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List of Shuttle Carrier Aircraft flights

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carrying the space shuttle Atlantis taking off from Edwards Air Force Base in California on 1 July 2007
A 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft carrying the space shuttle Atlantis taking off from Edwards Air Force Base in California on 1 July 2007
Silhouettes listing the number of ferry and free flights of the various Orbiters and the Phantom Ray on the port side of one of the SCAs
Silhouettes listing the number of ferry and free flights of the various Orbiters and the Phantom Ray on the port side of one of the SCAs

Shuttle Carrier Aircraft ferry flights generally originated at Edwards Air Force Base in California or on one occasion White Sands Space Harbor in New Mexico following missions which landed there, especially in the early days of the Space Shuttle program or when weather at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center prevented ending missions there. Flights generally ended at the SLF. A number of flights began at Armstrong Flight Research Center following delivery of the orbiter from Rockwell International to NASA from the nearby facilities in Palmdale, California.[1][2]

Ferry Flights

  • November 15, 1977 Enterprise, ferry flight test started and ended at the Armstrong Flight Research Center, lasted 3 hours, 21 minutes
  • November 16, 1977 Enterprise, ferry flight test started and ended at the Armstrong Flight Research Center, lasted 4 hours, 17 minutes
  • November 17, 1977 Enterprise, ferry flight test started and ended at the Armstrong Flight Research Center, lasted 4 hours, 13 minutes
  • November 18, 1977 Enterprise, ferry flight test started and ended at the Armstrong Flight Research Center, lasted 3 hours, 37 minutes
  • December 9, 1977 Enterprise, approach and landing flight tests Armstrong Flight Research Center, lasted 3 hours, 37 minutes
  • March 10–13, 1978 Enterprise, ferry flight from Armstrong Flight Research Center to Marshall Space Flight Center (via Ellington Air Force Base) for vertical ground vibration tests at MSFC.
  • April 10, 1979 Enterprise, ferry flight from Marshall Space Flight Center to Kennedy Space Center following vertical ground vibration tests at MSFC.
  • August 10-16, 1979 Enterprise transported from Kennedy Space Center in Florida to Armstrong Flight Research Center in California (via Atlanta, St. Louis, Tulsa, Denver, Hill Air Force Base Utah, Vandenberg Air Force Base) following static tests at KSC
Spectators observe the arrival of the Space Shuttle Enterprise and its modified 747 transport aircraft at Cologne Bonn Airport, May 20, 1983.
Spectators observe the arrival of the Space Shuttle Enterprise and its modified 747 transport aircraft at Cologne Bonn Airport, May 20, 1983.
Longest leg SZL-PMD (1200NM), average leg 690NM
Longest leg SZL-PMD (1200NM), average leg 690NM
#
Mission
SCA
Orbiter
Leg number
Date
Leg
Note
Source
1 Delivery to KSC 905 Columbia (OV-102) 4 20/03/1979 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5]
22/03/1979 Biggs Army Airfield - Kelly Field
23/03/1979 Kelly Field - Eglin AFB
24/03/1979 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
2 STS-1  905 Columbia (OV-102) 2 27/04/1981 Edwards AFB - Tinker AFB N/A [5]
28/04/1981 Tinker AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
3 STS-2  905 Columbia (OV-102) 2 24/11/1981 Edwards AFB - Bergstrom AFB N/A [5]
25/11/1981 Bergstrom AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
4 STS-3  905 Columbia (OV-102) 2 06/04/1982 White Sands Space Harbor - Barskdale AFB N/A [5]
06/04/1982 Barskdale AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
5 Delivery to KSC 905 Challenger (OV-099) 2 04/07/1982 Edwards AFB - Ellington Field N/A [5]
05/07/1982 Ellington Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
6 STS-4  905 Columbia (OV-102) 2 14/07/1982 Edwards AFB - Dyess AFB N/A [5]
15/07/1982 Dyess AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
7 STS-5  905 Columbia (OV-102) 2 21/11/1982 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
22/11/1982 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
8 STS-6  905 Challenger (OV-099) 2 14/04/1983 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
14/04/1983 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
9 STS-7  905 Challenger (OV-099) 2 28/06/1983 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
29/06/1983 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
10 STS-8  905 Challenger (OV-099) 2 09/09/1983 Edwards AFB - Sheppard AFB N/A [5]
09/09/1983 Sheppard AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
11 Delivery to KSC 905 Discovery (OV-103) 3 06/11/1983 Edwards AFB - Vandenberg AFB N/A [5]
08/11/1983 Vandenberg AFB - Carswell AFB
09/11/1983 Carswell AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
12 STS-9  905 Columbia (OV-102) 4 14/12/1983 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5]
14/12/1983 Biggs Army Airfield - Kelly Field
15/12/1983 Kelly Field - Eglin AFB
15/12/1983 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
13 Mods 905 Columbia (OV-102) 2 26/01/1984 Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC - Kelly Field N/A [5]
27/01/1984 Kelly Field - Edwards AFB
14 STS-41C  905 Challenger (OV-099) 2 17/04/1984 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
18/04/1984 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
15 STS-41D  905 Discovery (OV-103) 2 09/09/1984 Edwards AFB - Altus AFB N/A [5]
10/09/1984 Altus AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
16 Delivery to KSC 905 Atlantis (OV-104) 2 12/04/1985 Edwards AFB - Ellington Field N/A [5]
13/04/1985 Ellington Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
17 STS-51-B  905 Challenger (OV-099) 2 10/05/1985 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
11/05/1985 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
18 STS-51-G  905 Discovery (OV-103) 2 28/06/1985 Edwards AFB - Bergstrom AFB N/A [5]
28/06/1985 Bergstrom AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
19 Mods 905 Columbia (OV-102) 2 14/07/1985 Edwards AFB - Offut AFB N/A [5]
14/07/1985 Offut AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
20 STS-51-F  905 Challenger (OV-099) 4 10/08/1985 Edwards AFB - Davis-Monthan AFB N/A [5]
10/08/1985 Davis-Monthan AFB - Kelly Field
11/08/1985 Kelly Field - Eglin AFB
11/08/1985 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
21 STS-51-I  905 Discovery (OV-103) 2 07/09/1985 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
08/09/1985 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
22 STS-51-J  905 Atlantis (OV-104) 2 11/10/1985 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
11/10/1985 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
23 STS-61-A  905 Challenger (OV-099) 4 10/11/1985 Edwards AFB - Davis-Monthan AFB N/A [5]
10/11/1985 Davis-Monthan AFB - Kelly Field
11/11/1985 Kelly Field - Eglin AFB
11/11/1985 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
24 STS-61-B  905 Atlantis (OV-104) 2 07/12/1985 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
07/12/1985 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
25 STS-61-C  905 Columbia (OV-102) 4 22/01/1986 Edwards AFB - Davis-Monthan AFB N/A [5]
22/01/1986 Davis-Monthan AFB - Kelly Field
23/01/1986 Kelly Field - Eglin AFB
23/01/1986 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
26 STS-26  905 Discovery (OV-103) 2 08/10/1988 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
08/10/1988 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
27 STS-27  905 Atlantis (OV-104) 3 11/12/1988 Edwards AFB - Davis-Monthan AFB N/A [5]
12/12/1988 Davis-Monthan AFB - Kelly Field
13/12/1988 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
28 STS-29  905 Discovery (OV-103) 2 23/03/1989 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
24/03/1989 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
29 STS-30  905 Atlantis (OV-104) 4 13/05/1989 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5]
15/05/1989 Biggs Army Airfield - Dallas Fort Worth
15/05/1989 Dallas Fort Worth - Robins AFB
15/05/1989 Robins AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
30 STS-28  905 Columbia (OV-102) 4 18/08/1989 Edwards AFB - Edwards AFB N/A [5]
20/08/1989 Edwards AFB - Sheppard AFB
20/08/1989 Sheppard AFB - Robins AFB
21/08/1989 Robins AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
31 STS-34  905 Atlantis (OV-104) 3 28/10/1989 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5]
28/10/1989 Biggs Army Airfield - Columbus AFB
29/10/1989 Columbus AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
32 STS-33  905 Discovery (OV-103) 4 02/12/1989 Edwards AFB - Edwards AFB N/A [5]
03/12/1989 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field
03/12/1989 Kelly Field - Eglin AFB
04/12/1989 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
33 STS-32  905 Columbia (OV-102) 3 25/01/1990 Edwards AFB - Davis-Monthan AFB N/A [5]
25/01/1990 Davis-Monthan AFB - Kelly Field
26/01/1990 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
34 STS-36  905 Atlantis (OV-104) 4 10/03/1990 Edwards AFB - Edwards AFB N/A [5]
11/03/1990 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield
13/03/1990 Biggs Army Airfield - Columbus AFB
13/03/1990 Columbus AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
35 STS-31  905 Discovery (OV-103) 3 05/05/1990 Edwards AFB - Sheppard AFB N/A [5]
06/05/1990 Sheppard AFB - Robins AFB
07/05/1990 Robins AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
36 STS-41  905 Discovery (OV-103) 3 15/10/1990 Edwards AFB - Sheppard AFB N/A [5]
15/10/1990 Sheppard AFB - Eglin AFB
16/10/1990 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
37 STS-35  905 Columbia (OV-102) 5 16/12/1990 Edwards AFB - Edwards AFB N/A [5]
18/12/1990 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield
18/12/1990 Biggs Army Airfield - Kelly Field
19/12/1990 Kelly Field - Barskdale AFB
21/12/1990 Barskdale AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
38 STS-37  905 Atlantis (OV-104) 4 16/04/1991 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
16/04/1991 Kelly Field - Columbus AFB
17/04/1991 Columbus AFB - McDill AFB
18/04/1991 McDill AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
39 Delivery to KSC 911 Endeavour (OV-105) 6 02/05/1991 Plant 42, Palmdale - Plant 42, Palmdale N/A [5]
03/05/1991 Plant 42, Palmdale - Biggs Army Airfield
05/05/1991 Biggs Army Airfield - Kelly Field
06/05/1991 Kelly Field - Ellington Field
06/05/1991 Ellington Field - Columbus AFB
07/05/1991 Columbus AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
40 STS-40  905 Columbia (OV-102) 4 19/06/1991 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5]
20/06/1991 Biggs Army Airfield - Kelly Field
20/06/1991 Kelly Field - Columbus AFB
21/06/1991 Columbus AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
41 OMDP 911 Columbia (OV-102) 4 09/08/1991 Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC N/A [5]
10/08/1991 Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC - McDill AFB
12/08/1991 McDill AFB - Kelly Field
13/08/1991 Kelly Field - Plant 42, Palmdale
42 STS-48  911 Discovery (OV-103) 4 24/09/1991 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5]
24/09/1991 Biggs Army Airfield - Tinker AFB
25/09/1991 Tinker AFB - Columbus AFB
26/09/1991 Columbus AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
43 STS-44  911 Atlantis (OV-104) 2 07/12/1991 Edwards AFB - Sheppard AFB N/A [5]
08/12/1991 Sheppard AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
44 OMDP 905 Columbia (OV-102) 3 07/02/1992 Plant 42, Palmdale - Plant 42, Palmdale N/A [5]
09/02/1992 Plant 42, Palmdale - Kelly Field
09/02/1992 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
45 STS-42  905 Discovery (OV-103) 5 11/02/1992 Edwards AFB - Edwards AFB N/A [5]
14/02/1992 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield
15/02/1992 Biggs Army Airfield - Columbus AFB
16/02/1992 Kelly Field - Columbus AFB
16/02/1992 Columbus AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
46 STS-49  911 Endeavour (OV-105) 4 21/05/1992 Edwards AFB - Edwards AFB N/A [5]
27/05/1992 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield
29/05/1992 Biggs Army Airfield - Kelly Field
30/05/1992 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
47 OMDP 911 Atlantis (OV-104) 3 18/10/1992 Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC - Gregg County N/A [5]
18/10/1992 Gregg County - Biggs Army Airfield
18/10/1992 Biggs Army Airfield - Plant 42, Palmdale
48 STS-53  911 Discovery (OV-103) 3 15/12/1992 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
18/12/1992 Kelly Field - Eglin AFB
18/12/1992 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
49 STS-55  905 Columbia (OV-102) 4 11/05/1993 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5]
12/05/1993 Biggs Army Airfield - Kelly Field
12/05/1993 Kelly Field - Columbus AFB
14/05/1993 Columbus AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
50 STS-58  911 Columbia (OV-102) 4 07/11/1993 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5]
07/11/1993 Biggs Army Airfield - Kelly Field
07/11/1993 Kelly Field - Columbus AFB
08/11/1993 Columbus AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
51 STS-59  911 Endeavour (OV-105) 4 26/04/1994 Edwards AFB - Edwards AFB N/A [5]
30/04/1994 Edwards AFB - El Paso
01/05/1994 El Paso - Little Rock AFB
03/05/1994 Little Rock AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
52 OMDP 911 Atlantis (OV-104) 4 27/05/1994 Plant 42, Palmdale - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5]
28/05/1994 Biggs Army Airfield - Columbus AFB
28/05/1994 Columbus AFB - Robins AFB
29/05/1994 Robins AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
53 STS-64  905 Discovery (OV-103) 2 26/09/1994 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
27/09/1994 Kelly Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
54 OMDP 905 Columbia (OV-102) 4 08/10/1994 Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC - Huntsville N/A [5][6]
10/10/1994 Huntsville - Ellington Field
11/10/1994 Ellington Field - Biggs Army Airfield
11/10/1994 Biggs Army Airfield - Plant 42, Palmdale
55 STS-68  911 Endeavour (OV-105) 4 19/10/1994 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5][7]
19/10/1994 Biggs Army Airfield - Dyess AFB
20/10/1994 Dyess AFB - Eglin AFB
20/10/1994 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
56 STS-66  911 Atlantis (OV-104) 3 21/11/1994 Edwards AFB - Kelly Field N/A [5]
21/11/1994 Kelly Field - Eglin AFB
22/11/1994 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
57 STS-67  905 Endeavour (OV-105) 3 26/03/1995 Edwards AFB - Dyess AFB N/A [5]
27/03/1995 Dyess AFB - Columbus AFB
27/03/1995 Columbus AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
58 OMDP 905 Columbia (OV-102) 2 11/04/1995 Plant 42, Palmdale - Ellington Field N/A [5]
14/04/1995 Ellington Field - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
59 OMDP 905 Discovery (OV-103) 3 27/09/1995 Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC - NASJRB Fort Worth N/A [5]
27/09/1995 NASJRB Fort Worth - Salt Lake City
28/09/1995 Salt Lake City - Plant 42, Palmdale
60 STS-76  905 Atlantis (OV-104) 5 06/04/1996 Edwards AFB - Edwards AFB N/A [5][8]
11/04/1996 Edwards AFB - Davis-Monthan AFB
11/04/1996 Davis-Monthan AFB - Dyess AFB
12/04/1996 Dyess AFB - Eglin AFB
12/04/1996 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
61 OMDP 911 Discovery (OV-103) 4 25/06/1996 Plant 42, Palmdale - Plant 42, Palmdale N/A [5]
28/06/1996 Plant 42, Palmdale - Altus AFB
28/06/1996 Altus AFB - Robins AFB
29/06/1996 Robins AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
62 OMDP 911 Endeavour (OV-105) 2 30/07/1996 Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC - Kelly Field N/A [5]
30/07/1996 Kelly Field - Plant 42, Palmdale
63 OMDP 905 Endeavour (OV-105) 4 25/03/1997 Plant 42, Palmdale - Plant 42, Palmdale N/A [5]
26/03/1997 Plant 42, Palmdale - NASJRB Fort Worth
26/03/1997 NASJRB Fort Worth - Robins AFB
27/03/1997 Robins AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
64 OMDP 911 Atlantis (OV-104) 2 11/11/1997 Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC - Tinker AFB N/A [5]
14/11/1997 Tinker AFB - Plant 42, Palmdale
65 OMDP 905 Atlantis (OV-104) 4 22/09/1998 Plant 42, Palmdale - Plant 42, Palmdale N/A [5]
23/09/1998 Plant 42, Palmdale - Robert Gray Army Airfield
23/09/1998 Robert Gray Army Airfield - Campbell Army Airfield
27/09/1998 Campbell Army Airfield - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
66 OMM 905 Columbia (OV-102) 2 24/09/1999 Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC - Whiteman AFB N/A [5]
25/09/1999 Whiteman AFB - Plant 42, Palmdale
67 STS-92 905 Discovery (OV-103) 3 02/11/2000 Edwards AFB - Altus AFB N/A [5]
02/11/2000 Altus AFB - Whiteman AFB
03/11/2000 Whiteman AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
68 OMM 905 Columbia (OV-102) 3 01/03/2001 Plant 42, Palmdale - Dyess AFB N/A [5]
04/03/2001 Dyess AFB - Cape Canaveral AFS
05/03/2001 Cape Canaveral AFS - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
69 STS-98  911 Atlantis (OV-104) 4 01/03/2001 Edwards AFB - Altus AFB N/A [5]
03/03/2001 Altus AFB - Barskdale AFB
03/03/2001 Barskdale AFB - Eglin AFB
04/03/2001 Eglin AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
70 STS-100  905 Endeavour (OV-105) 3 08/05/2001 Edwards AFB - Altus AFB N/A [5]
08/05/2001 Altus AFB - Little Rock AFB
09/05/2001 Little Rock AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
71 STS-111  911 Endeavour (OV-105) 3 28/06/2002 Edwards AFB - Altus AFB N/A [5]
28/06/2002 Altus AFB - Whiteman AFB
29/06/2002 Whiteman AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
72 STS-114  905 Discovery (OV-103) 3 19/08/2005 Edwards AFB - Altus AFB N/A [5]
19/08/2005 Altus AFB - Barskdale AFB
21/08/2005 Barskdale AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
73 STS-117  905 Atlantis (OV-104) 4 01/07/2007 Edwards AFB - Amarillo N/A [5]
01/07/2007 Amarillo - Offut AFB
02/07/2007 Offut AFB - Campbell Army Airfield
03/07/2007 Campbell Army Airfield - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
74 STS-126  911 Endeavour (OV-105) 4 10/12/2008 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5]
10/12/2008 Biggs Army Airfield - NASJRB Fort Worth
11/12/2008 NASJRB Fort Worth - Barskdale AFB
12/12/2008 Barskdale AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
75 STS-125  911 Atlantis (OV-104) 4 01/06/2009 Edwards AFB - Biggs Army Airfield N/A [5]
02/06/2009 Biggs Army Airfield - Kelly Field
02/06/2009 Kelly Field - Columbus AFB
02/06/2009 Columbus AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC
76 STS-128  911 Discovery (OV-103) 4 20/09/2009 Edwards AFB - Amarillo N/A [5]
20/09/2009 Amarillo - NASJRB Fort Worth
20/09/2009 NASJRB Fort Worth - Barskdale AFB
21/09/2009 Barskdale AFB - Shuttle Landing Facility, KSC

Other transportation methods

Overland

Space shuttle orbiters were constructed in Palmdale, California and transported overland to the Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC), a distance of 36 miles. The shuttle carrier aircraft was not used for this initial leg of the journey but was used to transport the orbiters to the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Additionally the orbiters were routinely towed from the Shuttle Landing Facility to the Orbiter Processing Facility after landing at the Kennedy Space Center either after missions or after removal from the SCA.[1]

Barge

[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c "STS Chronology". NASA.
  2. ^ Mark, Hans (1987). The space station : a personal journey. Durham: Duke University Press. pp. 156. ISBN 978-0822307273.
  3. ^ Mark, Hans (1987). The Space Station: A Personal Journey. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. pp. 157–161. ISBN 978-0822307273.
  4. ^ "Shuttle Enterprise begins international tour". www.upi.com. United Press International Inc. May 16, 1983. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx NASA (2020-12-31). "SPACE TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM HAER No. TX-116" (PDF). NASA. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  6. ^ https://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/shuttleoperations/status/1994/status-19941010.html
  7. ^ https://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/shuttleoperations/status/1994/status-19941021.html
  8. ^ https://www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/shuttleoperations/status/1996/status-19960412.html
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