox leaving him with a pockmarked face Joseph's mother was a devout Russian, Orthodox Christian and wanted him to become a priest. In 1895 she sent him to study in to Fleece the Georgian capital however He started reading the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin after joining a secret organization Which wanted Georgian independence from Russia? In 1901, he joined the Social Democratic Labour Party and organized protests and strikes for the revolutionary movement against Tsarism. A year later, he was arrested for coordinating a strike and sent to prison Stalin would join the Bolshevik Party and use guerilla warfare during the Russian Revolution of 1905. He impressed the party's leader Vladimir Lenin and his ability to organize Meetings and strikes as well as his ruthless techniques to raise money for the party by kidnapping and robbery in 1907, he sold 250,000 rubles at a bank robbery into Fleece to fund the cause Around this time he adopted the name Stalin which means steel in Russian or "man of steel". During the Russian Revolution in 1917, Stalin ran the Bolshevik newspaper, Pravda. by October the revolution was over and the Bolsheviks were in control. A civil war then followed with a Bolshevik victory. In 1922, Stalin was appointed general secretary of the Communist Party, and he manipulated his role so that he was in a powerful position Lenin died in 1924 and it was assumed that Leon Trotsky would be the next leader. But Stalin would make sure this wouldn't happen, he had Trotsky and other threats to his future leadership removed from the Central Committee and exiled... ...Eventually, Stalin was effectively dictator of the Soviet Union. In the late 1920s, Stalin would aim to turn the Soviet Union into a modernized industrialised country And he wanted it done rapidly, he developed three five-year plans between 1928 and 1938. Coal, oil, steel and electricity production massively increased. But workers who failed to achieve their ambitious targets for production were executed or sent to the gulags He also introduced collectivization to increase food production, seizing land originally given to the peasants and reorganizing it into collective farms. Mass famine was caused as a result and millions died. But Stalin saw this as a necessary evil to achieve the ambitions of his 5-year plans and transform the Soviet Union As Stalin created a cult of personality through culture he became more paranoid Everyone had to praise him and his portrait was everywhere from schools to factories! In 1934, Stalin had Party member Sergei Kirov killed because of the threat to his power throughout the 30s, Stalin purged Communist Party members in 81 of the 103 generals and admirals were executed in the Red Army 20 million citizens in the Soviet Union were sent to the gulags or executed in 1939 Stalin made a deal with Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany When Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, the Red Army was not prepared and suffered massive losses had Helped that Stalin had purged many talented officers during the 30s Stalin refused to leave Moscow as the German forces moved further east in 1942 the red army at Stalingrad were told not to give the city to German forces and to defend it at all Costs as the city bore Stalin's name. This was the turning point in pushing the Nazis back and soon the Red Army was liberating Eastern Europe all the way to Berlin! the Elta and Potsdam conferences in 1945, between the Soviet Union, USA and Britain was tense With the use of the atom bomb, the allies did not need the help of the Soviet Union in defeating Japan Stalin felt betrayed and with the rivalry between the ideologies of capitalism and communism reignited he grew more suspicious and paranoid of the West. The Cold War had begun East Berlin and Eastern Europe, which were occupied territories by the Soviet forces were Transformed into satellite states forming a bulwark between the Soviet Union and Stalin's former allies As his health deteriorated in the early 1950s and after an attempted assassination Stalin's paranoia increased even to the doctors looking after him which he had tortured two confessions of poisoning He also ordered the head of the secret police, Lavrentiy Beria to investigate a new purge of the communist party Panicking members of the Politburo into wondering if they would be executed Before this could happen, Stalin died of a stroke on March 5th 1953 at his funeral huge crowds gathered to pay their respects and five hundred people were crushed as a result of people surging forward After a power struggle over who would be the next leader of the Soviet Union from the inner circle, Nikita Khrushchev. Succeeded Stalin while he was a Stalinist, he would denounce the dictator and reform Stalin's policies of terror and fear during a de-stalinization process Subscribe for more history videos! Get simple history the cold war out today Thank you guys for all your support on the simple history YouTube channel, if you enjoyed please consider visiting our Patreon page, there: you can show us your support for the channel by donating and make a huge difference in what we're able to create for you. Plus, you can get early access on upcoming videos, so let's keep it growing, and thank you for being part of this amazing community!

Contents

Allies of World War II

The "Big Three" Allied leaders (left to right) at the Yalta Conference, February 1945: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin.
The "Big Three" Allied leaders (left to right) at the Yalta Conference, February 1945: Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin.
Clement Attlee, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945.
Clement Attlee, Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin at the Potsdam Conference, July 1945.
Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
November 28–December 1, 1943 Tehran  Iran [2] Franklin D. Roosevelt Joseph Stalin Also in attendance Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom.

See Tehran Conference

February 4–11, 1945 Yalta  Soviet Union[2] Franklin D. Roosevelt Joseph Stalin Also in attendance Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom. First visit by a United States President to the Soviet Union.[3] See Yalta Conference
July 17–August 2, 1945 Potsdam Allied-occupied Germany[4] Harry S. Truman Joseph Stalin Also in attendance Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee of the United Kingdom.

See Potsdam Conference

Cold War (1953–1962)

Nikita Khrushchev views the wreckage of a downed Lockheed U-2. The 1960 U-2 incident was a major topic at the May 16–17, 1960 summit in Paris.
Nikita Khrushchev views the wreckage of a downed Lockheed U-2. The 1960 U-2 incident was a major topic at the May 16–17, 1960 summit in Paris.
Nikita Khrushchev meeting John F. Kennedy at the Vienna Summit, June 1961
Nikita Khrushchev meeting John F. Kennedy at the Vienna Summit, June 1961
Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
July 18–23, 1955 Geneva   Switzerland[5] Dwight D. Eisenhower Nikita Khrushchev and Nikolai Bulganin Also in attendance Prime Minister Anthony Eden of the United Kingdom and Prime Minister Edgar Faure of France.

See Geneva Summit

September 15, 26–27, 1959 Washington, D.C. and Camp David  United States[6][7] Dwight D. Eisenhower Nikita Khrushchev First visit by a Soviet leader to the United States.
May 16–17, 1960 Paris  France[5] Dwight D. Eisenhower Nikita Khrushchev Also in attendance Prime Minister Harold Macmillan of the United Kingdom and President Charles de Gaulle of France. Khrushchev left the summit due to the dispute over the 1960 U-2 incident.
June 3–4, 1961 Vienna  Austria[8] John F. Kennedy Nikita Khrushchev See Vienna Summit

Cold War (1962–1979)

Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
June 23 and 25, 1967 Glassboro  United States[6] Lyndon B. Johnson Alexei Kosygin See Glassboro Summit Conference
May 22–30, 1972 Moscow  Soviet Union[9] Richard Nixon Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin Signing of the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I), and the U.S.–Soviet Incidents at Sea Agreement. See Moscow Summit (1972).
June 18–25, 1973 Washington, D.C.  United States[6] Richard Nixon Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin Signing of the Agreement on the Prevention of Nuclear War.
June 28–July 3, 1974 Moscow  Soviet Union[9] Richard Nixon Leonid Brezhnev Signing of the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT).
November 23–24, 1974 Vladivostok  Soviet Union[10] Gerald Ford Leonid Brezhnev See Vladivostok Summit Meeting on Arms Control
July 30 and August 2, 1975 Helsinki  Finland[10] Gerald Ford Leonid Brezhnev See Helsinki Accords and Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
June 15–18, 1979 Vienna  Austria[11] Jimmy Carter Leonid Brezhnev Signing of the second Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT II).
Leonid Brezhnev meets with Richard Nixon during the Soviet leader's trip to the U.S. in June 1973
Leonid Brezhnev meets with Richard Nixon during the Soviet leader's trip to the U.S. in June 1973
Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev signing SALT II Treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna
Jimmy Carter and Leonid Brezhnev signing SALT II Treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna

Cold War (1985–1991)

Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House in December 1987
Mikhail Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan sign the INF Treaty at the White House in December 1987
George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev at the Helsinki summit in 1990
George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev at the Helsinki summit in 1990
Date Place Country President of the United States General Secretary or Premier of the Soviet Union Notes
November 19–21, 1985 Geneva   Switzerland[12] Ronald Reagan Mikhail Gorbachev See Geneva Summit
October 10–12, 1986 Reykjavík  Iceland[12] Ronald Reagan Mikhail Gorbachev See Reykjavík Summit
December 7–10, 1987 Washington, D.C.  United States[6] Ronald Reagan Mikhail Gorbachev Signing of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty. See Washington Summit.
May 29–June 1, 1988 Moscow  Soviet Union[12] Ronald Reagan Mikhail Gorbachev See Moscow Summit (1988).
December 7, 1988 New York City  United States[6] Ronald Reagan Mikhail Gorbachev Also in attendance President-elect George H. W. Bush. Gorbachev left the summit early due to the 1988 Spitak earthquake which struck the Armenian S.S.R. that same day.
December 2–3, 1989 Valletta  Malta[13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev See Malta Summit
May 30–June 3, 1990 Washington, D.C.  United States[6] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Signing of the 1990 Chemical Weapons Accord
September 9, 1990 Helsinki  Finland[13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Discussed the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait.[14] See Helsinki Summit
November 19, 1990 Paris  France [13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Signing of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe.
July 17, 1991 London  United Kingdom[13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Held in conjunction with the 17th G7 Summit.
July 30–31, 1991 Moscow  Soviet Union[13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I).
October 29–30, 1991 Madrid  Spain[13] George H. W. Bush Mikhail Gorbachev Held in conjunction with the Madrid Conference of 1991.

See also

References

  1. ^ Fain III, W. Taylor "Chronology: US-Soviet summits, 1943-1991" Archived 2011-11-09 at the Wayback Machine US Department of State Dispatch, August 12, 1991
  2. ^ a b "Travels of President Franklin D. Roosevelt". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  3. ^ "Presidents Travels to Russia". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2012-01-03.
  4. ^ "Travels of President Harry S. Truman". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  5. ^ a b "Travels of President Dwight D. Eisenhower". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Visits By Foreign Leaders of Russia". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2012-01-05.
  7. ^ "1959 Year In Review Khrushchev Visits the United States". United Press International. Archived from the original on 2012-01-05.
  8. ^ "Travels of President John F. Kennedy". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  9. ^ a b "Travels of President Richard M. Nixon". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  10. ^ a b "Travels of President Gerald R. Ford". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  11. ^ "Travels of President Jimmy Carter". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  12. ^ a b c "Travels of President Ronald Reagan". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  13. ^ a b c d e f "Travels of President George H. W. Bush". U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Archived from the original on 2011-12-04.
  14. ^ "Joint News Conference of President Bush and Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev in Helsinki, Finland September 9, 1990". The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on January 5, 2012.

External links

This page was last edited on 26 May 2019, at 21:16
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