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List of Nobel Peace Prize laureates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Norwegian Nobel Institute assists the Norwegian Nobel Committee in selecting recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize and in organising the annual award in Oslo.
The Norwegian Nobel Institute assists the Norwegian Nobel Committee in selecting recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize and in organising the annual award in Oslo.

The Norwegian Nobel Committee each year awards the Nobel Peace Prize (Norwegian and Swedish: Nobels fredspris) "to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and awarded by a committee of five people elected by the Parliament of Norway.[2]

Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma, and a monetary award prize (that has varied throughout the years).[3] It is one of the five prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[4]

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The Peace Prize is presented annually in Oslo, in the presence of the King of Norway, on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death, and is the only Nobel Prize not presented in Stockholm.[5] Unlike the other prizes, the Peace Prize is occasionally awarded to an organisation (such as the International Committee of the Red Cross, a three-time recipient) rather than an individual.

The Nobel Peace Prize was first awarded in 1901 to Frédéric Passy and Henry Dunant — who shared a Prize of 150,782 Swedish kronor (equal to 7,731,004 kronor in 2008) — and, most recently, to Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad in 2018.

  • Linus Pauling, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate in 1962, is the only person to have been awarded two unshared Nobel Prizes; he won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1954.[6]
  • At 17 years of age, Malala Yousafzai, the 2014 recipient, is the youngest to be awarded the Peace Prize.


The prize is considered the most controversial of the Nobel Prizes; with several of the selections having been criticised,[7][8] and, on 19 occasions (as of 2018), no prize was awarded.

  • Despite having been nominated five times, Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi never won the Prize. Following his assassination in 1948, the committee considered awarding it to him posthumously but decided against it — and, instead, withheld the Prize that year with the explanation that "there was no suitable living candidate."[9]
  • In 1961, Dag Hammarskjöld, who died after his nomination but several months before the announcement, became the only laureate to be recognised posthumously; following this, the statutes were changed to render a future posthumous prize nearly impossible.[10]
  • In 1973, Le Duc Tho declined the Prize, because "he was not in a position to accept the Prize, citing the situation in Vietnam as his reason."[6]


As of 2018, the Peace Prize has been awarded to 106 individuals and 24 organizations. Seventeen women have won the Nobel Peace Prize, more than any other Nobel Prize.[11] Only two recipients have won multiple Prizes: the International Committee of the Red Cross has won three times (1917, 1944 and 1963) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees has won twice (1954 and 1981).[6] There have been 19 years since its creation in which the Peace Prize was not awarded, more times than any other Nobel Prize.

Lê Đức Thọ is the only person to refuse to accept a Nobel Peace Prize.[12] He was jointly awarded the 1973 award with Henry Kissinger but declined the prize on grounds that such "bourgeois sentimentalities" were not for him[93] and that the Paris Peace Accords were not being adhered to in full.

Year Laureate Country Rationale
Jean Henri Dunant.jpg
Henry Dunant   Switzerland For his role in founding the International Committee of the Red Cross[10][13]
Frederic Passy.jpg
Frédéric Passy France "[For] being one of the main founders of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and also the main organizer of the first Universal Peace Congress"[10][13]
Élie Ducommun   Switzerland "[For his role as] the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau"[10][14]
Charles Albert Gobat2.jpg
Charles Albert Gobat "[For his role as the] first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][14]
William Randal Cremer  United Kingdom "[For his role as] the 'first father' of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][15]
Logo of Institut de Droit International.svg
Institute of International Law  Belgium "[F]or its efforts as an unofficial body to formulate the general principles of the science of international law"[10][16]
Bertha von Suttner nobel.jpg
Bertha von Suttner  Austria-Hungary For writing Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize[10][17]
President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg
Theodore Roosevelt  United States "[For] his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"[10][18]
Ernesto Teodoro Moneta.jpg
Ernesto Teodoro Moneta Italy "[For his work as a] key leader of the Italian peace movement"[10][19]
Louis Renault jurist.gif
Louis Renault France "[For his work as a] leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague"[10][19]
Klas Pontus Arnoldson  Sweden "[For his work as] founder of the Swedish Peace and Arbitration League"[10][20]
Fredrik Bajer nobel.jpg
Fredrik Bajer  Denmark "[For being] the foremost peace advocate in Scandinavia, combining work in the Inter-Parliamentary Union with being the first president of the International Peace Bureau"[10][20]
Auguste Beernaert  Belgium "[For being a] representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][21]
Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant France "[For] combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration"[10][21]
IPB logo svg.svg
Permanent International Peace Bureau   Switzerland "[For acting] as a link between the peace societies of the various countries"[22][23]
Tobias Asser  Netherlands "[For being a] member of the Court of Arbitration as well as the initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law"[10][24]
Alfred Hermann Fried nobel.jpg
Alfred Fried  Austria-Hungary "[For his work as] founder of the German Peace Society"[10][24]
Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg
Elihu Root[A]  United States "[F]or his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court"[10][25]
Henri La Fontaine  Belgium "[For his work as] head of the International Peace Bureau"[10][26]
1914 Not awarded due to World War I.
Emblem of the ICRC.svg
International Committee of the Red Cross   Switzerland "[For undertaking] the tremendous task of trying to protect the rights of the many prisoners of war on all sides [of World War I], including their right to establish contacts with their families"[10][27]
1918 Not awarded due to World War I.
President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg
Woodrow Wilson  United States "[F]or his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations"[10][28]
Léon Bourgeois.jpg
Léon Bourgeois France "[For his participation] in both the Hague Conferences of 1899 and 1907" and for his work towards "what became the League to such an extent that he was frequently called its 'spiritual father'"[10][29]
Hjalmar branting stor bild.jpg
Hjalmar Branting  Sweden "[F]or his work in the League of Nations"[10][30]
Christian Lous Lange.jpg
Christian Lange  Norway "[For his work as] the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee" and "the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[10][30]
Fridtjof Nansen LOC 03377u-3.jpg
Fridtjof Nansen "[For] his work in aiding the millions in Russia struggling against famine" and "his work for the refugees in Asia Minor and Thrace"[31][32]
1923 Not awarded
Austen Chamberlain nobel.jpg
Sir Austen Chamberlain[A]  United Kingdom For work on the Locarno Treaties[10][33]
Charles Dawes, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
Charles G. Dawes[A]  United States "[F]or [work on] the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925"[10][33]
Aristide Briand 2.jpg
Aristide Briand France For work on the Locarno Treaties[10][34]
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-040-27, Gustav Stresemann.jpg
Gustav Stresemann Germany
Ferdinand Buisson 1924.jpg
Ferdinand Buisson France "[For] contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation"[10][35]
Ludwig Quidde nobel.jpg
Ludwig Quidde Germany
1928 Not awarded
Frank B. Kellogg[A]  United States "[F]or the Kellogg-Briand pact, whose signatories agreed to settle all conflicts by peaceful means and renounced war as an instrument of national policy"[10][36]
Nathan Söderblom nobel.jpg
Nathan Söderblom  Sweden "[F]or his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace"[10][37]
Jane Addams profile.jpg
Jane Addams  United States "[F]or her social reform work" and "leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[10][38]
Nicholas Murray Butler ppmsca.03668.jpg
Nicholas Murray Butler "[For his promotion] of the Briand-Kellogg pact" and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement"[10][38]
1932 Not awarded
Norman Angell 01.jpg
Sir Norman Angell[A]  United Kingdom For authoring The Great Illusion and for being a "supporter of the League of Nations as well as an influential publicist [and] educator for peace in general"[39]
1910 Arthur Henderson.jpg
Arthur Henderson "[F]or his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament"[10][40][41]
Carl von Ossietzky.jpg
Carl von Ossietzky[B]  Germany "[For his] struggle against Germany's rearmament"[10][42]
Carlos Saavedra Lamas.jpg
Carlos Saavedra Lamas  Argentina "[F]or his mediation of an end to the Chaco War between Paraguay and Bolivia"[10][43]
Robert Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood - Project Gutenberg eText 15306.jpg
The Viscount Cecil of Chelwood  United Kingdom For his work with the League of Nations[10][44]
Flag of the League of Nations (1939).svg
Nansen International Office for Refugees  League of Nations For its work in aiding refugees[45]
1939 Not awarded due to World War II.
Emblem of the ICRC.svg
International Committee of the Red Cross   Switzerland "[F]or the great work it has performed during the war in behalf of humanity"[46]
Cordell Hull  United States "[For] his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization"[47]
Emily Greene Balch "Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[48]
John Raleigh Mott, 1910.jpg
John Raleigh Mott "Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations"[48]
Quaker star-T.svg
The Quakers (represented by Friends Service Council and American Friends Service Committee)[49][50] "compassion for others and the desire to help them"[49]
1948 Not awarded because "there was no suitable living candidate." (A tribute to the recently assassinated Gandhi in India.)[9]
John Boyd Orr nobel.jpg
The Lord Boyd-Orr  United Kingdom "Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General Food and Agriculture Organization; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations"[51]
Ralph Bunche - 1963 March on Washington.jpg
Ralph Bunche  United States "Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948"[52]
Léon Jouhaux nobel.jpg
Léon Jouhaux France "President of the International Committee of the European Council, vice president of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, vice president of the World Federation of Trade Unions, member of the ILO Council, delegate to the United Nations"[53]
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-D0116-0041-019, Albert Schweitzer.jpg
Albert Schweitzer "Missionary surgeon; Founder of Lambaréné (République de Gabon)"[54]
General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG
George C. Marshall  United States "General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of [the] 'Marshall Plan'"[55]
Emblem of the United Nations.svg
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees  United Nations "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"[56]
1955 Not awarded
Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg
Lester Bowles Pearson  Canada "former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly";[57] "for his role in helping to end the Suez conflict and trying to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations."[10]
Georges Pire 1958.jpg
Dominique Pire  Belgium "Father in the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde""[58]
Philip Noel-Baker 1942.jpg
Philip Noel-Baker  United Kingdom "Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation"[59]
Albert Lutuli nobel.jpg
Albert Lutuli  South Africa
(Born in Southern Rhodesia)
"President of the African National Congress,"[60] "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa."[10]
Dag Hammarskjöld.jpg
Dag Hammarskjöld[C]  Sweden "Secretary General of the U.N.,"[61] awarded "for strengthening the organization."[10]
Linus Pauling  United States "for his campaign against nuclear weapons testing"[62]
Emblem of the ICRC.svg
International Committee of the Red Cross   Switzerland For their work in the protection of human rights in the ICRC's 100 years of existence.[63]
Emblem of the IFRC.svg
League of Red Cross Societies
Martin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpg
Martin Luther King, Jr.  United States Campaigner for civil rights, "first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence." King spent his time working in various areas of the civil rights movement; from equal education to economic disenfranchisement of minorities. King also organized the March on Washington, where he gave his famous “I Have a Dream Speech”.[64]
UNICEF Logo.svg
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)  United Nations "An international aid organization." [65]
1966 Not awarded
René Cassin nobel.jpg
René Cassin  France "President of the European Court for Human Rights"[66]
Flag of ILO.svg
International Labour Organization  United Nations [67]
Norman Borlaug (cropped).jpg
Norman E. Borlaug  United States "International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center;"[68] "for his contributions to the "green revolution" that was having such an impact on food production particularly in Asia and in Latin America."[10]
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg
Willy Brandt  West Germany "Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany; for West Germany's Ostpolitik"[69]
1972 Not awarded
Henry Kissinger.jpg
Henry Kissinger  United States
(Born in Germany)
"For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam war and a withdrawal of the American forces"[10][70]
Lê Đức Thọ[D] Vietnam (North)
Seán MacBride 1984.jpg
Seán MacBride  Ireland
(Born in France)
"President of the International Peace Bureau; President of the Commission of Namibia."[71] "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"[10]
Satō Eisaku.jpg
Eisaku Satō  Japan "Prime Minister of Japan,"[71] "for his renunciation of the nuclear option for Japan and his efforts to further regional reconciliation"[10]
RIAN archive 25981 Academician Sakharov.jpg
Andrei Sakharov[E]  Soviet Union "[for his] struggle for human rights, for disarmament, and for cooperation between all nations"[72]
Betty Williams.jpg
Betty Williams  United Kingdom "Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)"[73]
Mairead Corrigan Gaza crop.jpg
Mairead Corrigan
1977 Amnesty International "[for] protecting the human rights of prisoners of conscience"[10][74]
Anwar Sadat cropped.jpg
Mohamed Anwar Al-Sadat  Egypt "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[75]
Menachem Begin 2.jpg
Menachem Begin  Israel
(Born in Russia)
MotherTeresa 090.jpg
Mother Teresa  India
(Born in Skopje, now  North Macedonia)
"Founder of Missionaries of Charity"[76]
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel agosto 2011.jpg
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel  Argentina "Human rights leader;"[77] "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)."[10]
Emblem of the United Nations.svg
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees  United Nations "An international relief organization founded by the U.N. in 1951"[78]
Alva Myrdal  Sweden "[for] their magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"[79][80]
Alfonso Garcia Robles 1981.jpg
Alfonso García Robles  Mexico
Lech Walesa OAF Visit.jpg
Lech Wałęsa Poland "Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights"[81]
Desmond tutu 20070607 2.jpg
Desmond Tutu  South Africa "... as a unifying leader figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa. ... Through the award of this year's Peace Prize, the Committee wishes to direct attention to the non-violent struggle for liberation to which Desmond Tutu belongs, a struggle in which black and white South Africans unite to bring their country out of conflict and crisis."[82]
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War  United States For "authoritative information and by creating an awareness of the catastrophic consequences of atomic warfare. The committee believes that this in turn contributes to an increase in the pressure of public opposition to the proliferation of atomic weapons and to a redefining of priorities, with greater attention being paid to health and other humanitarian issues."[83]
Elie Wiesel.jpg
Elie Wiesel  United States
(Born in Romania)
"Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[84]
Óscar Arias  Costa Rica "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"[85]
1988 United Nations Peace-Keeping Forces  United Nations "[for] their efforts [that] have made important contributions towards the realization of one of the fundamental tenets of the United Nations"[86][87]
Dalai Lama at WhiteHouse (cropped).jpg
Tenzin Gyatso,
14th Dalai Lama
(Born in Tibet)[88]
"In his struggle for the liberation of Tibet [he] consistently has opposed the use of violence. He has instead advocated peaceful solutions based upon tolerance and mutual respect in order to preserve the historical and cultural heritage of his people."[89][90]
Mikhail Gorbachev 1987.jpg
Mikhail Gorbachev  Soviet Union General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and President of the Soviet Union, "for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community"[91]
Aung San Suu Kyi.jpg
Aung San Suu Kyi[F]  Burma "for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights"[92]
Rigoberta Menchu Tum.JPG
Rigoberta Menchú  Guatemala "for her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples"[93]
Nelson Mandela-2008.jpg
Nelson Mandela  South Africa "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"[94]
Frederik Willem de Klerk.jpg
Frederik Willem de Klerk
Yasser Arafat  Palestine
(Born in Egypt)
"to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[95]
Yitzhak Rabin (1986) cropped.jpg
Yitzhak Rabin  Israel
Shimon Peres World Economic Forum 2007.jpg
Shimon Peres  Israel
(Born in Poland)
Josef Rotblat ID badge.png
Joseph Rotblat  Poland "for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[96]
Peace sign.svg
Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs  Canada
Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo  East Timor "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."[97]
José Ramos-Horta
1997 Icbl english.pdf International Campaign to Ban Landmines   Switzerland "for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"[98]
Jody Williams  United States
John Hume 2008.jpg
John Hume  Ireland "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"[99]
David Trimble.jpg
David Trimble  United Kingdom
MSF HQ.jpg
Médecins Sans Frontières   Switzerland "in recognition of the organization's pioneering humanitarian work on several continents"[100]
Kim Dae-jung (Cropped).png
Kim Dae-jung  South Korea "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"[101]
Emblem of the United Nations.svg
United Nations  United Nations "for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world"[102]
Kofi Annan, Photo: Harry Wad
Kofi Annan  Ghana
US Navy 050811-N-0653J-006 Former President Jimmy Carter looks over the navigation table in the control room of his namesake ship, the Sea Wolf-class attack submarine USS Jimmy Carter (SSN 23).jpg
Jimmy Carter  United States "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"[103]
Shirin Ebadi - Fronteiras do Pensamento São Paulo 2011 (5839607998, cropped).jpg
Shirin Ebadi  Iran "for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children."[104]
Wangari Maathai in Nairobi.jpg
Wangari Muta Maathai  Kenya "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"[105]
Flag of IAEA.svg
International Atomic Energy Agency  United Nations "for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way"[106]
Mohamed ElBaradei.jpg
Mohamed ElBaradei  Egypt
Professor Muhammad Yunus- Building Social Business Summit (8758300102).jpg
Muhammad Yunus  Bangladesh "for advancing economic and social opportunities for the poor, especially women, through their pioneering microcredit work"[107]
Grameen Bank
2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change  United Nations "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"[108]
Al Gore.jpg
Al Gore  United States
Martti Ahtisaari.jpg
Martti Ahtisaari  Finland "for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"[109]
Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg
Barack Obama  United States "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[110]
2010 Liu Xiaobo  China "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China"[111]
Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpg
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf  Liberia "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"[112]
Leymah Gbowee
Tawakkul Karman (2011).jpg
Tawakkul Karman  Yemen
Flag of Europe.svg
European Union  European Union "for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe."[113]
2013 Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons  Netherlands[114] "for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons."[115]
Kailash Satyarthi.jpg
Kailash Satyarthi  India "for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education"[116]
Malala Yousafzai at Girl Summit 2014.jpg
Malala Yousafzai  Pakistan
Tunisian national dialogue (October 2012).jpg
Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet  Tunisia "for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011"[117]
Juan Manuel Santos in 2018.jpg
Juan Manuel Santos  Colombia "for his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220,000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people"[118]
2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons   Switzerland "for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons"[119].
Denis Mukwege par Claude Truong-Ngoc novembre 2014.jpg
Denis Mukwege  Democratic Republic of the Congo "for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict"[120]
Nadia Murad in Washington - 2018 (42733243785) (cropped).jpg
Nadia Murad  Iraq

See also


A Elihu Root, Austen Chamberlain, Charles G. Dawes, Frank B. Kellogg, and Norman Angell were all awarded their respective Prizes one year late because the Committee decided that none of the nominations in the year in which they are listed as being awarded the Prize met the criteria in Nobel's will; per its rules the Committee delayed the awarding of the Prizes until the next year, although they were awarded as the previous year's Prize.[25][33][36][39]
B Carl von Ossietzky's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was refused a passport by the government of Germany.[121]
C Dag Hammarskjöld's Prize was awarded posthumously.
D Lê Đức Thọ declined to accept the Prize.[70]
E Andrei Sakharov's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was refused a passport by the government of the Soviet Union.[122]
F Aung San Suu Kyi's Prize was awarded in absentia because she was being held prisoner by the government of Burma. Following her release from house arrest and election to the Pyithu Hluttaw, Suu Kyi accepted her award in person on 16 June 2012.[123]
G Liu Xiaobo's Prize was awarded in absentia because he was imprisoned in China.[124]



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