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List of prime ministers of Elizabeth II

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Queen Elizabeth II with several of her prime ministers and other Commonwealth nation leaders at the 1960 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference
Queen Elizabeth II with several of her prime ministers and other Commonwealth nation leaders at the 1960 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference

Since succeeding her father on 6 February 1952, Queen Elizabeth II has been head of state of 32 different independent states; currently, there are 16 states, called Commonwealth realms. Within the Westminster system in each realm, the Queen's government is headed by a prime minister. Appointment and dismissal of prime ministers are common reserve powers that can be exercised by the Queen or her governors-general.

This list does not cover Commonwealth nations that are not Commonwealth realms, nor holders of offices of prime minister in colonies or sub-national entities such as states or provinces.

The Queen has had over 160 individuals serve as her realms' prime ministers throughout her reign, the first new appointment being Dudley Senanayake as Prime Minister of Ceylon and the most recent being Scott Morrison as Prime Minister of Australia. Several of the Queen's prime ministers from various realms have been appointed for life to the Privy Council of the United Kingdom.

Prime ministers of current realms

Antigua and Barbuda

Antigua and Barbuda became independent on 1 November 1981 with Vere Bird as the first prime minister. Bird had previously been Premier of Antigua.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Vere Bird
(1910–1999)
1 November 1981 9 March 1994
2 Lester Bird
(1938–)
9 March 1994 24 March 2004
3
Baldwin Spencer.jpg
Baldwin Spencer
(1948–)
24 March 2004 13 June 2014
4
Gaston Browne and Anton Bakov cropped.jpg
Gaston Browne
(1967–)
13 June 2014 Incumbent

Reference[1]

Australia

Elizabeth and Robert Menzies at a formal evening event
Queen Elizabeth II with Prime Minister of Australia Robert Menzies during her first tour of Australia in 1954

Robert Menzies was the incumbent prime minister of Australia when Elizabeth became queen.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
Portrait Menzies 1950s.jpg
Sir Robert Menzies
(1894–1978)
19 December 1949 26 January 1966
2
Harold Holt 1964.jpg
Harold Holt
(1908–1967)
26 January 1966 19 December 1967
3
Sir John McEwen.jpg
Sir John McEwen
(1900–1980)
19 December 1967 10 January 1968
4
JohnGorton1968.jpg
Sir John Gorton
(1911–2002)
10 January 1968 10 March 1971
5
William McMahon 1966.jpg
Sir William McMahon
(1908–1988)
10 March 1971 5 December 1972
6
Gough Whitlam - ACF - crop.jpg
Gough Whitlam
(1916–2014)
5 December 1972 11 November 1975
7
Malcolm Fraser 1977 - crop.jpg
Malcolm Fraser
(1930–2015)
11 November 1975 11 March 1983
8
Bob Hawke 1987 portrait crop.jpg
Bob Hawke
(1929–)
11 March 1983 20 December 1991
9
Paul Keating 1985.jpg
Paul Keating
(1944–)
20 December 1991 11 March 1996
10
Image-Howard2003upr.JPG
John Howard
(1939–)
11 March 1996 3 December 2007
11
Kevin Rudd official portrait.jpg
Kevin Rudd
(1957–)
3 December 2007 24 June 2010
12
Julia Gillard 2010.jpg
Julia Gillard
(1961–)
24 June 2010 27 June 2013
(11)
Kevin Rudd official portrait.jpg
Kevin Rudd
(1957–)
27 June 2013 18 September 2013
13
Prime Minister Tony Abbott.jpg
Tony Abbott
(1957–)
18 September 2013 15 September 2015
14
Malcolm Turnbull PEO (cropped).jpg
Malcolm Turnbull
(1954–)
15 September 2015 24 August 2018
15
Scott Morrison 2014 crop.jpg
Scott Morrison
(1968–)
24 August 2018 Incumbent

Reference[2]

Bahamas

The Bahamas became independent on 10 July 1973 with Lynden Pindling as the first prime minister. Pindling had previously been the prime minister of the self-governing Commonwealth of the Bahama Islands.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Sir Lynden Pindling
(1930–2000)
10 July 1973 21 August 1992
2
Hubert Ingraham.jpg
Hubert Ingraham
(1947–)
21 August 1992 3 May 2002
3
Perry Christie 2013 (cropped).jpg
Perry Christie
(1943–)N1
3 May 2002 4 May 2007
(2)
Hubert Ingraham.jpg
Hubert Ingraham
(1947–)
4 May 2007 8 May 2012
(3)
Perry Christie 2013 (cropped).jpg
Perry Christie
(1943–)
8 May 2012 11 May 2017
4
Hubert Minnis 2016.jpg
Hubert Minnis
(1954–)
11 May 2017 Incumbent

Reference[3]

Barbados

Barbados became independent on 30 November 1966 with Errol Barrow as the first prime minister. Barrow had previously been Premier of Barbados.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Errol Barrow
(1920–1987)
30 November 1966 8 September 1976
2
Tom Adams (politician).jpg
J.M.G.M. 'Tom' Adams
(1931–1985)
8 September 1976 11 March 1985
3 Harold Bernard St. John
(1931–2004)
11 March 1985 29 May 1986
(1) Errol Barrow
(1920–1987)
29 May 1986 1 June 1987
4 Lloyd Erskine Sandiford
(1937–)
1 June 1987 7 September 1994
5
Owen Arthur-2.jpg
Owen Arthur
(1945–)
7 September 1994 16 January 2008
6
David John Howard Thompson - World Economic Forum on Latin America 2010.jpg
David Thompson
(1961–2010)
16 January 2008 23 October 2010
7
Freundel Stuart June 2010.jpg
Freundel Stuart
(1951–)
23 October 2010 25 May 2018
8
Mia mottley.jpg
Mia Mottley
(1965–)
25 May 2018 Incumbent

Reference[4]

Belize

Belize became independent on 21 September 1981 with George Cadle Price as the first prime minister. Price had previously been Premier of Belize.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
George C. Price Cropped.jpg
George Cadle Price
(1919–2011)
21 September 1981 17 December 1984
2
Manuel Esquivel.jpg
Manuel Esquivel
(1940–)
17 December 1984 7 November 1989
(1)
George C. Price Cropped.jpg
George Cadle Price
(1919–2011)
7 November 1989 3 July 1993
(2)
Manuel Esquivel.jpg
Manuel Esquivel
(1940–)
3 July 1993 28 August 1998
3
Said Musa.jpg
Said Musa
(1944–)
28 August 1998 8 February 2008
4
Belizean Prime Minister, Dean Barrow in London, 27 June 2013 (cropped).jpg
Dean Barrow
(1951–)
8 February 2008 Incumbent

Reference[5]

Canada

Louis St. Laurent was the incumbent Prime Minister of Canada when Elizabeth became queen.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
Louisstlaurent.jpg
Louis St. Laurent
(1882–1973)
15 November 1948 21 June 1957
2
John G. Diefenbaker.jpg
John Diefenbaker
(1895–1979)
21 June 1957 22 April 1963
3
Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg
Lester B. Pearson
(1897–1972)
22 April 1963 20 April 1968
4
Pierre Trudeau (1975).jpg
Pierre Trudeau
(1919–2000)
20 April 1968 4 June 1979
5
JoeClark.jpg
Joe Clark
(1939–)
4 June 1979 3 March 1980
(4)
Pierre Trudeau (1975).jpg
Pierre Trudeau
(1919–2000)
3 March 1980 30 June 1984
6
Fmr CDN PM John Turner.jpg
John Turner
(1929–)
30 June 1984 17 September 1984
7
Mulroney.jpg
Brian Mulroney
(1939–)
17 September 1984 25 June 1993
8
Kim Campbell.jpg
Kim Campbell
(1947–)
25 June 1993 4 November 1993
9
Jean Chrétien 2010.jpg
Jean Chrétien
(1934–)
4 November 1993 12 December 2003
10
Paul Martin in 2011 crop.jpg
Paul Martin
(1938–)
12 December 2003 6 February 2006
11
Stephen Harper 2014 (cropped).jpg
Stephen Harper
(1959–)
6 February 2006 4 November 2015
12
Justin Trudeau in Lima, Peru - 2018 (41507133581) (cropped).jpg
Justin Trudeau
(1971–)
4 November 2015 Incumbent

Reference[6]

Grenada

Grenada became independent on 7 February 1974 with Eric Gairy as the first prime minister. Gairy had previously been Premier of Grenada.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Sir Eric Gairy
(1922–1997)
7 February 1974 13 March 1979
2
Maurice Bishop 1982-06-11.jpg
Maurice Bishop
(1944–1983)N2
13 March 1979 19 October 1983
3 Herbert Blaize
(1918–1999)
4 December 1984 19 December 1989
4 Ben Jones
(1924–2005)
19 December 1989 16 March 1990
5 Nicholas Brathwaite
(1925–2016)
16 March 1990 1 February 1995
6 George Brizan
(1942–2012)
1 February 1995 22 June 1995
7
Keith Mitchell.jpg
Keith Mitchell
(1946–)
22 June 1995 9 July 2008
8
Tillman Thomas.jpg
Tillman Thomas
(1947–)
9 July 2008 20 February 2013
(7)
Keith Mitchell.jpg
Keith Mitchell
(1946–)
20 February 2013 Incumbent

Reference[7]

Jamaica

Jamaica became independent on 6 August 1962 with Alexander Bustamante as the first prime minister. Bustamante had previously been Premier of Jamaica.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Sir Alexander Bustamante
(1884–1977)
6 August 1962 23 February 1967
2 Sir Donald Sangster
(1911–1967)
23 February 1967 11 April 1967
3 Hugh Shearer
(1923–2004)
11 April 1967 2 March 1972
4
Michael Manley 1977 cropped.png
Michael Manley
(1924–1997)
2 March 1972 1 November 1980
5
Edward Seaga.jpg
Edward Seaga
(1930–)
1 November 1980 10 February 1989
(4)
Michael Manley 1977 cropped.png
Michael Manley
(1924–1997)
10 February 1989 30 March 1992
6
PJPatterson.jpg
P. J. Patterson
(1935–)
30 March 1992 30 March 2006
7
Portia Simpson-Miller.jpg
Portia Simpson-Miller
(1945–)
30 March 2006 11 September 2007
8
Bruce Golding Jamaica.jpg
Bruce Golding
(1947–)
11 September 2007 23 October 2011
9
Andrew Holness.png
Andrew Holness
(1972–)
23 October 2011 5 January 2012
(7)
Portia Simpson-Miller.jpg
Portia Simpson-Miller
(1945–)
5 January 2012 3 March 2016
(9)
Andrew Holness.png
Andrew Holness
(1972–)
3 March 2016 Incumbent

Reference[8]

New Zealand

Sidney Holland was the incumbent Prime Minister of New Zealand when Elizabeth became queen.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
Sidney George Holland (1953).jpg
Sir Sidney Holland
(1893–1961)
13 December 1949 20 September 1957
2
Keith Holyoake (crop).jpg
Sir Keith Holyoake
(1904–1983)
20 September 1957 12 December 1957
3
Walter Nash (ca 1940s).jpg
Sir Walter Nash
(1882–1968)
12 December 1957 12 December 1960
(2)
Keith Holyoake (crop).jpg
Sir Keith Holyoake
(1904–1983)
12 December 1960 7 February 1972
4
Jack Marshall, 1957.jpg
Sir Jack Marshall
(1912–1988)
7 February 1972 8 December 1972
5
Norman Kirk Portrait.jpg
Norman Kirk
(1923–1974)
8 December 1972 31 August 1974†
6
Bill Rowling, 1962.jpg
Sir Bill Rowling
(1927–1995)
6 September 1974 12 December 1975
7
Muldoon 1978.jpg
Sir Robert Muldoon
(1921–1992)
12 December 1975 26 July 1984
8
David Lange (cropped).jpg
David Lange
(1942–2005)
26 July 1984 8 August 1989
9
Geoffrey Palmer.jpg
Sir Geoffrey Palmer
(1942–)
8 August 1989 4 September 1990
10
Mike Moore.jpg
Mike Moore
(1949–)
4 September 1990 2 November 1990
11
Jim Bolger at press conference cropped.jpg
Jim Bolger
(1935–)
2 November 1990 8 December 1997
12
Jenny Shipley 2013 (crop).jpg
Dame Jenny Shipley
(1952–)
8 December 1997 5 December 1999
13
Helen Clark official photo (cropped).jpg
Helen Clark
(1950–)
5 December 1999 19 November 2008
14
John Key February 2015.jpg
Sir John Key
(1961–)
19 November 2008 12 December 2016
15
Prime Minister Bill English.jpg
Sir Bill English
(1961–)
12 December 2016 26 October 2017
16
Jacinda Ardern, 2018.jpg
Jacinda Ardern
(1980–)
26 October 2017 Incumbent

Reference[9]

Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea became independent on 16 September 1975 with Michael Somare as the first prime minister. Somare had previously been Chief Minister of the Papua New Guinea.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
Sir Michael Somare - 2009.jpg
Michael Somare
(1936–)
16 September 1975 11 March 1980
2 Sir Julius Chan
(1939–)
11 March 1980 2 August 1982
(1)
Sir Michael Somare - 2009.jpg
Michael Somare
(1936–)
2 August 1982 21 November 1985
3 Paias Wingti
(1951–)
21 November 1985 4 July 1988
4 Rabbie Namaliu
(1947–)
4 July 1988 17 July 1992
(3) Paias Wingti
(1951–)
17 July 1992 30 August 1994
(2) Sir Julius Chan
(1939–)
30 August 1994 27 March 1997
N/A John Giheno
(1950–2017)
Acting Prime Minister
N3
27 March 1997 2 June 1997
(2) Sir Julius Chan
(1939–)
2 June 1997 22 July 1997
5 Bill Skate
(1953–2006)
22 July 1997 14 July 1999
6 Sir Mekere Morauta
(1946–)
14 July 1999 5 August 2002
(1)
Sir Michael Somare - 2009.jpg
Sir Michael Somare
(1936–)N4
5 August 2002 2 August 2011 / 3 August 2012N5
7
Peter O'Neill.jpg
Peter O'Neill
(1965–)
2 August 2011 / 3 August 2012N5 Incumbent

Reference[10]

Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Kitts and Nevis became independent on 19 September 1983 with Kennedy Simmonds as the first prime minister. Simmonds had previously been Premier of Saint Kitts and Nevis.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Kennedy Simmonds
(1936–)
19 September 1983 7 July 1995
2
Denzil L Douglas.jpg
Denzil Douglas
(1953–)
7 July 1995 18 February 2015
3
TimothyHarris.jpg
Timothy Harris
(1964–)
18 February 2015 Incumbent

Reference[11]

Saint Lucia

Saint Lucia became independent on 22 February 1979 with John Compton as the first prime minister. Compton had previously been Premier of Saint Lucia.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 John Compton
(1925–2007)
22 February 1979 2 July 1979
2 Allan Louisy
(1916–2011)
2 July 1979 4 May 1981
3 Winston Cenac
(1925–2004)
4 May 1981 17 January 1982
N/A Michael Pilgrim
(1947–)
Acting Prime Minister
17 January 1982 3 May 1982
(1) Sir John Compton
(1925–2007)
3 May 1982 2 April 1996
4 Vaughan Lewis
(1940–)
2 April 1996 24 May 1997
5
Kenny Anthony, Sta. Lucía.jpg
Kenny Anthony
(1951–)
24 May 1997 15 December 2006
(1) Sir John Compton
(1925–2007)
15 December 2006 7 September 2007
6
Stephenson King.jpg
Stephenson King
(1958–)
7 September 2007 30 November 2011
(5)
Kenny Anthony, Sta. Lucía.jpg
Kenny Anthony
(1951–)
30 November 2011 7 June 2016
7
Allen Chastanet 2016.jpg
Allen Chastanet
(1960-)
7 June 2016 Incumbent

Reference[12]

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Saint Vincent and the Grenadines became independent on 27 October 1979 with Milton Cato as the first prime minister. Cato had previously been Premier of Saint Vincent.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Milton Cato
(1915–1997)
27 October 1979 30 July 1984
2 Sir James Fitz-Allen Mitchell
(1931–)
30 July 1984 27 October 2000
3
Arnhim Eustace.jpg
Arnhim Eustace
(1944–)
27 October 2000 29 March 2001
4
Ralph Gonsalves.jpg
Ralph Gonsalves
(1946–)
29 March 2001 Incumbent

Reference[13]

Solomon Islands

The Solomon Islands became independent on 7 July 1978 with Peter Kenilorea as the first prime minister.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Peter Kenilorea
(1943–2016)
7 July 1978 31 August 1981
2 Solomon Mamaloni
(1943–2000)
31 August 1981 19 November 1984
(1) Sir Peter Kenilorea
(1943–2016)
19 November 1984 1 December 1986
3 Ezekiel Alebua
(1947–)
1 December 1986 28 March 1989
(2) Solomon Mamaloni
(1943–2000)
28 March 1989 18 June 1993
4 Francis Billy Hilly
(1948–)
18 June 1993 7 November 1994
(2) Solomon Mamaloni
(1943–2000)
7 November 1994 27 August 1997
5 Bartholomew Ulufa'alu
(1950–2007)
27 August 1997 30 June 2000
6
Manasseh Sogavare 2014.jpg
Manasseh Sogavare
(1955–)
30 June 2000 17 December 2001
7 Sir Allan Kemakeza
(1950–)
17 December 2001 20 April 2006
8 Snyder Rini
(1949–)
20 April 2006 4 May 2006
(6)
Manasseh Sogavare 2014.jpg
Manasseh Sogavare
(1955–)
4 May 2006 20 December 2007
9
Derek Sikua.jpg
Derek Sikua
(1959–)
20 December 2007 25 August 2010
10
DannyPhilip.jpg
Danny Philip
(1953–)
25 August 2010 16 November 2011
11
Gordon Darcy Lilo.jpg
Gordon Darcy Lilo
(1965–)
16 November 2011 9 December 2014
(6)
Manasseh Sogavare 2014.jpg
Manasseh Sogavare
(1955–)
9 December 2014 15 November 2017
12 Rick Houenipwela
(1958-)
15 November 2017 Incumbent

Reference[14]

Tuvalu

Tuvalu became independent on 1 October 1978 with Toaripi Lauti as the first prime minister. Lauti had previously been Chief Minister of Tuvalu.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Toaripi Lauti
(1928–2014)
1 October 1978 8 September 1981
2 Tomasi Puapua
(1938–)
8 September 1981 16 October 1989
3 Bikenibeu Paeniu
(1956–)
16 October 1989 10 December 1993
4 Kamuta Latasi
(1936–)
10 December 1993 24 December 1996
(3) Bikenibeu Paeniu
(1956–)
24 December 1996 27 April 1999
5 Ionatana Ionatana
(1938–2000)
27 April 1999 8 December 2000
N/A Lagitupu Tuilimu
Acting Prime MinisterN6
8 December 2000 24 February 2001
6 Faimalaga Luka
(1940–2005)
24 February 2001 14 December 2001
7 Koloa Talake
(1934–2008)
14 December 2001 24 August 2002
8 Saufatu Sopoanga
(1952–)
24 August 2002 25 August 2004
9 Maatia Toafa
(1954–)
11 October 2004 14 August 2006
10
Apisai Ielemia cropped.jpg
Apisai Ielemia
(1955–2018)
14 August 2006 29 September 2010
(9) Maatia Toafa
(1954–)
29 September 2010 24 December 2010
11
WillyTevali.jpg
Willy Telavi
(1954–)
24 December 2010 1 August 2013
12
Enele Sopoaga 2015.jpg
Enele Sopoaga
(1956–)N7
5 August 2013 Incumbent

Reference[15]

United Kingdom

Winston Churchill was the incumbent Prime Minister of the United Kingdom when Elizabeth became queen.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
Sir Winston S Churchill.jpg
Sir Winston Churchill
(1874–1965)
26 October 1951 5 April 1955
2 Sir Anthony Eden
(1897–1977)
6 April 1955 9 January 1957
3 Harold Macmillan
(1894–1986)
10 January 1957 18 October 1963
4
Alec Douglas-Home (c1963).jpg
Sir Alec Douglas-Home
(1903–1995)
19 October 1963 16 October 1964
5 Harold Wilson
(1916–1995)
16 October 1964 19 June 1970
6
Heathdod.JPG
Edward Heath
(1916–2005)
19 June 1970 4 March 1974
(5) Harold Wilson
(1916–1995)
4 March 1974 5 April 1976
7
James Callaghan.JPG
James Callaghan
(1912–2005)
5 April 1976 4 May 1979
8
Dodthatcher.JPG
Margaret Thatcher
(1925–2013)
4 May 1979 28 November 1990
9
John Major 1996.jpg
Sir John Major
(1943–)
28 November 1990 2 May 1997
10
TonyBlairBasra.JPG
Tony Blair
(1953–)
2 May 1997 27 June 2007
11
Gordon Brown official.jpg
Gordon Brown
(1951–)
27 June 2007 11 May 2010
12
David Cameron official.jpg
David Cameron
(1966–)
11 May 2010 13 July 2016
13
Theresa May Official.jpg
Theresa May
(1956–)
13 July 2016 Incumbent

Reference[16][17]

Prime ministers of former realms

This section lists prime ministers during Elizabeth's reign of former states that became republics during her reign. Where an office of prime minister remained after the transition, and the incumbent at the time of transition remained in that office, the date of the end of that period in office is given in the tables below.

Ceylon

D. S. Senanayake was the incumbent prime minister of Ceylon when Elizabeth became queen.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
Official Photographic Portrait of Don Stephen Senanayaka (1884-1952).jpg
D. S. Senanayake
(1883–1952)
24 September 1947 22 March 1952
2
Dudley Shelton Senanayaka (1911-1973).jpg
Dudley Senanayake
(1911–1973)
26 March 1952 12 October 1953
3 Sir John Kotelawala
(1895–1980)
12 October 1953 12 April 1956
4
Official Photographic Portrait of S.W.R.D.Bandaranayaka (1899-1959).jpg
S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike
(1899–1959)
12 April 1956 26 September 1959
5
Wijeyananda Dahanayake portrait.jpg
Wijeyananda Dahanayake
(1901–1997)
26 September 1959 20 March 1960
(2)
Dudley Shelton Senanayaka (1911-1973).jpg
Dudley Senanayake
(1911–1973)
21 March 1960 21 July 1960
6
Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranayaka (1916-2000) (Hon.Sirimavo Bandaranaike with Hon.Lalith Athulathmudali Crop).jpg
Sirimavo Bandaranaike
(1916–2000)
21 July 1960 27 March 1965
(2)
Dudley Shelton Senanayaka (1911-1973).jpg
Dudley Senanayake
(1911–1973)
27 March 1965 29 May 1970
(6)
Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranayaka (1916-2000) (Hon.Sirimavo Bandaranaike with Hon.Lalith Athulathmudali Crop).jpg
Sirimavo Bandaranaike
(1916–2000)
29 May 1970 23 July 1977

Reference[18]

Ceylon abolished the monarchy on 22 May 1972 and renamed the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. Bandaranaike remained in office as the republic's first prime minister until 23 July 1977.

Fiji

Fiji became independent on 10 October 1970 with Kamisese Mara as the first prime minister. Mara had previously been Chief Minister of Fiji.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
Kamisese Mara.jpg
Ratu Sir Kamisese Mara
(1920–2004)
10 October 1970 13 April 1987
2
No image.svg
Timoci Bavadra
(1934–1989)
13 April 1987 14 May 1987

Reference[19]

Following the 1987 Fijian coups d'état (which resulted in a vacancy in the premiership until December 1987), on 7 October 1987, the new ruling regime declared the nation to have become the Republic of Fiji. Fiji's relationship with the monarchy after this transition is complex (see Monarchy of Fiji).

Gambia

The Gambia became independent on 18 February 1965 with Dawda Jawara as the first prime minister. Jawara had previously been prime minister of the self-governing Gambia.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
Dawda Jawara (1979).jpg
Sir Dawda Jawara
(1924–)
6 March 1965 24 April 1970

Reference[20]

The Gambia abolished the monarchy on 24 April 1970, via referendum. Jawara became President of the Gambia on the same day as the post of prime minister was abolished.

Ghana

Ghana became independent on 15 August 1957, with Kwame Nkrumah as its first prime minister. Nkrumah had previously been prime minister of the self-governing Gold Coast.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
Kwame Nkrumah (JFKWHP-AR6409-A).jpg
Kwame Nkrumah
(1909–1972)
15 August 1957 1 July 1960

Reference[21]

Ghana abolished the monarchy on 1 July 1960, via referendum. Nkrumah became President of Ghana on the same day as the post of prime minister was abolished.

Guyana

Guyana became independent on 26 May 1966, with Forbes Burnham as its first prime minister. Burnham had previously been Premier of British Guiana.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Forbes Burnham
(1923–1985)
26 May 1966 6 October 1980

Reference[22]

Guyana abolished the monarchy on 23 February 1970. Burnham remained in office as the republic's first prime minister until 6 October 1980.

Kenya

Kenya became independent on 12 December 1963, with Jomo Kenyatta becoming the first prime minister. Kenyatta had previously been prime minister of self-governing Kenya.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Jomo Kenyatta
(1891–1978)
12 December 1963 12 December 1964

Reference[23]

Kenya abolished the monarchy on 12 December 1964. Kenyatta became President of Kenya as the post of prime minister was abolished.

Malawi

Malawi became independent on 6 July 1964, with Hastings Banda as prime minister. Banda had previously been prime minister of self-governing Nyasaland.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Hastings Banda
(1898–1997)
6 July 1964 6 July 1966

Reference[24]

Malawi abolished the monarchy on 6 July 1966. Banda became President of Malawi as the post of prime minister was abolished.

Malta

The Crown Colony of Malta became independent as the State of Malta on 21 September 1964 with George Borg Olivier as prime minister. Olivier had previously been the colony's prime minister.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 George Borg Olivier
(1911–1980)
21 September 1964 21 June 1971
2
Dom Mintoff (1974).jpg
Dom Mintoff
(1916–2012)
21 June 1971 22 December 1984

Reference[25]

Malta abolished the monarchy on 13 December 1974 and became the current Republic of Malta, a republic within the Commonwealth. Mintoff remained in office as the republic's first prime minister until 22 December 1984.

Mauritius

Mauritius became independent on 12 March 1968, with Seewoosagur Ramgoolam becoming the first prime minister. Ramgoolam had previously been Chief Minister of Mauritius.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
Seewoosagur Ramgoolam - David Ben Gurion 1962.jpg
Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam
(1899–1985)
12 March 1968 30 June 1982
2
Anerood Jugnauth January 2013.jpg
Sir Anerood Jugnauth
(1930–)
30 June 1982 15 December 1995

Reference[26]

Mauritius abolished the monarchy on 12 March 1992. Jugnauth remained in office as the republic's prime minister until 15 December 1995.

Nigeria

The Federation of Nigeria became independent on 1 October 1960, with Abubakar Tafawa Balewa becoming the first Prime Minister of Nigeria. Balewa had previously been Chief Minister of the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
(1912–1966)
1 October 1960 15 January 1966

Reference[27]

Nigeria became the Federal Republic of Nigeria on 1 October 1963. Balewa remained in office as the republic's prime minister until his overthrow and assassination in the 1966 Nigerian coup d'état on 15 January 1966.

Pakistan

Khawaja Nazimuddin was the incumbent Prime Minister of Pakistan when Elizabeth became queen.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
Khawaja Nazimuddin of Pakistan.JPG
Sir Khawaja Nazimuddin
(1894–1964)
17 October 1951 17 April 1953
2
53bogra nehru (cropped).jpg
Mohammad Ali Bogra
(1909–1963)
17 April 1953 12 August 1955
3
No image.svg
Chaudhry Muhammad Ali
(1905–1980)
12 August 1955 12 September 1956

Reference[28]

Pakistan abolished the monarchy on 23 March 1956. Ali remained in office as the republic's first prime minister until 12 September 1956.

Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone became independent on 27 April 1961, with Milton Margai as the first prime minister. Margai had previously been Prime Minister of the Protectorate of Sierra Leone.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1
No image.svg
Sir Milton Margai
(1895–1964)
27 April 1961 28 April 1964
2
No image.svg
Sir Albert Margai
(1910–1980)
28 April 1964 21 March 1967
3
No image.svg
Siaka Stevens
(1905–1988)
(See below) (See below)

Reference[29]

Siaka Stevens assumed the role of prime minister following his party's narrow victory in the 1967 general election. However, immediately after taking office, Stevens was deposed by the National Reformation Council in a coup d'état and placed under house arrest. Military rule persisted until an April 1968 counter-coup restored Stevens' premiership.[30]

Sierra Leone became the Republic of Sierra Leone on 19 April 1971. Stevens left the office of prime minister two days later and became President of Sierra Leone.

South Africa

Daniel François Malan was the incumbent prime minister of the Union of South Africa when Elizabeth became queen.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Daniel François Malan
(1874–1959)
4 June 1948 30 November 1954
2 Johannes Gerhardus Strijdom
(1893–1958)
30 November 1954 24 August 1958
3
HF Verwoerd Transvaler.jpg
Hendrik Verwoerd
(1901–1966)
24 August 1958 6 September 1966

Reference[31]

Following a referendum, South Africa abolished the monarchy on 31 May 1961, becoming the Republic of South Africa. Verwoerd remained in office as the republic's first prime minister until 6 September 1966.

Tanganyika

Tanganyika became independent on 9 December 1961, with Julius Nyerere as its first prime minister. Nyerere had previously been the prime minister of self-governing Tanganyika.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Julius Nyerere
(1922–1999)
9 December 1961 22 January 1962
2
No image.svg
Rashidi Kawawa
(1926–2009)
22 January 1962 9 December 1962

Reference[32]

Tanganyika abolished the monarchy on 9 December 1962. The post of prime minister was abolished.

Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago became independent on 31 August 1962, with Eric Williams as its first prime minister. Williams had previously been Chief Minister and Premier of Trinidad and Tobago.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Eric Williams
(1911–1981)
31 August 1962 29 March 1981

Reference[33]

Trinidad and Tobago abolished the monarchy on 1 August 1976. Williams remained in office as the republic's first prime minister until 29 March 1981.

Uganda

Uganda became independent on 9 October 1962 with Milton Obote as the first prime minister. Obote had previously been the prime minister of self-governing Uganda.

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Tenure
Took office Left office
1 Milton Obote
(1925–2005)
9 October 1962 15 April 1966

Reference[34]

Uganda abolished the monarchyN8 on 9 October 1963. Obote remained in office as the republic's first prime minister until 15 April 1966.

Anomalous cases

Rhodesia (1965–1970)
Ian Smith was Prime Minister of Rhodesia following a unilateral declaration of independence on 11 November 1965. Though Rhodesia considered Elizabeth II as Queen of Rhodesia,[35] this title was not accepted by her. Acting in his vice-regal capacity under direction from the UK government, Governor of Southern Rhodesia Humphrey Gibbs dismissed the Prime Minister and his government but this action was ignored by Smith. The state remained unrecognised by Britain and the international community. Following a referendum, Rhodesia declared itself a republic on 2 March 1970. Smith remained in office throughout this period.

See also

References

  1. ^ Daniel Hall. "Antigua and Barbuda". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  2. ^ Daniel Hall. "Australia". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  3. ^ Daniel Hall. "The Bahamas". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  4. ^ Daniel Hall. "Barbados". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  5. ^ Daniel Hall. "Belize". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  6. ^ Daniel Hall. "Canada". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  7. ^ Daniel Hall. "Grenada". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  8. ^ Daniel Hall. "Jamaica". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  9. ^ Daniel Hall. "New Zealand". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  10. ^ Daniel Hall. "Papua New Guinea". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  11. ^ Daniel Hall. "Saint Kitts and Nevis". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  12. ^ Daniel Hall. "Saint Lucia". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  13. ^ Daniel Hall. "Saint Vincent and the Grenadines". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  14. ^ Daniel Hall. "Solomon Islands". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  15. ^ Daniel Hall. "Tuvalu". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  16. ^ Daniel Hall. "United Kingdom". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  17. ^ T., Englefield, Dermot J. (1995). Facts about the British prime ministers : a compilation of biographical and historical information. Seaton, Janet., White, Isobel. London: Mansell. ISBN 0720123062. OCLC 33043257.
  18. ^ Daniel Hall. "Ceylon (now Sri Lanka)". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  19. ^ Daniel Hall. "Fiji". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  20. ^ Daniel Hall. "The Gambia". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  21. ^ Daniel Hall. "Ghana". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  22. ^ Daniel Hall. "Guyana". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  23. ^ Daniel Hall. "Kenya". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  24. ^ Daniel Hall. "Malawi". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  25. ^ Daniel Hall. "Malta". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  26. ^ Daniel Hall. "Mauritius". Worldstatesmen.org. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  27. ^ Daniel Hall. "Nigeria". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  28. ^ Daniel Hall. "Pakistan". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  29. ^ Daniel Hall. "Sierra Leone". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  30. ^ Keen, David (2005). Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone. Oxford: James Currey. ISBN 0-85255-883-X.
  31. ^ Daniel Hall. "South Africa". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  32. ^ Daniel Hall. "Tanganyika (now Tanzania)". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  33. ^ Daniel Hall. "Trinidad and Tobago". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  34. ^ Daniel Hall. "Uganda". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12.
  35. ^ International Law Reports, Volume 52, E. Lauterpacht, Cambridge University Press, 1979, page 53

Notes

  1. ^ After Christie suffered a stroke Cynthia A. Pratt served as acting Prime Minister from 4 May to 22 June 2005.
  2. ^ Maurice Bishop held de facto government control for most of the People's Revolutionary Government period (from 13 March 1979 till 14 October 1983). On 14 October 1983 Bishop was deposed by Bernard Coard and Bishop was killed on 19 October. Coard held power only briefly before military government was declared. After the invasion Grenada's pre-revolutionary system of government, and the office of Prime Minister, was restored on 4 December 1984. The website of the Grenadian government lists Bishop as a former Prime Minister, but not Coard nor any other individual who held de facto or de jure power in this period.
  3. ^ Due to the Sandline affair, Chan resigned as Prime Minister on 27 March 1997 and Giheno took over as acting Prime Minister. He regained the position on 2 June 1997, shortly before being ousted in a general election.
  4. ^ For two periods in this term of Somare's premiership Sam Abal was Acting Prime Minister.
  5. ^ See 2011–12 Papua New Guinean constitutional crisis for details on the dispute between Somare and O'Neill as to legitimately held the position of Prime Minister in this time. This period of ambiguity spans the time between the later-disputed dismissal of Somare from office and the implementation of the results of the 2012 general election.
  6. ^ Tuilimu served as acting prime minister following the death of Ionatana.
  7. ^ Telavi was removed from office on 1 August 2013. Sopoaga briefly served as acting Prime Minister before being sworn in as Prime Minister on 5 August 2013
  8. ^ A constitutional change ended Elizabeth II's reign in Uganda on 9 October 1963 though Uganda did not formally use the term "Republic" until 1966.
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