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List of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nobel laureates on Berkeley's faculty can take advantage of special exclusive parking spaces on the Berkeley campus. As of October 2019, 107 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university.
Nobel laureates on Berkeley's faculty can take advantage of special exclusive parking spaces on the Berkeley campus. As of October 2019, 107 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with the university.

This list of Nobel laureates affiliated with the University of California, Berkeley comprehensively shows the alumni, faculty members as well as researchers of the University of California, Berkeley who were awarded the Nobel Prize or the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prizes, established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, are awarded to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine.[1] An associated prize, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (commonly known as the Nobel Prize in Economics), was instituted by Sweden's central bank, Sveriges Riksbank, in 1968 and first awarded in 1969.[2]

As of October 2019, 107 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with UC Berkeley, and 48 of them are officially listed as "Berkeley's Nobel Laureates" by UC Berkeley for being graduates (obtained degrees), current faculty members, or deceased faculty who retired at Berkeley.[3][4] Among the 107 laureates, 34 are Berkeley alumni (graduates and attendees), and 40 have been long-term academic members of the Berkeley faculty or Berkeley-affiliated research organizations. Subject-wise, 33 laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physics, more than any other subject. In addition, Linus Pauling is the only UC Berkeley-affiliated Nobel laureate (Visiting Lecturer in Physics and Chemistry, 1929–1934)[5] to win two Nobel prizes: he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954 and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962;[6] since this is a list of laureates, not prizes, he is counted only once.

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Transcription

Contents

Inclusion criteria

General rules

University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley

The university affiliations in this list are all official academic affiliations such as degree programs and official academic employment. Non-academic affiliations such as advisory committee and administrative staff are generally excluded. The official academic affiliations fall into three categories: 1) Alumni (graduates and attendees), 2) Long-term Academic Staff, and 3) Short-term Academic Staff. Graduates are defined as those who hold Bachelor's, Master's, Doctorate, or equivalent degrees from Berkeley, while attendees are those who formally enrolled in a degree program at Berkeley but did not complete the program; thus, honorary degrees, posthumous degrees, summer attendees, exchange students, and auditing students are excluded. The category of "Long-term Academic Staff" consists of tenure/tenure-track and equivalent academic positions, while that of "Short-term Academic Staff" consists of lecturers (without tenure), postdoctoral researchers (postdocs), visiting professors/scholars (visitors), and equivalent academic positions. At Berkeley, the specific academic title solely determines the type of affiliation, regardless of the actual time the position was held by a laureate.

Further explanations on "visitors" under "Short-term Academic Staff" are presented as follows. 1) All informal or personal visits are excluded from the list; 2) all employment-based visiting positions, which carry teaching/research duties, are included as affiliations in the list; 3) as for award/honor-based visiting positions, to minimize controversy this list takes a conservative view and includes the positions as affiliations only if the laureates were required to assume employment-level duty (teaching/research) or the laureates specifically classified the visiting positions as "affiliation" or similar in reliable sources such as their curriculum vita. To be specific, some award/honor-based visiting positions such as the "Charles M. and Martha Hitchcock Lectureship" at UC Berkeley are awards/honors without employment-level duty.[7] In particular, attending meetings and giving public lectures, talks or non-curricular seminars at UC Berkeley is not a form of employment-level duty. Finally, summer visitors are generally excluded from the list unless summer work yielded significant end products such as research publications and components of Nobel-winning work, since summer terms are not part of formal academic years; the same rule applies to UC Berkeley Extension.

Some visitors and staff not qualified as official academic affiliates
Name Noble Prize Year Role in University of California, Berkeley
John Gurdon Physiology or Medicine 2012 2006 Hitchcock Lecturer
Irwin Rose Chemistry 2004 Possible attendee and visitor (positions unclear, and will not be included for now)[8][9]
James Heckman Economics 2000 1974 Summer researcher[10]
Hans Bethe Physics 1967 1942 Summer researcher[11]
George Wald Physiology or Medicine 1967 1956 Summer researcher[12]
Joshua Lederberg Physiology or Medicine 1958 1950 Summer researcher[13]
Alexander R. Todd Chemistry 1957 1957 Hitchcock Lecturer[14][15]
Peter Debye Chemistry 1936 1932 Hitchcock Lecturer
Irving Langmuir Chemistry 1932 1946 Hitchcock Lecturer
Ernest Rutherford Chemistry 1908 1901 Summer school lecturer[16]
William Ramsay Chemistry 1904 1904 Summer school lecturer[17]
Svante A. Arrhenius Chemistry 1903 1904 Summer school lecturer[18]

Affiliated organizations

Nobel laureates who were affiliates of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) before 1971 are included in the following list. The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory was established by Ernest Lawrence in 1931. It was called the "University of California Radiation Laboratory" in the beginning, and shortly after Ernest Lawrence passed away in 1958, the lab was renamed as the "Ernest O. Lawrence Radiation Laboratory".[19] In 1952, Lawrence Radiation Lab established a branch in Livermore, California. The entire Lawrence Radiation Lab was widely regarded as a part of the University of California, Berkeley.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25] In 1971, the Livermore branch became its own separate laboratory and was renamed "Lawrence Livermore Laboratory".[21] At the same time, the original site in Berkeley was renamed "Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory".[20] Both laboratories were regarded as a part of the University of California, and thus their affiliates are not included in this list (since 1971).[20][21] Finally, the Lawrence Livermore Lab becomes a national laboratory of the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) in 1981 and was renamed "Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory",[26] and in 1995 the Lawrence Berkeley Lab became a national laboratory of DOE and was renamed "Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory".[27]

Nobel laureates who were affiliates of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) from 1947 to 1952 are included in the following list. Even though the laboratory (as Project Y) was officially managed by the University of California, Berkeley after its establishment in 1943, the initial appointments in the lab were for secret military purposes only and were not academic appointments, and thus these war-time positions are excluded from this list.[28][29][30][31] After the Manhattan Project the lab was renamed "Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory" in January 1, 1947,[32] and in 1952 the lab became officially managed by the University of California when the latter was separated from UC Berkeley.[33][34][35] In 1981, the lab was renamed "Los Alamos National Laboratory" as a national lab of U.S. Department of Energy.[30]

Summary

In the following list, the number following a person's name is the year they received the prize; in particular, a number with asterisk (*) means the person received the award while they were working at UC Berkeley (including emeritus staff). A name underlined implies that this person has already been listed in a previous category (i.e., multiple affiliations).

Alumni Long-term academic staff Short-term academic staff
Physics (33)
  1. Barry Barish - 2017
  2. David Wineland - 2012
  3. Saul Perlmutter - 2011
  4. John C. Mather - 2006
  5. David Gross - 2004
  6. Robert Laughlin - 1998
  7. Steven Chu - 1997
  8. Owen Chamberlain- 1959
  9. Willis Lamb - 1955
  1. Saul Perlmutter - 2011*
  2. George Smoot - 2006*
  3. Steven Chu - 1997
  4. Frederick Reines - 1995
  5. Steven Weinberg - 1979
  6. Sheldon Glashow - 1979
  7. Luis W. Alvarez - 1968*
  8. Charles Townes - 1964
  9. Donald Glaser - 1960*
  10. Emilio Segrè - 1959*
  11. Owen Chamberlain - 1959*
  12. Ernest Lawrence - 1939*
  13. Arthur Compton - 1927
  1. Barry Barish - 2017
  2. David Thouless - 2016
  3. Adam Riess - 2011
  4. Steven Chu - 1997
  5. Pierre de Gennes - 1991
  6. Richard E. Taylor - 1990
  7. Jack Steinberger - 1988
  8. Nico Bloembergen- 1981
  9. James Cronin - 1980
  10. Ben Mottelson - 1975
  11. Leon Cooper - 1972
  12. Leon Cooper - 1965
  13. Hans D. Jensen - 1963
  14. T. D. Lee - 1957
  15. Felix Bloch- 1952
  16. Otto Stern - 1943
Chemistry (30)
  1. Frances Arnold - 2018
  2. Alan Heeger - 2000
  3. Robert Curl - 1996
  4. Mario Molina - 1995
  5. Kary Mullis - 1993
  6. Thomas Cech - 1989
  7. Y. T. Lee - 1986
  8. Henry Taube - 1983
  9. Willard Libby - 1960
  10. Glenn Seaborg - 1951
  11. William Giauque - 1949
  12. Harold Urey - 1934
  1. Paul Modrich - 2015
  2. Eric Betzig - 2014
  3. Thomas Steitz - 2009
  4. Roger Tsien - 2008
  5. Y. T. Lee - 1986*
  6. Dudley Herschbach - 1986
  7. Melvin Calvin - 1961*
  8. Willard Libby - 1960
  9. Glenn Seaborg- 1951*
  10. Edwin McMillan - 1951*
  11. William Giauque - 1949*
  12. Wendell Stanley - 1946
  13. John H. Northrop - 1946
  1. Frances Arnold - 2018
  2. Richard Henderson - 2017
  3. Joachim Frank - 2017
  4. Aziz Sancar - 2015
  5. Gerhard Ertl - 2007
  6. Kurt Wüthrich - 2002
  7. Ahmed Zewail - 1999
  8. Mario Molina - 1995
  9. Kary Mullis - 1993
  10. Dudley Herschbach - 1986
  11. Henry Taube - 1983
  12. Geoffrey Wilkinson - 1973
  13. Jaroslav Heyrovský - 1959
  14. Linus Pauling - 1954
  15. Edwin McMillan - 1951
Physiology or Medicine (17)
  1. Carol Greider- 2009
  2. Andrew Fire - 2006
  3. Hamilton O. Smith - 1978
  4. Selman Waksman - 1952
  5. Joseph Erlanger - 1944
  1. James P. Allison - 2018
  2. Randy Schekman - 2013*
  3. Elizabeth Blackburn - 2009
  4. Stanley Prusiner - 1997*
  5. George Whipple - 1934
  1. Sydney Brenner - 2002
  2. Richard J. Roberts - 1980
  3. Werner Arber - 1978
  4. Allan Cormack- 1970
  5. Maurice Wilkins - 1962
  6. Arthur Kornberg - 1959
  7. Thomas H. Morgan - 1933
Economics (24)
  1. Christopher Sims - 2011
  2. Thomas Sargent - 2011
  3. Thomas Schelling - 2005
  4. Daniel Kahneman - 2002
  5. Robert Lucas Jr- 1995
  6. Douglass North - 1993
  7. William F. Sharpe - 1990
  8. Lawrence Klein - 1980
  1. Paul Romer - 2018
  2. Peter Diamond - 2010
  3. Oliver Williamson - 2009*
  4. Daniel Kahneman - 2002
  5. George Akerlof - 2001*
  6. Daniel McFadden - 2000*
  7. John Harsanyi - 1994*
  8. Gérard Debreu - 1983*
  1. Chris Pissarides - 2010
  2. Oliver Williamson - 2009
  3. Leonid Hurwicz - 2007
  4. Robert Aumann - 2005
  5. Amartya Sen- 1998
  6. James Mirrlees - 1996
  7. Reinhard Selten - 1994
  8. James Tobin - 1981
  9. Lawrence Klein - 1980
  10. Herbert A. Simon- 1978
  11. Bertil Ohlin- 1977
Literature (3)
  1. Czeslaw Milosz - 1980*
  1. Seamus Heaney - 1995
  2. Octavio Paz - 1990
Peace (1)
  1. Linus Pauling - 1962

Nobel laureates by category

Nobel laureates in Physics

No. Name Year Affiliation with UC Berkeley
33 Barry Barish 2017 BA (1957), PhD (1962); Research Fellow (1962–1963)[36][37]
32 David J. Thouless 2016 Postdoctoral researcher at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (1958–1959),[38] also worked in the Department of Physics and taught a course on atomic physics[39][40]
31 David Wineland 2012 BA (1965)[41]
30 Adam Riess 2011 Miller Fellow (1996–1999)[42]
29 Saul Perlmutter 2011 PhD (1986); Professor of Physics at UC Berkeley, and astrophysicist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory[43]
28 George Smoot 2006 Professor of Physics (since 1994)[44]
27 John C. Mather 2006 PhD (1974)[45]
26 David Gross 2004 PhD (1966)[46]
25 Robert B. Laughlin 1998 BA (1972)[47]
24 Steven Chu 1997 PhD 1976, Postdoctoral Research Fellow (1976–1978),[48] Professor of Physics and Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology (2004–2009), and Director of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (2004–2009)[49]
23 Frederick Reines 1995 Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LANL) Research Leader (1944–1959) [50][51]
22 Pierre-Gilles de Gennes 1991 Postdoctoral researcher (1959)[52]
21 Richard E. Taylor 1990 Researcher at Lawrence Radiation Lab (1961–1962)[53]
20 Jack Steinberger 1988 Researcher (1949–1950)[54]
19 Nicolaas Bloembergen 1981 Visiting Professor (1964–1965)[55]
18 James Cronin 1980 Researcher at the Berkeley Bevatron (First half of 1958)[56]
17 Steven Weinberg 1979 Researcher, Professor of Physics (1959–1966)[57]
16 Sheldon Lee Glashow 1979 Associate Professor of Physics (1962–1966)[58]
15 Ben Roy Mottelson 1975 Visiting Professor (Spring 1959)[59]
14 Leon N. Cooper 1972 Visiting Professor at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory (1969)[60]
13 Luis Walter Alvarez 1968 Professor of Physics (1936–1988)[61]
12 Julian Schwinger 1965 Research fellow (1939–1941)[62]
11 Charles Hard Townes 1964 Professor of Physics (1967–2015)[63]
10 J. Hans D. Jensen 1963 Visiting Professor (1952)[64][65]
9 Donald A. Glaser 1960 Professor of Physics (1959–2013)[66]
8 Emilio G. Segrè 1959 Radiation Lab (1938–1946); Professor of Physics (1946–1989)[67]
7 Owen Chamberlain 1959 Graduate attendee;[a] Professor of Physics (1958–2006)[69]
6 Tsung-Dao Lee 1957 Research Associate and Instructor (1950–1951)[70]
5 Willis Lamb 1955 BS (1934), PhD (1938)[71]
4 Felix Bloch 1952 Cyclotron researcher (1938–1939)[72][73]
3 Otto Stern 1943 Visiting Professor (1930s)[74]
2 Ernest Lawrence 1939 Professor of Physics (1930–1958); Director of the Radiation Laboratory (1936–1958)[75]
1 Arthur H. Compton 1927 Taught in the Summer Sessions of 1921 and 1922; Professor of Physics; University Professor-at-Large (Spring 1962)[76][77]

Nobel laureates in Chemistry

No. Name Year Affiliation with UC Berkeley
30 Frances Arnold 2018 PhD (1985); Postdoctoral Fellow (1986)[78][79]
29 Richard Henderson 2017 Visiting Professor of Molecular and Cell biology at the Miller Institute (Spring 1993)[80]
28 Joachim Frank 2017 Harkness Fellow (early 1970s)[80][81]
27 Aziz Sancar 2015 Visiting Miller Professor (Spring 2002)[82]
26 Paul L. Modrich 2015 Assistant Professor (1974–1976)[83]
25 Eric Betzig 2014 Professor of Physics (2017–)[84][85]
24 Thomas A. Steitz 2009 Assistant Professor of Biochemistry (for two quarters during 1968–1970)[86]
23 Roger Y. Tsien 2008 Professor of Chemistry (1982–1989)[87]
22 Gerhard Ertl 2007 Visiting Professor (1981–1982)[88]
21 Kurt Wüthrich 2002 Postdoctoral researcher (1965–1967)[89]
20 Alan J. Heeger 2000 PhD (1961); Research Associate in Physics (1961–1962)[90]
19 Ahmed Zewail 1999 Researcher (1974–1976)[91]
18 Robert Curl 1996 PhD (1957)[92]
17 Mario J. Molina 1995 PhD (1972)[93]
16 Kary Mullis 1993 PhD (1972)[94]
15 Thomas Cech 1989 PhD (1975)[95]
14 Yuan T. Lee 1986 PhD (1965); Professor of Chemistry (since 1974)[96]
13 Dudley R. Herschbach 1986 Professor of Chemistry (1959–1963)[97]
12 Henry Taube 1983 PhD (1940); Instructor (1940–1941)[98]
11 Geoffrey Wilkinson 1973 Radiation Lab (1946–1949)[99]
10 Melvin Calvin 1961 Professor of Chemistry (1947–1997)[100]
9 Willard Libby 1960 BS (1931), PhD (1933); Lecturer (1933–1941)[101]
8 Jaroslav Heyrovský 1959 Carnegie Visiting Professor (1933)[102][103][104]
7 Linus Pauling[b] 1954[6] Visiting Lecturer in Physics and Chemistry (1929–1934)[5]
6 Glenn T. Seaborg 1951 PhD (1937); Professor of Chemistry (1937–1999); Chancellor (1958–1961)[105]
5 Edwin McMillan 1951 National Research Fellow (1932–1934), Staff at the Radiation Laboratory (1934–1935), Instructor (1935–1936), Assistant Professor (1936–1941), Associate Professor (1941–1946), and Professor of Chemistry (1946–1991)[106]
4 William Giauque 1949 BS 1920, PhD 1922; Professor of Chemistry (1922–1982)[107]
3 Wendell Meredith Stanley 1946 Professor of Chemistry (1948–1971)[108]
2 John Howard Northrop 1946 Professor of Bacteriology and later, Professor of Biophysics (1949–1987)[109]
1 Harold Urey 1934 PhD (1923)[110]

Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine

No. Name Year Affiliation with UC Berkeley
17  James  Allison 2018 Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology (1985–2004)[111]
16 Randy W. Schekman 2013 Professor of Molecular and Cell Biology (since 1976)[112]
15 Carol W. Greider 2009 PhD (1987), Molecular Biology[86][113]
14 Elizabeth Blackburn 2009 Professor of Molecular Biology (1978–1990)[86][114]
13 Andrew Fire 2006 BA in Mathematics (1978)[115]
12 Sydney Brenner 2002 Postdoctoral researcher (1953)[116]
11 Stanley B. Prusiner 1997 Assistant Professor of Virology in Residence (1979–1983), Associate Professor of Virology in Residence (1983–1984), and Professor of Virology in Residence (since 1984)[117]
10 Richard J. Roberts 1980 Visiting Miller Professor (Fall 1991)[82][118]
9 Hamilton O. Smith 1978 BS (1952)[119]
8 Werner Arber 1978 Researcher (1963); Visiting Miller Research Professor, Department of Molecular Biology (1970–1971)[120]
7 Allan M. Cormack 1970 Visiting Researcher at Lawrence Radiation Laboratory[24]
6 Maurice Wilkins 1962 Worked on the Manhattan Project at UC Berkeley (1944–1945)[121][122]
5 Arthur Kornberg 1959 Research investigator at Horace Barker's lab (1951)[123]
4 Selman Waksman 1952 PhD (1918)[124]
3 Joseph Erlanger 1944 BS (1895)[125]
2 George H. Whipple 1934 Professor (1914–1921) and Dean of Medical School at Berkeley (1920–1921)[126][127]
1 Thomas H. Morgan 1933 Visiting researcher (June 1921 - September 1921, covering the summer and part of Fall semester); Hitchcock Lecturer (1916)[128][129][130][131]

Nobel Memorial Prize laureates in Economics

No. Name Year Affiliation with UC Berkeley
24 Paul Romer 2018 Professor of Economics (July 1990–July 1996)[132][133]
23 Christopher A. Sims 2011 Graduate student in economics (1963–1964)[134][135][136]
22 Thomas J. Sargent 2011 BA (1964)[134]
21 Christopher A. Pissarides 2010 Visiting Professor at the Haas School of Business (1990–1991)[137]
20 Peter Diamond 2010 Professor of Economics (1963–1966)[138]
19 Oliver E. Williamson 2009 Professor at the Haas School of Business, Department of Economics, and School of Law (1963–1965; since 1988)[139]
18 Leonid Hurwicz 2007 Visiting Professor (1976–1977)[140]
17 Thomas Schelling 2005 BA (1944)[141]
16 Robert Aumann 2005 Ford Visiting Research Professor of Economics (1971, 1985–1986)[142]
15 Daniel Kahneman 2002 PhD (1961); Professor of Psychology (1986–1994)[143]
14 George Akerlof 2001 Professor of Economics (1966–1978; since 1980)[144]
13 Daniel McFadden 2000 Assistant Professor of Economics (1963–1966), Assistant Professor of Economics (1966–1968), Professor of Economics (1968–1979), Professor of Economics (since 1990), E. Morris Cox Chair (since 1990), Director at the Econometrics Laboratory (1991–1995, since 1996), and Chair at the Department of Economics (1995–1996)[145][146]
12 Amartya Sen 1998 Researcher (1964–1965)[147]
11 James Mirrlees 1996 Visiting Professor (1986)[148]
10 Robert Lucas Jr. 1995 Graduate student in history (1959–1960)[149]
9 Reinhard Selten 1994 Visiting Professor at the Haas School of Business (1967–1968; frequent visitor)[150]
8 John Harsanyi 1994 Professor at the Haas School of Business (1964–2000)[151]
7 Douglass North 1993 BA (1942), PhD (1952)[152]
6 William F. Sharpe 1990 Undergraduate attendee (1951–1952)[153]
5 Gérard Debreu 1983 Professor of Economics (1962–2004)[154]
4 James Tobin 1981 Ford Visiting Research Professor of Economics (1982–1983)[144][155]
3 Lawrence Klein 1980 BA (1942)[156]
2 Herbert A. Simon 1978 Research Director (1939–1942)[157]
1 Bertil Ohlin 1977 Visiting Professor (1937)[158][159][160]

Nobel laureates in Literature

No. Name Year Affiliation with UC Berkeley
3 Seamus Heaney 1995 Visiting Lecturer (1970–1971)[161]
2 Octavio Paz 1990 Guggenheim Fellow (1943) for study of the poetic expression[162][163]
1 Czesław Miłosz 1980 Professor of Slavic Languages and Literature (1961–2004)[164]

Nobel Peace Prize laureates

No. Name Year Affiliation with UC Berkeley
1 Linus Pauling[b] 1962[6] Visiting Lecturer in Physics and Chemistry (1929–1934)[5]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Owen Chamberlain entered UC Berkeley for physics graduate school in 1941, but his studies were interrupted by World War II, and he was eventually awarded the physics PhD degree from the University of Chicago in 1949.[68]
  2. ^ a b This Nobel laureate received two Nobel Prizes. Counted only once because this is a list of laureates, not prizes.

References

  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  2. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  3. ^ "Alumni nobel prizes | University of California, Berkeley". www.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
  4. ^ "History & discoveries | University of California, Berkeley". www.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-06.
  5. ^ a b c "Early Career at the California Institute of Technology (1927-1930)". Oregon State University Libraries Special Collections & Archives Research Center. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  6. ^ a b c "Linus Pauling - Biographical". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
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  8. ^ "Interview Transcript". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05.
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  12. ^ "George Wald - Biographical". www.nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2018-02-22.
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  20. ^ a b c "Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory". history.aip.org. Retrieved 2018-03-03.
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  22. ^ "University of California History Digital Archives: Berkeley Departments and Programs - P." www.lib.berkeley.edu. John Douglass, Sally Thomas. Retrieved 2018-03-03.CS1 maint: others (link)
  23. ^ Chamberlain, O.; Jeffries, C.D.; Schultz, C.H.; Shapiro, G.; Van Rossum, L. (1963-12-01). "Pion scattering from a polarized target" (PDF). Physics Letters. 7 (4): 293–295. doi:10.1016/0031-9163(63)90338-X. ISSN 0031-9163.
  24. ^ a b Greenberg, Arthur J.; Ayres, David S.; Cormack, Allan M.; Kenney, Robert W.; Caldwell, David O.; Elings, Virgil B.; Hesse, William P.; Morrison, Rollin J. (1969). "Charged-Pion Lifetime and a Limit on a Fundamental Length" (PDF). Physical Review Letters. 23 (21): 1267–1270. doi:10.1103/physrevlett.23.1267.
  25. ^ "SOLID-STATE EFFECTS IN PIONIC ATOMS *" (PDF). PHYSICS LETTERS.
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