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List of Roman domes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Pantheon in Rome. Largest dome in the world for more than 1,300 years
The Pantheon in Rome. Largest dome in the world for more than 1,300 years
Oculus of the Pantheon.
Oculus of the Pantheon.

This is a list of Roman domes. The Romans were the first builders in the history of architecture to realize the potential of domes for the creation of large and well-defined interior spaces.[1] Domes were introduced in a number of Roman building types such as temples, thermae, palaces, mausolea and later also churches. Half-domes also became a favoured architectural element and were adopted as apses in Christian sacred architecture.

Monumental domes began to appear in the 1st century BC in Rome and the provinces around the Mediterranean Sea. Along with vaults and trusses, they gradually replaced the traditional post and lintel construction which makes use of the column and architrave. The construction of domes was greatly facilitated by the invention of concrete, a process which has been termed the Roman Architectural Revolution.[2] Their enormous dimensions remained unsurpassed until the introduction of structural steel frames in the late 19th century (see List of the world's largest domes).[1][3][4]

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Transcription

The Romans invented concrete over two thousands years ago and built roads which are still around today. They used arches and domes to create monumental buildings with big airy interiors that looked truly Olympian—also still around. And they moved thousands of tons of water using aqueducts to keep a bustling population un-thirsty. These old buildings? Also still around! But did the Romans come up with ideas about physics? Like why arches support weight differently than right-angled structures? Did they ask proto-chemistry questions—that is, “what is stuff?”—such as which tiny things make up a good concrete? Nope. Let’s look at what knowledge the Romans made in order to set up a debate that, spoiler alert, is still going on: do you understand something when you can explain why it’s true, in the abstract? Or do you understand something when you can do things with it, even if you can’t explain why? [Intro Music Plays] The Romans inherited much of their knowledge from the Greeks. From 323 to 31 BCE, the geometry, physics, astronomy, and other disciplines developed by the Presocratics, Plato, and Aristotle spread throughout the Hellenistic world. This “world” combined the parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe influenced by Greek thought due in large part to Alexander’s brief supervillain rampage. In Alexandria, Egypt—the biggest of the seventy cities that Alexander named after himself—the kings paid for the Museum, or “house of the muses.” This wasn’t a museum in the modern sense of the word but more like a research university. In Pergamon, in what is now Turkey, the kings paid for the Library, which was—wait for it—a really big collection of books. These institutions lasted for centuries, drawing visitors from far and wide. Alas, over the same period of time that these Greeks were supporting research, a tribe from central Italy called the Romans went on a new supervillain rampage… that also lasted for centuries. The Romans would continue to spread classical Greek thought: we even call their culture “Greco-Roman.” But natural philosophy during Greco-Roman times didn’t advance much. Today, we remember the Romans for their engineering—or ability to improve some real-world system—not their deep thoughts about why the world is the way it is. Roman engineering built on Greek engineering. Making knowledge is political, and most politicians really want the same thing: bigger catapults and lots of ships. So Greco-Roman leaders did what heads of state everywhere have always done: they paid smart people to make bigger weapons. In the ancient Mediterranean, the job of building warmachines was called architecton, or architect. Most of these “architects” were anonymous and didn’t write down theories. But, a few of them did. The most famous architecton, Archimedes of Syracuse, fought for the Greeks against the Romans. Archimedes is famous today as a mathematician: he worked out many geometrical proofs including the area of a circle, and pioneered infinitesimals and exponents. Archimedes also invented a lot of useful contraptions, including the water screw and compound pulley. The water screw pumps water by turning a screw inside a pipe. This was immediately useful in irrigation. And a mechanical way to move water uphill is just plain cool! Archimedes also designed various warmachines to kill the Romans who were trying to take over his hometown. He was so impressive that the Roman general ordered his troops to capture, not kill, him. But one soldier particularly low on chill got frustrated when Archimedes wouldn’t stop working on a mathematical proof. In a sense, Archimedes kept it so real that he got himself and, symbolically, an era of Greek science killed. Archimedes was interested in some of the natural philosophy that explained his machines, but for most other thinkers of his time, astronomy, physics, and math were important for abstract, quasi-religious reasons. Making weapons was a matter of political power. The heavens from which rain fell were perfect and abstract. Shipbuilding was an art, something learned from practice. It was not a matter of understanding hydrodynamics, or the chemical properties of wood that make it bendy and floaty. Aristotle came up with a handy division between these types of knowledge that we still use today. He classified knowledge as either “useful” or “theoretical.” Useful knowledge was called technē, which is where we get “technology.” “Technology” has until recently, in historical terms, been connected to the idea of “art”—meaning something you learn by doing, and can see in the real world. Theoretical knowledge, on the other hand, was epistēmē—the root of our word epistemology, the study of knowledge. Epistēmē is the sort of knowledge we most associate with “science.” Science is abstract, represented by formulas. When historians of science talk about the possibilities of what we can know, they use the word “epistemic.” One of the most influential thinkers working on epistemic questions during the Greco-Roman period was Claudius Ptolemy, a Greek or Greek-speaking southern Egyptian living in Roman-held Alexandria. In addition to optics and the science of music, Ptolemy took up Plato’s old problem of how to fit the observed data about how the planets move to the theory of a cosmos made of perfect circles with earth at its center. He got really, really into this, mixing together three kinds of solutions in order to make the math work: epicycles, for example, were the tiny circles that the planets moved along… around bigger circles. Ptolemy’s version of the cosmos, a mathematically neater version of Aristotle’s and Plato’s, became the basis of the understanding of the universe across much of the medieval Christian and Islamic world. His great astronomical work, the Mathematical Syntaxis, was renamed by Arabic scholars as the Almagest, or The Greatest. Fun fact: the Almagest may have been edited by one of the first recorded female natural philosophers, Hypatia of Alexandria. So we’re on episode six of History of Science and, yes, this is the first mention of a woman... Ptolemy was also pretty much the authority on earthly geography in the Greco-Roman world. His book on the subject, called Geography, discusses the data he uses and why. It provided a resource for other scholars to use in more accurately picturing and drawing the world, for centuries. Oh, and none of these thinkers thought that the earth was flat. Flat earth theory may have more proponents today than it did in Greco-Roman times. As Ptolemy shows, epistemic work was important to a few Greco-Romans. But what they’re really remembered for is their technē, their engineering. For example, people had been mixing together water and rocks to make cement for generations. But by 150 BCE, the Romans began mixing volcanic ash, rocks, water, and lime to make Roman concrete, or opus caementitium, which is one of those technologies that the smarty-pants like to call "a big freakin' deal.” This new stuff was super durable and could be poured into weird shapes like domes. The Pantheon or Really Big Temple in Rome is capped by a 143-foot diameter dome of concrete that has stood for almost two thousand years. But the Romans found out that arches support more weight than straight joints. This matters when you’re trying to move something really heavy, like water. Thus the Romans were able to move water long distances using arch-y aqueducts. This in turn allowed Roman cities to grow in population, mines to run, and dry lands to be irrigated. The Romans changed their lands in other ways, too: they drained the marshes of their home city using an innovative sewer system called the Cloaca Maxima, which literally means “Biggest Sewer.” Great name, my dudes. The politician and civil engineer Sextus Julius Frontinus wrote a landmark, comprehensive, two-volume report on the design for the aqueducts and sewers of Rome… which luckily a Renaissance scholar found a copy of, just as the city recovered from a roughly one thousand year downturn in population. Yes, that’s right: Roman infrastructural engineering lasted through a millennium of neglect and still worked! But as great as gigantic open rooms, fresh drinking water, and big-big sewers are, the most important feat of Roman engineering may have been their highways. We hear a lot about “infrastructure” today. And states have always made roads to foster trade and move troops. But Roman road builders took the art of logistics to another level. Show us what a big deal this was, Thought Bubble! Consider the Appian Way: running from Rome southeast through the “heel” of Italy, it connected several not very urbanized regions of the peninsula. Its first leg was built in 312 BCE—before Roman concrete was perfected... ...using cement over layers of fitted stones and gravel. Drainage ditches lined its sides, and the road was cambered to allow water to drain off. The Appian Way allowed Roman troops to efficiently crush their enemies. It was expanded over the centuries. And the Appian Way is still around! The cement has eroded away, but you can still see many long, very straight sections. It’s lined by trees, marked by monuments, and haunted by history. And the Appian Way is only one of several well-preserved, two-thousand-year-old Roman roads crisscrossing Africa, Asia, and Europe. Metaphorically, all of these roads led to Rome. Her citizens paid taxes toward many large-scale public works such as highways. Perhaps the most important technology the Romans optimized was the state itself: they developed a complicated legal system, a well-supplied army, public food assistance, and massive public games. One site of these games was the Flavian Amphitheater, AKA the Colosseum. It had a retractable roof that was staffed by sailors who used complicated rigging to move the canvas coverings around, and it was sometimes flooded to allow for naval war games. How many engineers today know how to properly rig a giant sun-sail? Or safely flood a public venue—without using plastic? Thanks, Thought Bubble, but these public works were intended for Romans, not their property… Before the industrial revolution, public works such as aqueducts, sewers, and roads required quarrying lots of materials and lots and lots of labor. And “labor” meant slaves. Some estimates hold that one in three people in Roman Italy were enslaved. These people were involved in knowledge creation, if against their will, by building and maintaining all those great roads and other structures. Roman slavery was a little different than plantation slavery in the American South. Slaves could be highly educated. Many physicians were even slaves. They could buy their freedom and become voting citizens. But most remained chattel—meaning property. In 73 BCE, the gladiator Spartacus famously led a slave revolt in Italy. The freed slaves fought the army for two years, but they were eventually defeated. The survivors of the rebellion were crucified along the Appian Way, from Rome to Capua, over a hundred miles to the south. Brutal story, but worth telling in the context of Roman engineering. Because the technologies that engineers make are, like the sciences, political—only as good or as bad as the humans who use them. Roman thinkers left behind written sources including histories, plays, proto-novels, poems, legal manuals, and religious texts. But only a few Roman texts deal with natural philosophy. Frontius’s guide to aqueducts was one exception. Another was the Architecture of Vitruvius. He wrote about buildings, but also urban planning and even the plan of the human body. By linking the limbs of the human body to mathematical principles, Vitruvius inspired Da Vinci’s “Vitruvian man.” Vitruvius’s Architecture sums up the concepts about knowledge common to the Hellenistic and Greco-Roman worlds: it’s a technical manual also concerned with the beautiful harmonies of form inherent to bodies as well as the efficient management of cities—the “body politic.” Next time—we’ll meet mechanical wonders and the wonder of public healthcare in the Abbasid Caliphate’s great capital, Baghdad. Crash Course History of Science is filmed in the Dr. Cheryl C. Kinney studio in Missoula, Montana and it’s made with the help of all this nice people and our animation team is Thought Cafe. Crash Course is a Complexly production. If you wanna keep imagining the world complexly with us, you can check out some of our other channels like The Financial Diet, The Art Assignment, and Healthcare Traige. And, if you’d like to keep Crash Course free for everybody, forever, you can support the series at Patreon; a crowdfunding platform that allows you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making Crash Course possible with their continued support.

Contents

Domes

All diameters are clear span in m; for polygonal domes applies to the in-circle diameter. Main source is Jürgen Rasch's study of Roman domes (1985).

Diameter  Name,
Part
Location Built Shape of dome,
Ground plan
Material,
Roof construction
Shell
thickness (ST)
ST to 
Curtain wall
thickness (CWT)
CWT to 
Diameter Oculus (DO)
DO to 
Comments/
Other characteristics
~ 43.45 [5] Pantheon Rome ~ 126 AD Rotunda Concrete,
Lead plate roofing
~ 1.35
~ 1:32
~ 5.93
~ 1:7.3
~ 8.95
~ 1:4.9
Largest dome of the world until 1881; largest unreinforced solid concrete dome in the world till present;[6] archetype of Western dome construction to this day[3][7]
~ 38.20 [8] "Temple of Apollo" Lake Avernus ~ 1st c.
~ 35.08 [4] Baths of Caracalla,
Caldarium
Rome ~ 3rd c. Amphoras Eight pillars; largest dome of the world out of ceramic hollowware
~ 29.50 [9] "Temple of Diana" Baiae ~ 2nd c. ~ 1.20
~ 1:25
~ 5,70 [10]
~ 1:5.2
~ 26.30 [9] "Temple of Venus" Baiae ~ 2nd c. ~ - ~ 2.90 [11]
~ 1:9.1
Outer wall pillars
~ 25.04 [12] Mausoleum of Maxentius Rome ~ 4th c. Rotunda
~ 25.00 [13] Baths of Agrippa,
'Arco della Ciambella'
Rome 1st c. BC Rotunda First Thermae in Rome with central dome;[13] largest dome of the world
~ 24.15 [9] Rotunda of St. George Thessaloniki ~ 4th c. Brick ~ 1
~ 1:24
~ 6.00
~ 1:4
Largest brick dome of the world
~ 23.85 [9] Sanctuary of Asclepius Pergamon ~ 2nd c. Brick ~ - ~ 3.35
~ 1:7.1
Earliest monumental brick dome;[14] largest brick dome of the world
~ 23.70 to
~ 19.80 [15]
St. Gereon's Basilica Cologne ~ 4th c. Oval with eight niches and apse Later medieval structure with Roman building fabric largest occidental dome between Hagia Sophia and Florence Cathedral[16]
~ 23.65 [9] "Temple of Minerva Medica" Rome ~ 4th c. Decagon Concrete with brick ribs ~ 0.56
~ 1:42
~ 2.60 [11]
~ 1:9.1
Outer wall pillars
~ 22.00 [17] Baths of Antoninus Carthage ~ 2nd c. Polygon Seven domes with diameters between 17 and 22 m[17]
~ 22.00 [18] Rotunda at the Hippodrome Constantinople ~ 5th c. Rotunda with ten niches
~ 22.00 [19] Baths of Diocletian,
San Bernardo
Rome ~ 300 Concrete with brick ribs
~ 21.65 or
~ 21.25 [20][21]
Baths of Diocletian,
'Planetarium'
Rome ~ 300 Umbrella dome,
Octagon
Concrete with inner brick covering ~ 4.20
~ 1:5.1
~ 21.55 [21] "Temple of Mercury" Baiae 1st c. BC Concrete[22] ~ 3.65
~ 1:5.9
Earliest monumental dome;[23] largest dome of the world
~ 20.18 [9] Mausoleum of Helena Rome ~ 4th c. Ceramic amphora incorporated into dome's base ~ 0.90
~ 1:22
~ 2.40
~ 1:8.4
~ 19.80 [20] Baths of Caracalla,
Side building
Rome ~ 3rd c. Octagon Preliminary form of the pendentive dome[20]
~ 19.40 [20] Baths of Bacucco Near Viterbo ~ 4th c. Umbrella dome,
Octagon
~ 19.30 [21] Baths of Diocletian,
Tepidarium
Rome ~ 300 ~ 3.68
~ 1:5.2
~ 18.38 [9] Pantheon Ostia ~ 3rd c. ~ - ~ 1.98
~ 1:9.3
~ 18.00 [15] Church of Euphemia Constantinople ~ 5th c. Hexagon
~ 16.75 [24] Hadrian's Villa,
'Serapeum'
Tivoli ~ 2nd c. Umbrella dome Concrete Hollow space system
~ 16.45 [17] Imperial Baths,
Tepidarium
Trier ~ 4th c. Concrete
~ 15.70 [17] Basilica of San Vitale Ravenna ~ 6th c. Clay pipe,
Wooden roof construction
~ 15.60 [21] Nymphaeum in Albano Laziale ? ~ 1st c. Concrete ~ 2.08
~ 1:7.6
Earliest evidence for hollow spaces at dome's base for reduction in weight[25]
~ 15.00 to
~ 13.00 [14]
Southern baths Bosra ~ 3rd-4th c. Octagon Concrete
~ 15.00 [15] Western baths Jerash ~ 2nd c. Square Voussoir One of the earliest stone domes with square plan;[15] largest stone dome of the world
~ 14.70 [9] "Heroon of Romulus" at the Roman Forum Rome ~ 4th c. Lead plate roofing ~ 0.90
~ 1:16
~ 1.80
~ 1:8.2
~ 3,70
~ 1:4.0
~ 14.50 [9] "Temple of Portunus" Porto ~ 3rd c. Concrete with inner brick covering ~ - ~ 2.20
~ 1:6.6
~ 13.71 [9] Mausoleum of Tor de' Schiavi Via Prenestina ~ 4th c. ~ 0.60
~ 1:23
~ 2.60
~ 1:5.3
Four openings at dome's base
~ 13.48 [23] Domus Aurea Rome ~ 1st c. Cloister vault,
Octagon
Concrete ~ 5.99
~ 1:2.3
First dome with octagonal plan; earliest in palace architecture[23]
~ 13.35 [9] Mausoleum of Diocletian Split ~ 300 Brick,
Tiled roof
~ 0.68
~ 1:20
~ 3.40 [10]
~ 1:3.9
Double-walled dome[12]
~ 12.90 [12] Chapel of Saint Aquilino Milan ~ 4th c. Brick
~ 12.33 [26] "Tempio della Tosse" Tivoli ~ 4th c. Concrete with brick ribs ~ 1.30
~ 1:9
~ 2.08
~ 1:5.9
~ 2.10
~ 1:5.9
~ 12.00 [19] Hadrian's Villa,
Summer Triclinium (Exedra)
Tivoli ~ 2nd c. Concrete with inner brick covering
~ 12.00 [17] Baths of Aquae Flavianae El Hammam ~ 3rd c. Clay pipes Largest dome of the world out of ceramic hollowware
~ 12.00 [15] Church of Hodegetria Constantinople ~ 5th c. Hexagon
~ 12.00 [15] Skeuophylakion Constantinople ~ 5th c. Dodecagon
~ 11.90 [9] Baptistery Nocera Superiore
Campania
~ 6th c. Eight rectangular dome windows
~ 11.90 [27] Hadrian's Villa,
'Heliocaminus'
Tivoli ~ 2nd c. Double-walled dome with spacing for ceiling heating[27]
~ 11.50 [28] "Red Basilica" Pergamon ~ 2nd c. Brick Two Rotunda; largest brick dome of the world
~ 11.50 [26] Santa Costanza Rome ~ 4th c. Concrete with brick ribs,
Tiled roof directly resting on dome shell
~ 0.70
~ 1:16
~ 1.45
~ 1:7.9
Tambour[29]
~ 11.50 [15] Mor Gabriel Monastery Tur Abdin ~ 6th c. Brick ~ yes
~ 11.47 [26] Praetorium Cologne ~ 4th c. Octagon ~ - ~ 2.00 [10]
~ 1:5.7
~ 11.10 [26] Gordian's Villa Rome,
Via Prenestina
~ 3rd c. Octagon ~ - ~ 1.35 [10]
~ 1:8.2
Preliminary form of the pendentive dome;[20] eight openings at dome's base
~ 11.00 [4] Therme d’Allance ? ~ ?
~ 10.80 [26] Mausoleum of Gallien Rome,
Via Appia
~ 3rd c. Rotunda with six niches ~ - ~ 1.60
~ 1:6.8
~ 10.70 [26] "Mausoleum of Centocelle" Centcelles,
near Tarragona
~ 4th c. Brick and stone ~ 0.40
~ 1:27
~ 1.90
~ 1:5.6
~ 10.40 to
1~ 9.40 [24]
Hadrian's Villa,
small baths
Tivoli ~ 2nd c. Elliptical dome with wavelike rim
~ 10.00 [24] Gordian's Villa,
Hall
Via Prenestina ~ 2nd c.
~ 10.00 [25] "Villa delle Vignacce" Via Latina ~ 2nd c. Ceramic amphora at dome's base Earliest known use of amphora at dome's base[25]
~ 19.85 [17] Cathedral,
Baptistery
Ravenna ~ 5th c.
~ 19.50 [30] Rotunda of St. George, Sofia,
Sofia ~early 4th c. Rotunda Built by the Romans in the 4th century, it is a cylindrical domed structure built on a square base.
1~ 9.50 [20] Hadrian's Villa,
Piazza d'Oro (vestibule)
Tivoli ~ 2nd c. Umbrella dome ~ 1,90
~ 1:5.0
1~ 9.50 [18] Praetextat catacomb,
'Calventier tomb'
Rome ~ 3rd c. Rotunda with six niches
1~ 9.00 [14] Capito Thermae,
Laconicum
Miletus ~ 1st c. Concrete
1~ 9.00 [15] Small Roundtemple Baalbek ~ 3rd c.
1~ 8.50 [18] Domus Augustana Rome ~ 1st c. Cloister vault,
Octagon
One of the earliest cloister vaults with octagonal curtain walls[18]
~ 18.10 [26] "Torraccio del Palombaro" Rome,
Via Appia
~ 4th c. ~ 0.90
~ 1:9
~ 2,30
~ 1:3.5
~ 1.50
~ 1:5.4
1~ 7.70 [20] Baths of Maxentius Rome ~ 4th c. Umbrella dome,
Octagon
~ 17.60 [4] Domus Flavia Rome ~ 1st c.
1~ 7.60 to
1~ 6.20 [18]
Hadrian's Villa,
'Heliocaminus'
? ~ 2nd c. Cloister vault,
Uneven octagon
1~ 6.80 [15] Nymphaeum Riza,
Epirus
~ 250-350 Dodecagon
1~ 6.75 [20] "Temple of Venus",
Annex building
Baiae ~ 2nd c. Flat umbrella dome,
Octagon
~ 16.65 [21] Hall of Thermae Pisa ? ~ 2nd c. Cloister vault with eight windows,
Octagon
~ 2.00
~ 1:3.3
~ 16.52 [23] Stabian Thermae,
Laconicum
Pompeii 1st c. BC Cone vault (early form of the dome) Concrete ~ yes Oldest known concrete domes[23]
1~ 6.00 [17] Hunting Thermae Leptis Magna ~ 200 Cloister vault with eight windows
~ 15.86 [17] Arch of Marcus Aurelius Tripoli ~ ? Cloister vault Voussoir
1~ 5.70 [9] Water Castellum Pompeii ~30 BC-
~14 AD
Flat dome
~ 15.40 [20] Octagon near 'Temple of Mercury' Baiae ~ 2nd c. Umbrella dome,
Octagon
1~ 5.40 [12] San Vitale,
Stair towers
Ravenna ~ 6th c. Brick
~ 15.20 [15] "Sedia del Diavolo",
Tomb
Rome,
Via Nomentana
~ 2nd c. Square
1~ 4.70 [18] Tabularium Rome 1st c. BC Cloister vault,
Square
Earliest cloister vault[15]
~ 14.41 [24] "Temple of Venus",
Annex building
Baiae ~ 2nd c. Umbrella dome above circular ground plan ~ 0.59
~ 1:7.5
1~ 4.40 [31] Mausoleum of Galla Placidia Ravenna ~ 5th c. Tiled roof
1~ 4.00 [9] Tomb at Casal de' Pazzi Rome,
Via Nomentana
~ 2nd c. In-circle dome,
Square
Concrete Preform of pendentive dome;[9] hollow space system
~ 11.65 [23] "Villa of the Mysteries",
Laconicum
Pompeii 1st c. BC Cone vault (early form of the dome) Brick and clay (upper calotte) Concrete wall shell[32]
~ ? [18] Mausoleum of Constantine at the Church of the Holy Apostles Constantinople ~ 4th c. Presumably Rotunda with twelve niches

Half-domes

Diameter  Name,
Part
Location Built Shape of dome,
Ground plan
Material,
Roof construction
Shell
thickness (ST)
ST to 
Curtain wall
thickness (CWT)
CWT to 
Comments/
Other characteristics
~ 30.00 [5] Baths of Trajan Rome ~ ? Largest dome(s) of the world
~ 22.00 [5] Baths of Diocletian,
Two apse halls
Rome ~ 300
~ 18.50 [5] Trajan's Forum Rome ~ ?
~ 15.80 [17] Santi Cosma e Damiano,
Apse
Rome ~ 6th c.
~ 11.00 [14] Nymphaeum Jerash ~ 2nd c. Concrete
1~ 9.60 [14] Basilica,
Apse
Bostra ~ 3rd c. Concrete, inside covered with ashlar
1~ 8.00 [14] Cathedral,
Annex rooms
Bostra ~ 6th c. Concrete
1~ 5.70 [12] Pantheon,
Front niches
Rome ~ 2nd c.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 117
  2. ^ Lechtman & Hobbs 1986
  3. ^ a b Mark & Hutchinson 1986, p. 24
  4. ^ a b c d Heinle & Schlaich 1996, p. 27
  5. ^ a b c d Rasch 1985, p. 119
  6. ^ Romanconcrete.com
  7. ^ Müller 2005, p. 253
  8. ^ Bishop 1977, p. 92
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Rasch 1985, p. 129
  10. ^ a b c d Corner
  11. ^ a b Pillar
  12. ^ a b c d e Rasch 1985, p. 123
  13. ^ a b Heinz 1983, pp. 60–64
  14. ^ a b c d e f Rasch 1985, p. 125
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rasch 1985, p. 126
  16. ^ Schäfke 1985, pp. 100 & 118
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rasch 1985, p. 124
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Rasch 1985, p. 127
  19. ^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 138
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i Rasch 1985, p. 130
  21. ^ a b c d e Rasch 1985, p. 136
  22. ^ Mark & Hutchinson 1986, p. 33
  23. ^ a b c d e f Rasch 1985, p. 118
  24. ^ a b c d Rasch 1985, p. 133
  25. ^ a b c Rasch 1985, p. 135
  26. ^ a b c d e f g Rasch 1985, p. 128
  27. ^ a b Rasch 1985, p. 139
  28. ^ Rasch 1985, p. 137
  29. ^ Rasch 1985, p. 120
  30. ^ [http://bulgariatravel.org/en/object/344/Rotonda_Sveti_Georgi
  31. ^ Rasch 1985, p. 134
  32. ^ Rasch 1985, p. 122

Sources

Main source
  • Rasch, Jürgen (1985), "Die Kuppel in der römischen Architektur. Entwicklung, Formgebung, Konstruktion", Architectura, 15, pp. 117–139
Further sources
  • Bishop, John (1977), "The Pantheon: Design, Meaning, and Progeny (Review)", Art Journal, 37 (1), p. 92
  • Heinle, Erwin; Schlaich, Jörg (1996), Kuppeln aller Zeiten, aller Kulturen, Stuttgart, ISBN 3-421-03062-6
  • Heinz, Werner (1983), Römische Thermen. Badewesen und Badeluxus im römischen Reich, München, pp. 60–64, ISBN 3-7774-3540-6
  • Lechtman, Heather; Hobbs, Linn (1986), "Roman Concrete and the Roman Architectural Revolution. Ceramics and Civilization", in Kingery, W. D. (ed.), High Technology Ceramics: Past, Present, Future, 3, American Ceramics Society
  • Mark, Robert; Hutchinson, Paul (1986), "On the Structure of the Roman Pantheon", Art Bulletin, 68 (1), pp. 24–34, doi:10.2307/3050861, JSTOR 3050861
  • Müller, Werner (2005), dtv-Atlas Baukunst I. Allgemeiner Teil: Baugeschichte von Mesopotamien bis Byzanz (14th ed.), München, ISBN 3-423-03020-8
  • Schäfke, Werner (1985), Kölns romanische Kirchen. Architektur, Ausstattung, Geschichte (5th ed.), Köln, ISBN 3-7701-1360-8

External links

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