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List of Secretaries of State of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

United States Secretary of State
Seal of the United States Secretary of State.svg
Official Seal
Incumbent
Mike Pompeo

since April 26, 2018
United States Department of State
AppointerPresident of United States
Inaugural holderJohn Jay (acting)
Thomas Jefferson
FormationJuly 27, 1789
SuccessionFourth
Websitewww.state.gov

This is a list of Secretaries of State of the United States.

Secretaries of Foreign Affairs (1781–1789)

List of Secretaries of State

  Denotes acting Secretary of State
No. Secretary State of Residence Took office Left office President(s)
John Jay
John Jay

Acting

New York September 15, 1789 March 22, 1790 George Washington
(Unafilliated)
1
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson Virginia March 22, 1790 December 31, 1793
2
Edmund Randolph
Edmund J. Randolph Virginia January 2, 1794 August 20, 1795
3
Timothy Pickering
Timothy Pickering Pennsylvania[1] August 20, 1795 December 10, 1795[B]
December 10, 1795 March 4, 1797
March 4, 1797 May 12, 1800 John Adams
(Federalist)
Charles Lee, AG.png
Charles Lee[C]
Acting
Virginia May 13, 1800 June 5, 1800
4
John Marshall
John Marshall Virginia June 13, 1800 March 4, 1801
LeviLincoln.gif
Levi Lincoln Sr.[C]
Acting
Massachusetts March 5, 1801 May 1, 1801 Thomas Jefferson
(Democratic-Republican)
5
James Madison
James Madison Virginia May 2, 1801 March 3, 1809
6
Robert Smith
Robert Smith Maryland March 6, 1809 April 1, 1811 James Madison
(Democratic-Republican)
7
James Monroe
James Monroe Virginia April 2, 1811 March 3, 1817
John Graham

Acting

Kentucky March 4, 1817 March 9, 1817 James Monroe
(Democratic-Republican)
Portrait of Richard Rush.jpg
Richard Rush[C]
Acting
Pennsylvania March 10, 1817 September 22, 1817
8
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams Massachusetts September 22, 1817 March 3, 1825
Daniel Brent
Acting
Virginia March 4, 1825 March 7, 1825 John Quincy Adams
(Democratic-Republican)
9
Henry Clay
Henry Clay Kentucky March 7, 1825 March 3, 1829
James A. Hamilton
Acting
New York March 4, 1829 March 27, 1829 Andrew Jackson
(Democratic)
10
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren New York March 28, 1829 May 23, 1831
11
Edward Livingston
Edward Livingston Louisiana May 24, 1831 May 29, 1833
12
Louis McLane
Louis McLane Delaware May 29, 1833 June 30, 1834
13
John Forsyth
John Forsyth Georgia July 1, 1834 March 4, 1837
March 4, 1837 March 3, 1841 Martin Van Buren
(Democratic)
Jacob L. Martin
Acting
District of Columbia March 4, 1841 March 5, 1841 William Harrison
(Whig)
14
Daniel Webster
Daniel Webster Massachusetts March 6, 1841 April 4, 1841
April 4, 1841 May 8, 1843 John Tyler
(Whig)
Hugh S. Legaré.jpg
Hugh S. Legaré
Acting
South Carolina May 9, 1843 June 20, 1843
William S. Derrick
Acting
Pennsylvania June 21, 1843 June 23, 1843
15
Abel P. Upshur
Abel P. Upshur Virginia June 24, 1843 July 23, 1843[D]
July 24, 1843 February 28, 1844
John Nelson
John Nelson[C]
Acting
Maryland February 29, 1844 March 31, 1844
16
John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun South Carolina April 1, 1844 March 10, 1845[E]
17
James Buchanan
James Buchanan Pennsylvania March 10, 1845 March 7, 1849[E] James K. Polk[E]
(Democratic)
18
John M. Clayton
John M. Clayton Delaware March 8, 1849 July 9, 1850 Zachary Taylor
(Whig)
July 9, 1850 July 22, 1850 Millard Fillmore
(Whig)
19
Daniel Webster
Daniel Webster Massachusetts July 23, 1850 October 24, 1852
Charles Magill Conrad.jpg
Charles M. Conrad[B]
Acting
Louisiana October 25, 1852 November 5, 1852
20
Edward Everett
Edward Everett Massachusetts November 6, 1852 March 3, 1853
William Hunter (Asst. Sec. of State).jpg
William Hunter[F]
Acting
Rhode Island March 4, 1853 March 7, 1853 Franklin Pierce
(Democratic)
21
William L. Marcy
William L. Marcy New York March 7, 1853 March 6, 1857[E]
22
Lewis Cass
Lewis Cass Michigan March 6, 1857 December 14, 1860 James Buchanan
(Democratic)
William Hunter (Asst. Sec. of State).jpg
William Hunter[F]
Acting
Rhode Island December 15, 1860 December 16, 1860
23
Jermiah S. Black
Jeremiah S. Black Pennsylvania December 17, 1860 March 5, 1861[E]
24
William H. Seward
William H. Seward New York March 5, 1861 April 15, 1865 Abraham Lincoln
(Republican)
April 15, 1865 March 4, 1869 Andrew Johnson
(Democratic)
25
Elihu B. Washburne
Elihu B. Washburne Illinois March 5, 1869 March 16, 1869 Ulysses S. Grant
(Republican)
26
Hamilton Fish
Hamilton Fish New York March 17, 1869 March 4, 1877
March 4, 1877 March 12, 1877[E] Rutherford B. Hayes[E]
(Republican)
27
William M. Evarts
William M. Evarts New York March 12, 1877 March 7, 1881
28
James G. Blaine
James G. Blaine Maine March 7, 1881 September 19, 1881 James A. Garfield
(Republican)
September 19, 1881 December 19, 1881 Chester A. Arthur
(Republican)
29
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen
Frederick T. Frelinghuysen New Jersey December 19, 1881 March 6, 1885[E]
30
Thomas F. Bayard
Thomas F. Bayard Delaware March 7, 1885 March 6, 1889 Grover Cleveland[E]
(Democratic)
31
James G. Blaine
James G. Blaine Maine March 7, 1889 June 4, 1892 Benjamin Harrison
(Republican)
William F. Wharton.jpg
William F. Wharton[G]
Acting
Massachusetts June 4, 1892 June 29, 1892
32
John W. Foster
John W. Foster Indiana June 29, 1892 February 23, 1893
William F. Wharton.jpg
William F. Wharton[G]
Acting
Massachusetts February 24, 1893 March 6, 1893
Grover Cleveland
(Democratic)
33
Walter Q. Gresham
Walter Q. Gresham Illinois[2] March 7, 1893 May 28, 1895
Edwin F. Uhl
Edwin F. Uhl[G]
Acting
Michigan May 28, 1895 June 9, 1895
34
Richard Olney
Richard Olney Massachusetts June 10, 1895 March 5, 1897[E]
35
John Sherman
John Sherman Ohio March 6, 1897 April 27, 1898 William McKinley
(Republican)
36
William R. Day
William R. Day Ohio April 28, 1898 September 16, 1898
AAAoftheState.jpg
Alvey A. Adee[H]
Acting
New York September 17, 1898 September 29, 1898
37
John Hay District of Columbia September 30, 1898 September 14, 1901
September 14, 1901 July 1, 1905 Theodore Roosevelt
(Republican)
Francis B. Loomis (sketch).gif
Francis B. Loomis[G]
Acting
Ohio July 1, 1905 July 18, 1905
38
Elihu Root
Elihu Root New York July 19, 1905 January 27, 1909
39
Robert Bacon
Robert Bacon New York January 27, 1909 March 5, 1909[E]
40
Philander C. Knox
Philander C. Knox Pennsylvania March 6, 1909 March 5, 1913 William Howard Taft[E]
(Republican)
41
William Jennings Bryan
William Jennings Bryan Nebraska March 5, 1913 June 9, 1915 Woodrow Wilson
(Democratic)
42
Robert Lansing
Robert Lansing New York June 9, 1915 June 23, 1915
June 24, 1915 February 13, 1920
Frank Polk
Frank Polk[I]
Acting
New York February 14, 1920 March 12, 1920
43
Bainbridge Colby
Bainbridge Colby New York March 23, 1920 March 4, 1921
44
Charles Evans Hughes
Charles Evans Hughes New York March 5, 1921 August 2, 1923 Warren G. Harding
(Republican)
August 2, 1923 March 4, 1925 Calvin Coolidge
(Republican)
45
Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg Minnesota March 5, 1925 March 4, 1929
March 4, 1929 March 28, 1929 Herbert Hoover
(Republican)
46
Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson New York March 28, 1929 March 4, 1933
47
Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull Tennessee March 4, 1933 November 30, 1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt
(Democratic)
48
Edward Stettinius Jr.
Edward Stettinius Jr. Virginia December 1, 1944 April 12, 1945
April 12, 1945 June 27, 1945 Harry S. Truman
(Democratic)
Ambassador Grew.jpg
Joseph Grew[I]
Acting
New Hampshire June 28, 1945 July 3, 1945
49
James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes South Carolina July 3, 1945 January 21, 1947
50
George C. Marshall
George C. Marshall Pennsylvania January 21, 1947 January 20, 1949
51
Dean G. Acheson
Dean Acheson Maryland[3] January 21, 1949 January 20, 1953
H. Freeman Matthews 1956.jpg
Harrison F. Matthews[I]
Acting
Maryland January 20, 1953 January 21, 1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower
(Republican)
52
John Foster Dulles
John Foster Dulles New York January 21, 1953 April 22, 1959
53
Christian A. Herter
Christian Herter Massachusetts April 22, 1959 January 20, 1961
Livingston T. Merchant.jpg
Livingston T. Merchant
Acting
District of Columbia January 20, 1961 January 21, 1961 John F. Kennedy
(Democratic)
54
Dean Rusk
Dean Rusk New York[4] January 21, 1961 November 22, 1963
November 22, 1963 January 20, 1969 Lyndon B. Johnson
(Democratic)
Charles Bohlen.png
Charles E. Bohlen
Acting
District of Columbia January 20, 1969 January 22, 1969 Richard Nixon
(Republican)
55
William P. Rogers
William P. Rogers Maryland January 22, 1969 September 3, 1973
Kenneth-Rush-1977.jpg
Kenneth Rush
Acting
Florida September 3, 1973 September 22, 1973
56
Henry A. Kissinger
Henry Kissinger District of Columbia September 22, 1973 August 9, 1974
August 9, 1974 January 20, 1977[5] Gerald Ford
(Republican)
Philiphabib cropped.jpg
Philip Habib
Acting
California January 20, 1977 January 23, 1977 Jimmy Carter
(Democratic)
57
Cyrus R. Vance
Cy Vance New York[6] January 23, 1977 April 28, 1980[7]
Warren Christopher.jpg
Warren Christopher[K][8]
Acting
California April 28, 1980 May 2, 1980
Newsom 1975.png
David D. Newsom[L][8]
Acting
May 2, 1980 May 3, 1980
May 3, 1980 May 3, 1980
Newsom 1975.png
David D. Newsom[L][8]
Acting
May 3, 1980 May 4, 1980
Warren Christopher.jpg
Warren Christopher[K][8]
Acting
California May 4, 1980 May 8, 1980
58
Edmund Muskie
Edmund Muskie Maine May 8, 1980 January 20, 1981[9]
59
Alexander Haig
Alexander Haig Connecticut January 22, 1981 July 5, 1982[10] Ronald Reagan
(Republican)
Walter J. Stoessel Jr.
Walter J. Stoessel Jr.[K]
Acting
California July 5, 1982 July 16, 1982
60
George P. Shultz
George P. Shultz California July 16, 1982 January 20, 1989[11]
Michael Armacost
Michael Armacost[L]
Acting
Maryland January 20, 1989 January 25, 1989 George H. W. Bush
(Republican)
61
James Baker
James Baker Texas January 25, 1989 August 23, 1992[12]
62
Lawrence Eagleburger
Lawrence Eagleburger Florida[13] August 23, 1992 December 8, 1992[K][14]
December 8, 1992 January 19, 1993[15]
Arnold Kanter[L][16]
Acting
Virginia January 20, 1993 Bill Clinton
(Democratic)
Frank G. Wisner as Ambassador.png
Frank G. Wisner[N][16]
Acting
District of Columbia January 20, 1993
63
Warren Christopher
Warren Christopher California January 20, 1993 January 17, 1997[17]
64
Madeleine Albright
Madeleine Albright District of Columbia January 23, 1997 January 20, 2001[18]
65
Colin Powell
Colin Powell Virginia January 20, 2001 January 26, 2005[19] George W. Bush
(Republican)
66
Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice California January 26, 2005 January 20, 2009[20]
AmbassadorBurns.jpg
William Joseph Burns[L]
Acting
District of Columbia January 20, 2009 January 21, 2009[21] Barack Obama
(Democratic)
67
Hillary Rodham Clinton New York January 21, 2009 February 1, 2013[22]
68
John Kerry Massachusetts February 1, 2013 January 20, 2017[23]
Thomas Shannon
Tom Shannon[L]
Acting
Minnesota January 20, 2017 February 1, 2017[24][25][26] Donald Trump
(Republican)
69
Rex Tillerson
Rex Tillerson Texas February 1, 2017 March 31, 2018
John J. Sullivan
John J. Sullivan[K]
Acting
Massachusetts April 1, 2018 April 26, 2018
70
Mike Pompeo official photo (cropped).jpg
Mike Pompeo Kansas April 26, 2018 Incumbent

List of Secretaries of State by time in office

11 years, 271 daysCordell Hull from 1933 to 1944
11 years, 271 days
Cordell Hull from 1933 to 1944
7 years, 364 daysDean Rusk from 1961 to 1969
7 years, 364 days
Dean Rusk from 1961 to 1969
7 years, 364 daysWilliam H. Seward from 1861 to 1869
7 years, 364 days
William H. Seward from 1861 to 1869
43 daysLawrence Eagleburger from 1992 to 1993
43 days
Lawrence Eagleburger from 1992 to 1993
37 daysRobert Bacon in 1909
37 days
Robert Bacon in 1909
11 daysElihu B. Washburne in 1869
11 days
Elihu B. Washburne in 1869

This is a list of United States Secretaries of State by time in office. This is based on the difference between dates; if counted by number of calendar days all the figures would be one greater.

Cordell Hull is the only person to have served as Secretary of State for more than eight years. Daniel Webster and James G. Blaine are the only Secretaries of State to have ever served non-consecutive terms. Elihu B. Washburne served as Secretary of State for less than two weeks before becoming Ambassador to France.

# in office Secretary Length of service
(days)
Rank
47 Cordell Hull 4289 1
54 Dean Rusk 2921 2
24 William H. Seward 2921
8 John Quincy Adams 2920 4
26 Hamilton Fish 2917 5
5 James Madison 2862 6
37 John Hay 2465 7
13 John Forsyth 2437 8
60 George P. Shultz 2380 9
52 John Foster Dulles 2282 10
7 James Monroe 2011 11
42 Robert Lansing 1695 12
55 William P. Rogers 1685 13
14/19 Daniel Webster 1617 14
3 Timothy Pickering 1614 15
45 Frank B. Kellogg 1484 16
28/31 James G. Blaine 1472 17
67 Hillary Clinton 1472
65 Colin Powell 1467 19
51 Dean Acheson 1460 20
21 William L. Marcy 1460
30 Thomas F. Bayard Sr. 1460
40 Philander C. Knox 1460
44 Charles Evans Hughes 1460
63 Warren Christopher 1458 25
64 Madeleine Albright 1458
17 James Buchanan 1458
9 Henry Clay 1457 28
27 William M. Evarts 1456 29
66 Condoleezza Rice 1455 30
68 John Kerry 1449 31
46 Henry L. Stimson 1437 32
1 Thomas Jefferson 1380 33
22 Lewis Cass 1379 34
61 James Baker 1306 35
38 Elihu Root 1288 36
56 Henry Kissinger 1216 37
57 Cyrus Vance 1191 38
29 Frederick T. Frelinghuysen 1173 39
41 William Jennings Bryan 826 40
33 Walter Q. Gresham 812 41
10 Martin Van Buren 786 42
70 Mike Pompeo 760 43
6 Robert Smith 756 44
11 Edward Livingston 736 45
50 George Marshall 730 46
53 Christian Herter 639 47
34 Richard Olney 634 48
2 Edmund Randolph 595 49
49 James F. Byrnes 567 50
59 Alexander Haig 529 51
18 John M. Clayton 501 52
69 Rex Tillerson 423 53
35 John Sherman 417 54
12 Louis McLane 397 55
43 Bainbridge Colby 346 56
16 John C. Calhoun 343 57
4 John Marshall 264 58
58 Edmund Muskie 257 59
32 John W. Foster 239 60
15 Abel P. Upshur 219 61
48 Edward Stettinius Jr. 208 62
36 William R. Day 141 63
20 Edward Everett 117 64
23 Jeremiah S. Black 78 65
62 Lawrence Eagleburger 43 66
39 Robert Bacon 37 67
25 Elihu B. Washburne 11 68

Living former Secretaries of State

As of May 2020, there are nine living former Secretaries of State (with all Secretaries that have served since 1997 still living), the oldest being George Shultz (served 1982–1989, born 1920). The most recent Secretary of State to die was Lawrence Eagleburger (served 1992–1993, born 1930), on June 4, 2011. The most recently serving Secretary of State to die was Warren Christopher (served 1993–1997, born 1925) on March 18, 2011.

Notes

References

  1. ^ Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Timothy Pickering
  2. ^ Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Walter Quintin Gresham
  3. ^ Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Dean Gooderham Acheson
  4. ^ Biographies of the Secretaries of State: David Dean Rusk
  5. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Henry A. (Heinz Alfred) Kissinger (1923–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  6. ^ Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Cyrus Roberts Vance
  7. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Cyrus Roberts Vance (1917–2002)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  8. ^ a b c d Allexperts.com – Secretary of State Archived 2012-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Edmund Sixtus Muskie (1914–1996)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  10. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Alexander Meigs Haig Jr. (1924–2010)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  11. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: George Pratt Shultz (1920–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  12. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: James Addison Baker III (1930–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  13. ^ Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger
  14. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (1930–2011)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian. Served as Acting Secretary of State, Aug 23-Dec 8, 1992.
  15. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (1930–2011)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  16. ^ a b and, Thomas L. Friedman. "Clinton Rounds Out State Dept. Team". nytimes.com. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  17. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Warren Minor Christopher (1925–2011)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  18. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Madeleine Korbel Albright (1937–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  19. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Colin Luther Powell (1937–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  20. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Condoleezza Rice (1954–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  21. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Condoleezza Rice (1954–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian. Under Secretary for Political Affairs William J. Burns served as Acting Secretary of State, January 20-21, 2009.
  22. ^ "Biographies of the Secretaries of State: Hillary Rodham Clinton (1947–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  23. ^ "John Forbes Kerry (1943–)". U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian.
  24. ^ Herman, Steve. "Career Diplomat Becomes Acting Secretary of State with Trump Inauguration". voanews.com. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  25. ^ News, ABC. "ABC News". ABC News. Retrieved March 14, 2018.
  26. ^ "Under Secretary of State Shannon meets Tillerson: U.S. official". January 19, 2017. Retrieved March 14, 2018 – via Reuters.

Further reading

  • Bemis, Samuel Flagg, ed. The American secretaries of state and their diplomacy (19 vol., 1963( scholarly biographies.
  • Graebner, Norman A., ed. An Uncertain Tradition: American Secretaries of State in the Twentieth Century (1961) scholarly essays on John Hay through John Foster Dulles.
  • Hopkins, Michael F. "President Harry Truman's Secretaries of State: Stettinius, Byrnes, Marshall and Acheson." Journal of Transatlantic Studies 6.3 (2008): 290-304.
  • Mihalkanin Edward, ed. American Statesmen: Secretaries of State from John Jay to Colin Powell (2004); short scholarly articles by experts; 572pp online

External links

This page was last edited on 25 May 2020, at 13:02
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