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List of Nobel laureates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nobel laureates  receive a gold medal together with a diploma and (as of 2017) 9 million SEK (roughly US$1.0 million, €0.87 million).
Nobel laureates  receive a gold medal together with a diploma and (as of 2017) 9 million SEK (roughly US$1.0 million, €0.87 million).

The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: Nobelpriset, Norwegian: Nobelprisen) are prizes awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Swedish Academy, the Karolinska Institutet, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals and organizations who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributions to the field of economics. Each recipient, or "laureate", receives a gold medal, a diploma, and a sum of money, which is decided annually by the Nobel Foundation.[2]

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Each prize is awarded by a separate committee; the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[2] In 1901, the recipients of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 8,402,670 SEK in December 2017. In 2017, the laureates were awarded a prize amount of 9,000,000 SEK.[4] The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5]

In years in which the Nobel Prize is not awarded due to external events or a lack of nominations, the prize money is returned to the funds delegated to the relevant prize.[6] The Nobel Prize was not awarded between 1940 and 1942 due to the outbreak of World War II.[7]


Between 1901 and 2017, the Nobel Prizes and the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded 585 times to 923 people and organizations. With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 892 individuals (including 844 men, 48 women) and 24 organizations.[8] Four Nobel laureates were not permitted by their governments to accept the Nobel Prize. Adolf Hitler forbade three Germans, Richard Kuhn (Chemistry, 1938), Adolf Butenandt (Chemistry, 1939), and Gerhard Domagk (Physiology or Medicine, 1939), from accepting their Nobel Prizes, and the government of the Soviet Union pressured Boris Pasternak (Literature, 1958) to decline his award. Two Nobel laureates, Jean-Paul Sartre (Literature, 1964) and Lê Ðức Thọ (Peace, 1973), declined the award; Sartre declined the award as he declined all official honors, and Lê declined the award due to the situation Vietnam was in at the time.

Six laureates have received more than one prize; of the six, the International Committee of the Red Cross has received the Nobel Peace Prize three times, more than any other.[9] UNHCR has been awarded the Nobel Peace Prize twice. Also the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to John Bardeen twice, and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Frederick Sanger. Two laureates have been awarded twice but not in the same field: Marie Curie (Physics and Chemistry) and Linus Pauling (Chemistry and Peace). Among the 892 Nobel laureates, 48 have been women; the first woman to receive a Nobel Prize was Marie Curie, who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903.[10] She was also the first person (male or female) to be awarded two Nobel Prizes, the second award being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, given in 1911.[9]

List of laureates

Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics
1901 Wilhelm Röntgen Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff Emil Adolf von Behring Sully Prudhomme Henry Dunant;
Frédéric Passy
1902 Hendrik Lorentz;
Pieter Zeeman
Hermann Emil Fischer Ronald Ross Theodor Mommsen Élie Ducommun;
Charles Albert Gobat
1903 Henri Becquerel;
Pierre Curie;
Marie Curie
Svante Arrhenius Niels Ryberg Finsen Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Randal Cremer
1904 Lord Rayleigh William Ramsay Ivan Pavlov Frédéric Mistral;
José Echegaray
Institut de Droit International
1905 Philipp Lenard Adolf von Baeyer Robert Koch Henryk Sienkiewicz Bertha von Suttner
1906 J. J. Thomson Henri Moissan Camillo Golgi;
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
Giosuè Carducci Theodore Roosevelt
1907 Albert Abraham Michelson Eduard Buchner Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Rudyard Kipling Ernesto Teodoro Moneta;
Louis Renault
1908 Gabriel Lippmann Ernest Rutherford Élie Metchnikoff;
Paul Ehrlich
Rudolf Christoph Eucken Klas Pontus Arnoldson;
Fredrik Bajer
1909 Karl Ferdinand Braun;
Guglielmo Marconi
Wilhelm Ostwald Emil Theodor Kocher Selma Lagerlöf Auguste Marie François Beernaert;
Paul-Henri-Benjamin d'Estournelles de Constant
1910 Johannes Diderik van der Waals Otto Wallach Albrecht Kossel Paul Heyse International Peace Bureau
1911 Wilhelm Wien Marie Skłodowska-Curie Allvar Gullstrand Maurice Maeterlinck Tobias Asser;
Alfred Hermann Fried
1912 Gustaf Dalén Victor Grignard;
Paul Sabatier
Alexis Carrel Gerhart Hauptmann Elihu Root
1913 Heike Kamerlingh Onnes Alfred Werner Charles Richet Rabindranath Tagore Henri La Fontaine
1914 Max von Laue Theodore William Richards Robert Bárány None None
1915 William Henry Bragg;
William Lawrence Bragg
Richard Willstätter None Romain Rolland None
1916 None None None Verner von Heidenstam None
1917 Charles Glover Barkla None None Karl Adolph Gjellerup;
Henrik Pontoppidan
International Committee of the Red Cross
1918 Max Planck Fritz Haber None None None
1919 Johannes Stark None Jules Bordet Carl Spitteler Woodrow Wilson
1920 Charles Édouard Guillaume Walther Nernst August Krogh Knut Hamsun Léon Bourgeois
1921 Albert Einstein Frederick Soddy None Anatole France Hjalmar Branting;
Christian Lous Lange
1922 Niels Bohr Francis William Aston Archibald Hill;
Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Jacinto Benavente Fridtjof Nansen
1923 Robert Andrews Millikan Fritz Pregl Frederick Banting;
John James Rickard Macleod
W. B. Yeats None
1924 Manne Siegbahn None Willem Einthoven Władysław Reymont None
1925 James Franck;
Gustav Ludwig Hertz
Richard Adolf Zsigmondy None George Bernard Shaw Austen Chamberlain;
Charles G. Dawes
1926 Jean Baptiste Perrin Theodor Svedberg Johannes Fibiger Grazia Deledda Aristide Briand;
Gustav Stresemann
1927 Arthur Compton;
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
Heinrich Otto Wieland Julius Wagner-Jauregg Henri Bergson Ferdinand Buisson;
Ludwig Quidde
1928 Owen Willans Richardson Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus Charles Nicolle Sigrid Undset None
1929 Louis de Broglie Arthur Harden;
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
Christiaan Eijkman;
Frederick Gowland Hopkins
Thomas Mann Frank B. Kellogg
1930 C. V. Raman Hans Fischer Karl Landsteiner Sinclair Lewis Nathan Söderblom
1931 None Carl Bosch;
Friedrich Bergius
Otto Heinrich Warburg Erik Axel Karlfeldt Jane Addams;
Nicholas Murray Butler
1932 Werner Heisenberg Irving Langmuir Charles Scott Sherrington;
Edgar Adrian
John Galsworthy None
1933 Erwin Schrödinger;
Paul Dirac
None Thomas Hunt Morgan Ivan Bunin Norman Angell
1934 None Harold Urey George Whipple;
George Minot;
William P. Murphy
Luigi Pirandello Arthur Henderson
1935 James Chadwick Frédéric Joliot-Curie;
Irène Joliot-Curie
Hans Spemann None Carl von Ossietzky
1936 Victor Francis Hess;
Carl David Anderson
Peter Debye Henry Hallett Dale;
Otto Loewi
Eugene O'Neill Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1937 Clinton Davisson;
George Paget Thomson
Norman Haworth;
Paul Karrer
Albert Szent-Györgyi Roger Martin du Gard The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood
1938 Enrico Fermi Richard Kuhn[A] Corneille Heymans Pearl S. Buck Nansen International Office For Refugees
1939 Ernest Lawrence Adolf Butenandt;[A]
Leopold Ružička
Gerhard Domagk[A] Frans Eemil Sillanpää None
1940 None None None None None
1941 None None None None None
1942 None None None None None
1943 Otto Stern George de Hevesy Henrik Dam;
Edward Adelbert Doisy
None None
1944 Isidor Isaac Rabi Otto Hahn Joseph Erlanger;
Herbert Spencer Gasser
Johannes Vilhelm Jensen International Committee of the Red Cross
1945 Wolfgang Pauli Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Alexander Fleming;
Ernst Boris Chain;
Howard Florey
Gabriela Mistral Cordell Hull
1946 Percy Williams Bridgman James B. Sumner;
John Howard Northrop;
Wendell Meredith Stanley
Hermann Joseph Muller Hermann Hesse Emily Greene Balch;
John Mott
1947 Edward Victor Appleton Robert Robinson Carl Ferdinand Cori;
Gerty Cori;
Bernardo Houssay
André Gide Friends Service Council;
American Friends Service Committee
1948 Patrick Blackett Arne Tiselius Paul Hermann Müller T. S. Eliot None[B]
1949 Hideki Yukawa William Giauque Walter Rudolf Hess;
António Egas Moniz
William Faulkner John Boyd Orr
1950 C. F. Powell Otto Diels;
Kurt Alder
Philip Showalter Hench;
Edward Calvin Kendall;
Tadeus Reichstein
Bertrand Russell Ralph Bunche
1951 John Cockcroft;
Ernest Walton
Edwin McMillan;
Glenn T. Seaborg
Max Theiler Pär Lagerkvist Léon Jouhaux
1952 Felix Bloch;
Edward Mills Purcell
Archer John Porter Martin;
Richard Laurence Millington Synge
Selman Waksman François Mauriac Albert Schweitzer
1953 Frits Zernike Hermann Staudinger Hans Adolf Krebs;
Fritz Albert Lipmann
Winston Churchill George Marshall
1954 Max Born;
Walther Bothe
Linus Pauling John Franklin Enders;
Frederick Chapman Robbins;
Thomas Huckle Weller
Ernest Hemingway United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1955 Willis Lamb;
Polykarp Kusch
Vincent du Vigneaud Hugo Theorell Halldór Laxness None
1956 John Bardeen;
Walter Houser Brattain;
William Shockley
Cyril Norman Hinshelwood;
Nikolay Semyonov
André Frédéric Cournand;
Werner Forssmann;
Dickinson W. Richards
Juan Ramón Jiménez None
1957 Chen Ning Yang;
Tsung-Dao Lee
The Lord Todd Daniel Bovet Albert Camus Lester B. Pearson
1958 Pavel Cherenkov;
Ilya Frank;
Igor Tamm
Frederick Sanger George Wells Beadle;
Edward Lawrie Tatum;
Joshua Lederberg
Boris Pasternak[C] Dominique Pire
1959 Emilio G. Segrè;
Owen Chamberlain
Jaroslav Heyrovský Arthur Kornberg;
Severo Ochoa
Salvatore Quasimodo Philip Noel-Baker
1960 Donald A. Glaser Willard Libby Frank Macfarlane Burnet;
Peter Medawar
Saint-John Perse Albert Lutuli
1961 Robert Hofstadter;
Rudolf Mössbauer
Melvin Calvin Georg von Békésy Ivo Andrić Dag Hammarskjöld
1962 Lev Landau Max Perutz;
John Kendrew
Francis Crick;
James D. Watson;
Maurice Wilkins
John Steinbeck Linus Pauling
1963 Eugene Wigner;
Maria Goeppert-Mayer;
J. Hans D. Jensen
Karl Ziegler;
Giulio Natta
John Eccles;
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin;
Andrew Huxley
Giorgos Seferis International Committee of the Red Cross;
League of Red Cross societies
1964 Charles Hard Townes;
Nikolay Basov;
Alexander Prokhorov
Dorothy Hodgkin Konrad Emil Bloch;
Feodor Felix Konrad Lynen
Jean-Paul Sartre[D] Martin Luther King, Jr.
1965 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga;
Julian Schwinger;
Richard Feynman
Robert Burns Woodward François Jacob;
André Michel Lwoff;
Jacques Monod
Mikhail Sholokhov United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
1966 Alfred Kastler Robert S. Mulliken Francis Peyton Rous;
Charles Brenton Huggins
Shmuel Yosef Agnon;
Nelly Sachs
1967 Hans Bethe Manfred Eigen;
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish;
George Porter
Ragnar Granit;
Haldan Keffer Hartline;
George Wald
Miguel Ángel Asturias None
1968 Luis Walter Alvarez Lars Onsager Robert W. Holley;
Har Gobind Khorana;
Marshall Warren Nirenberg
Yasunari Kawabata René Cassin
1969 Murray Gell-Mann Derek Barton;
Odd Hassel
Max Delbrück;
Alfred Hershey;
Salvador Luria
Samuel Beckett International Labour Organization Ragnar Frisch;
Jan Tinbergen
1970 Hannes Alfvén;
Louis Néel
Luis Federico Leloir Julius Axelrod;
Ulf von Euler;
Bernard Katz
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn Norman Borlaug Paul Samuelson
1971 Dennis Gabor Gerhard Herzberg Earl Wilbur Sutherland, Jr. Pablo Neruda Willy Brandt Simon Kuznets
1972 John Bardeen;
Leon Cooper;
John Robert Schrieffer
Christian B. Anfinsen;
Stanford Moore;
William Howard Stein
Gerald Edelman;
Rodney Robert Porter
Heinrich Böll None John Hicks;
Kenneth Arrow
1973 Leo Esaki;
Ivar Giaever;
Brian David Josephson
Ernst Otto Fischer;
Geoffrey Wilkinson
Karl von Frisch;
Konrad Lorenz;
Nikolaas Tinbergen
Patrick White Henry Kissinger;
Le Duc Tho[E]
Wassily Leontief
1974 Martin Ryle;
Antony Hewish
Paul Flory Albert Claude;
Christian de Duve;
George Emil Palade
Eyvind Johnson;
Harry Martinson
Seán MacBride;
Eisaku Satō
Gunnar Myrdal;
Friedrich Hayek
1975 Aage Bohr;
Ben Roy Mottelson;
James Rainwater
John Cornforth;
Vladimir Prelog
David Baltimore;
Renato Dulbecco;
Howard Martin Temin
Eugenio Montale Andrei Sakharov Leonid Kantorovich;
Tjalling Koopmans
1976 Burton Richter;
Samuel C. C. Ting
William Lipscomb Baruch Samuel Blumberg;
Daniel Carleton Gajdusek
Saul Bellow Betty Williams;
Mairead Maguire
Milton Friedman
1977 Philip Warren Anderson;
Nevill Francis Mott;
John Hasbrouck Van Vleck
Ilya Prigogine Roger Guillemin;
Andrew Schally;
Rosalyn Sussman Yalow
Vicente Aleixandre Amnesty International Bertil Ohlin;
James Meade
1978 Pyotr Kapitsa;
Arno Allan Penzias;
Robert Woodrow Wilson
Peter D. Mitchell Werner Arber;
Daniel Nathans;
Hamilton O. Smith
Isaac Bashevis Singer Anwar Sadat;
Menachem Begin
Herbert A. Simon
1979 Sheldon Lee Glashow;
Abdus Salam;
Steven Weinberg
Herbert C. Brown;
Georg Wittig
Allan McLeod Cormack;
Godfrey Hounsfield
Odysseas Elytis Mother Teresa Theodore Schultz;
Arthur Lewis
1980 James Cronin;
Val Logsdon Fitch
Paul Berg;
Walter Gilbert;
Frederick Sanger
Baruj Benacerraf;
Jean Dausset;
George Davis Snell
Czesław Miłosz Adolfo Pérez Esquivel Lawrence Klein
1981 Nicolaas BloembergenNetherlands
Arthur Leonard SchawlowUnited States
Kai SiegbahnSweden
Kenichi FukuiJapan
Roald HoffmannPoland
Roger Wolcott SperryUnited States
David H. HubelCanada
Torsten WieselSweden
Elias CanettiGermany United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees James TobinUnited States
1982 Kenneth G. WilsonUnited States Aaron KlugLithuania Sune BergströmSweden
Bengt I. SamuelssonSweden
John VaneEngland
Gabriel García MárquezColombia Alva MyrdalSweden
Alfonso García RoblesMexico
George StiglerUnited States
1983 Subrahmanyan ChandrasekharIndia
William Alfred FowlerUnited States
Henry TaubeUnited States Barbara McClintockUnited States William GoldingEngland Lech WałęsaPoland Gérard DebreuFrance
1984 Carlo RubbiaItaly
Simon van der MeerNetherlands
Robert Bruce MerrifieldUnited States Niels Kaj JerneDenmark
Georges J. F. KöhlerGermany
César MilsteinArgentina
Jaroslav SeifertCzechoslovakia Desmond TutuSouth Africa Richard StoneEngland
1985 Klaus von KlitzingGermany Herbert A. HauptmanUnited States
Jerome KarleUnited States
Michael Stuart BrownUnited States
Joseph L. GoldsteinUnited States
Claude SimonFrance International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War Franco ModiglianiItaly
1986 Ernst RuskaGermany
Gerd BinnigGermany
Heinrich RohrerSwitzerland
Dudley R. HerschbachUnited States
Yuan T. LeeJapan
John PolanyiCanada
Stanley CohenUnited States
Rita Levi-MontalciniItaly
Wole SoyinkaNigeria Elie WieselRomania James M. BuchananUnited States
1987 Johannes Georg BednorzGermany
Karl Alexander MüllerSwitzerland
Donald J. CramUnited States
Jean-Marie LehnFrance
Charles J. PedersenUnited States
Susumu TonegawaJapan Joseph BrodskyRussia Óscar AriasCosta Rica Robert SolowUnited States
1988 Leon M. LedermanUnited States
Melvin SchwartzUnited States
Jack SteinbergerUnited States
Johann DeisenhoferGermany
Robert HuberGermany
Hartmut MichelGermany
James W. BlackScotland
Gertrude B. ElionUnited States
George H. HitchingsUnited States
Naguib MahfouzEgypt United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces
United Nations Peacekeeping Logo.svg
Maurice AllaisFrance
1989 Norman Foster Ramsey, Jr.United States
Hans Georg DehmeltGermany
Wolfgang PaulGermany
Sidney AltmanUnited States
Thomas CechUnited States
J. Michael BishopUnited States
Harold E. VarmusUnited States
Camilo José CelaSpain Tenzin Gyatso (The 14th Dalai Lama)Tibet Trygve HaavelmoNorway
1990 Jerome Isaac FriedmanUnited States
Henry Way KendallUnited States
Richard E. TaylorCanada
Elias James CoreyUnited States Joseph MurrayUnited States
E. Donnall ThomasUnited States
Octavio PazMexico Mikhail GorbachevRussia Harry MarkowitzUnited States
Merton MillerUnited States
William F. SharpeUnited States
1991 Pierre-Gilles de GennesFrance Richard R. ErnstSwitzerland Erwin NeherGermany
Bert SakmannGermany
Nadine GordimerSouth Africa Aung San Suu KyiMyanmar Ronald CoaseEngland
1992 Georges CharpakPoland Rudolph A. MarcusCanada Edmond H. FischerChina
Edwin G. KrebsUnited States
Derek WalcottSaint Lucia Rigoberta MenchúGuatemala Gary BeckerUnited States
1993 Russell Alan HulseUnited States
Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr.United States
Kary MullisUnited States
Michael SmithEngland
Richard J. RobertsEngland
Phillip Allen SharpUnited States
Toni MorrisonUnited States Nelson MandelaSouth Africa
F. W. de KlerkSouth Africa
Robert FogelUnited States
Douglass NorthUnited States
1994 Bertram BrockhouseCanada
Clifford ShullUnited States
George Andrew OlahHungary Alfred G. GilmanUnited States
Martin RodbellUnited States
Kenzaburō ŌeJapan Yasser ArafatPalestinian National Authority
Shimon PeresIsrael
Yitzhak RabinIsrael
John HarsanyiHungary
John Forbes Nash, Jr.United States
Reinhard SeltenGermany
1995 Martin Lewis PerlUnited States
Frederick ReinesUnited States
Paul J. CrutzenNetherlands
Mario J. MolinaMexico
Frank Sherwood Rowland
Edward B. LewisUnited States
Christiane Nüsslein-VolhardGermany
Eric F. WieschausUnited States
Seamus HeaneyRepublic of Ireland Joseph RotblatPoland
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Robert Lucas, Jr.United States
1996 David LeeUnited States
Douglas OsheroffUnited States
Robert Coleman RichardsonUnited States
Robert F. Curl Jr.United States
Harry KrotoEngland
Richard SmalleyUnited States
Peter C. DohertyAustralia
Rolf M. ZinkernagelSwitzerland
Wisława SzymborskaPoland Carlos Filipe Ximenes BeloPortuguese Timor
José Ramos-HortaPortuguese Timor
James MirrleesScotland
William VickreyCanada
1997 Steven Chu United States
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji France
William Daniel Phillips United States
Paul D. Boyer United States
John E. Walker United Kingdom
Jens Christian Skou Denmark
Stanley B. Prusiner United States Dario Fo Italy International Campaign to Ban Landmines;
Jody Williams United States
Robert C. Merton United States
Myron Scholes Canada United States
1998 Robert B. Laughlin United States
Horst Ludwig Störmer United States
Daniel C. Tsui United States
Walter Kohn United States
John Pople United Kingdom
Robert F. Furchgott United States
Louis Ignarro United States
Ferid Murad United States
José Saramago Portugal John Hume Republic of Ireland
David Trimble United Kingdom
Amartya Sen India
1999 Gerard 't Hooft Netherlands
Martinus J. G. Veltman Netherlands
Ahmed Zewail Egypt United States Günter Blobel Germany United States Günter Grass Germany Médecins Sans Frontières Robert Mundell Canada
2000 Zhores Alferov Russia
Herbert Kroemer Germany United States
Jack Kilby United States
Alan J. Heeger United States
Alan MacDiarmid United States New Zealand
Hideki Shirakawa Japan
Arvid Carlsson Sweden
Paul Greengard United States
Eric Kandel United States
Gao Xingjian China Kim Dae-jung South Korea James Heckman United States
Daniel McFadden United States
2001 Eric Allin Cornell United States
Wolfgang Ketterle Germany
Carl Wieman United States
William Standish Knowles United States
Ryōji Noyori Japan
Karl Barry Sharpless United States
Leland H. Hartwell United States
Tim Hunt United Kingdom
Paul Nurse United Kingdom
V. S. Naipaul United Kingdom United Nations United Nations
Kofi Annan Ghana
George Akerlof United States
Michael Spence Canada
Joseph Stiglitz United States
2002 Raymond Davis, Jr. United States
Masatoshi Koshiba Japan
Riccardo Giacconi Italy
John Fenn United States
Koichi Tanaka Japan
Kurt Wüthrich Switzerland
Sydney Brenner South Africa
H. Robert Horvitz United States
John Sulston United Kingdom
Imre Kertész Hungary Jimmy Carter United States Daniel Kahneman United States
Vernon L. Smith United States
2003 Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov Russia
Vitaly Ginzburg Russia
Anthony James Leggett United States
Peter Agre United States
Roderick MacKinnon United States
Paul Lauterbur United States
Peter Mansfield United Kingdom
J. M. Coetzee South Africa Shirin Ebadi Iran Robert F. Engle United States
Clive Granger United Kingdom
2004 David Gross United States
Hugh David Politzer United States
Frank Wilczek United States
Aaron Ciechanover Israel
Avram Hershko Hungary
Irwin Rose United States
Richard Axel United States
Linda B. Buck United States
Elfriede Jelinek Austria Wangari Maathai Kenya Finn E. Kydland Norway
Edward C. Prescott Kenya
2005 Roy J. Glauber United States
John L. Hall United States
Theodor W. Hänsch Germany
Yves Chauvin France
Robert H. Grubbs United States
Richard R. Schrock United States
Barry Marshall Australia
Robin Warren United States
Harold Pinter United Kingdom International Atomic Energy Agency
Mohamed ElBaradei Egypt
Robert Aumann Israel
Thomas Schelling United States
2006 John C. Mather United States
George Smoot United States
Roger D. Kornberg United States Andrew Fire United States
Craig Mello United States
Orhan Pamuk Turkey Muhammad Yunus Bangladesh
Grameen Bank Bangladesh
Edmund Phelps United States
2007 Albert Fert France
Peter Grünberg Germany
Gerhard Ertl Germany Mario Capecchi Italy
Martin Evans United Kingdom
Oliver Smithies United Kingdom
Doris Lessing Italy Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change United Nations
Al Gore United States
Leonid Hurwicz Poland
Eric Maskin United States
Roger Myerson United States
2008 Yoichiro Nambu Japan
Makoto Kobayashi Japan
Toshihide Maskawa Japan
Osamu Shimomura Japan
Martin Chalfie United States
Roger Y. Tsien United States
Harald zur Hausen Germany
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi France
Luc Montagnier France
J. M. G. Le Clézio France Martti Ahtisaari Finland Paul Krugman United States
2009 Charles K. Kao Hong Kong
Willard S. Boyle Canada
George E. Smith United States
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan India
Thomas A. Steitz United States
Ada Yonath Israel
Elizabeth Blackburn Australia
Carol W. Greider United States
Jack W. Szostak United States
Herta Müller Romania Barack  Obama United States Elinor Ostrom United States
Oliver E. Williamson United States
2010 Andre Geim Russia
Konstantin Novoselov Russia
Richard F. Heck United States
Ei-ichi Negishi Japan
Akira Suzuki Japan
Robert G. Edwards United Kingdom Mario Vargas Llosa Peru Liu Xiaobo[F] China Peter A. Diamond United States
Dale T.  Mortensen United States
Christopher A.  Pissarides Cyprus
2011 Saul Perlmutter United States
Adam G. Riess United States
Brian Schmidt Australia
Dan Shechtman Israel Bruce Beutler United States
Jules A. Hoffmann Luxembourg
Ralph M.  Steinman Canada
Tomas Tranströmer Sweden Ellen Johnson Sirleaf Liberia
Leymah Gbowee Liberia
Tawakel Karman Yemen
Thomas J. Sargent United States
Christopher A. Sims United States
2012 Serge Haroche France
David  J. Wineland United States
Brian K. Kobilka United States
Robert J. Lefkowitz United States
John B. Gurdon United States
 Shinya Yamanaka Japan
Mo Yan China European Union European Union Alvin E. Roth United States
Lloyd S. Shapley United States
2013 François Englert Belgium
Peter W. Higgs United Kingdom
Martin Karplus United States
Michael Levitt Israel
Arieh Warshel United States
James E. Rothman United States
Randy W. Schekman United States
Thomas C. Südhof Germany
Alice Munro Canada Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Eugene F. Fama United States
Lars Peter Hansen United States
Robert J. Shiller United States
2014 Isamu Akasaki Japan
Hiroshi Amano Japan
Shuji Nakamura Japan
Eric Betzig United States
Stefan Hell Romania
William Moerner United States
John O'Keefe United States
May-Britt Moser Norway
Edvard  Moser Norway
Patrick Modiano France Kailash Satyarthi India
Malala Yousafzai Pakistan
Jean Tirole France
2015 Takaaki Kajita Japan
Arthur B. McDonald Canada
Tomas Lindahl Sweden
Paul L. Modrich United States
Aziz Sancar Turkey
William C. Campbell Republic of Ireland
Satoshi Ōmura Japan
Tu Youyou China
Svetlana Alexievich Russia Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet Tunisia Angus Deaton United Kingdom
2016[11] David J. Thouless United Kingdom
Duncan Haldane United Kingdom
John M. Kosterlitz United Kingdom
Jean-Pierre Sauvage France
Fraser Stoddart United Kingdom
Ben Feringa Netherlands
Yoshinori Ohsumi Japan Bob Dylan United States Juan Manuel Santos Colombia Oliver Hart United Kingdom
Bengt R. Holmström Finland
2017 Rainer Weiss United States
Barry Barish United States
Kip Thorne United States
Jacques Dubochet Switzerland
Joachim Frank Germany
Richard Henderson United Kingdom
Jeffrey C. Hall United States
Michael Rosbash United States
Michael W. Young United States
Kazuo Ishiguro United Kingdom International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons Richard Thaler United States
2018 Arthur Ashkin United States
Gérard Mourou France
Donna Strickland Canada
Frances H. Arnold United States
George P. Smith United States
Greg Winter United Kingdom
James P. Allison United States
Tasuku Honjo Japan
None (postponed) Denis Mukwege Democratic Republic of the Congo
Nadia Murad Iraq
William Nordhaus United States
Paul Romer United States
Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics


  • A In 1938 and 1939, the government of Germany did not allow three German Nobel nominees to accept their Nobel Prizes. The three were Richard Kuhn, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1938; Adolf Butenandt, Nobel laureate in Chemistry in 1939; and Gerhard Domagk, Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine in 1939. They were later awarded the Nobel Prize diploma and medal, but not the money.[9]
  • B In 1948, the Nobel Prize in Peace was not awarded. The Nobel Foundation's website suggests that it would have been awarded to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, however, due to his assassination earlier that year, it was left unassigned in his honor.[12]
  • C In 1958, Russian-born Boris Pasternak, under pressure from the government of the Soviet Union, was forced to decline the Nobel Prize in Literature.[9]
  • D In 1964, Jean-Paul Sartre refused to accept the Nobel Prize in Literature, as he had consistently refused all official honors in the past.[9]
  • E In 1973, Lê Ðức Thọ declined the Nobel Peace Prize. His reason was that he felt he did not deserve it because although he helped negotiate the Paris Peace Accords (a cease-fire in the Vietnam War), there had been no actual peace agreement.[7][9]
  • F In 2010, Liu Xiaobo was unable to receive the Nobel Peace Prize as he was sentenced to 11 years of imprisonment by the Chinese authorities.[13]

See also


  • "All Nobel Laureates in Physics". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Chemistry". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Medicine". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  • "All Nobel Laureates in Literature". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  • "All Nobel Peace Prize Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  • "All Laureates in Economics". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  2. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize Amounts" (PDF). Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-06-15. Retrieved 2018-06-23.
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-11-27.
  6. ^ "List of All Nobel Laureates 1942". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-12-08. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  7. ^ a b Lundestad, Geir (2001-03-15). "The Nobel Peace Prize 1901-2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-11-30.
  8. ^ "All Nobel Prizes". Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Nobel Prize Facts". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2015-10-11.
  10. ^ "Women Nobel Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
  11. ^ "2016 Nobel Prizes - Prize Announcement Dates". Nobel Media AB 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  12. ^ Tønnesson, Øyvind (December 1, 1999). "Mahatma Gandhi, the Missing Laureates". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved January 3, 2010. Later, there have been speculations that the committee members could have had another deceased peace worker than Gandhi in mind when they declared that there was "no suitable living candidate", namely the Swedish UN envoy to Palestine, Count Bernadotte, who was murdered in September 1948. Today, this can be ruled out; Bernadotte had not been nominated in 1948. Thus it seems reasonable to assume that Gandhi would have been invited to Oslo to receive the Nobel Peace Prize had he been alive one more year.
  13. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2010 - Presentation Speech". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved October 10, 2011.

External links

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