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List of National Historic Landmarks in Indiana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

National Historic Landmarks in Indiana represent Indiana's history from the Native American era to its early European settlers and motor racing. There are 42 National Historic Landmarks (NHLs) in the state,[1] which are located in 23 of its 92 counties. They illustrate the state's industrial and architectural heritage, as well as battles, circuses, education, and several other topics. One of the NHLs in the state has military significance, fourteen are significant examples of different architectural styles, nine are associated with significant historical figures, and one is an archaeological site. Two NHL properties, both ships that were formerly located in Indiana, were later moved to another state.[2]

The National Historic Landmark Program is administered by the National Park Service, a branch of the Department of the Interior. The National Park Service determines which properties meet NHL criteria and makes nomination recommendations after an owner notification process.[3] The Secretary of the Interior reviews nominations and, based on a set of predetermined criteria, makes a decision on NHL designation or a determination of eligibility for designation.[4] Both public and privately owned properties can be designated as NHLs. This designation provides indirect, partial protection of the historic integrity of the properties via tax incentives, grants, monitoring of threats, and other means.[3] Owners may object to the nomination of the property as a NHL. When this is the case the Secretary of the Interior can only designate a site as eligible for designation.[4]

All NHLs are also included on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP), a list of historic properties that the National Park Service deems to be worthy of preservation. The primary difference between a NHL and a NRHP listing is that the NHLs are determined to have national significance, while other NRHP properties are deemed significant at the local or state level.[3] The NHLs in Indiana comprise approximately 2% of the 1,656 properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Indiana as of December 2009. The landmarks are among the most important nationally recognized historic sites in the state; the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park is one other site that has high designation by the Federal government.

Marion County, the location of the state capital Indianapolis, has the most NHLs, with ten, followed by Bartholomew County with seven and Jefferson County with four. Twenty counties have one, while the other 69 counties of Indiana have none. Indiana's first NHL was designated on October 9, 1960. Architects who designed multiple Indiana NHLs are Francis Costigan, William Dentzel, and Eero Saarinen.

Eight Historic Landmarks in Indiana are more specifically designated National Historic Landmark Districts, meaning that they cover a large area rather than a single building.[4] The Lanier Mansion and Charles L. Shrewsbury House are within the boundaries of the Madison Historic District.

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>> Doug Swanson: Good afternoon, everyone. I would like to welcome you to the McGowan Theater. I'm Doug Swanson, and I'm the producer for the noontime lecture series. Before we begin today's program, I just have a couple of brief announcements. I hope you will join us this Friday, February 27th for our final program celebrating Black History Month. At noon, history professor Allyson Hobbs will be discussing her new book. Then on Wednesday, March 4th, William G. Highland will present a talk on his book "Martha Jefferson, an intimate life with Thomas Jefferson." This is the first and only biography on the life of Martha Jefferson who died an untimely death at the age of 33. And, finally, on Friday, the 6th, the National Archives and Records Administration will open its newest exhibit "Spirited Republic, Alcohol in American history." To launch this new exhibit opening -- (laughter) -- there will be tastings, yes. Not on that day but there will be tastings over the year. Let's see. To launch -- to launch this new opening, we'll have a special author talk on that day, "Mint Juleps" by Mark Will-Weber. To find out more about these and other our public programs, take our monthly event calendars or visit our Web site at You will also find in the theater lobby copies of an article on today's speaker which may be found in the current issue of the National Archives quarterly magazine "Prologue." You will find "Prologue" applications should you wish to subscribe and receive copies in the mail. Today's speaker is David O. Stewart, author of "Madison's Gift: Five Partnerships that Built America." Mr. Stewart turning to writing history, his first book "The Summer of 1787, the Men who Invented the Institution" was a "Washington Post" best seller and won the Washington Writing Award and best book of 2007. Two years later, "Impeached, the trial of President Andrew Johnson and the fight for Lincoln's legacy" was a David Kidd best seller. The Society of the Cincinnati awarded David in 2013 its history prize for "American emperor, Aaron Burr's challenge to America," an examination of the western expedition which shook the nation's foundations at a time when those foundations were none too solid. "The historical mystery about the John Wilkes Booth conspiracy" was related in 2013. It was called the best historical novel of the year while "Publishers Weekly" called it an impressive debut novel. "The Wilson deception, a sequel to this novel" will be released later this year. David is also President of the Washington Independent Review of Books, an online book review. Please join me in welcoming David O. Stewart back to the National Archives. (applause). >> David Stewart: Thank you very much, Doug. And thank you all for coming out here on this -- braving the cold and ice. I am reminded many Februaries of something my father would always say which is if you get through February, the rest of the year is easy. (laughter). And this February I feel it acutely. I want to talk today, of course, about James Madison. I became fascinated with Madison -- and you've heard I've done some work in this time period before. I became fascinated because -- for two reasons. First was he was so central to the nation's founding. I finally became persuaded really that he was more central to the founding of the nation than anyone else other than George Washington. Washington, of course, is the most pivotal figure of our history. But Madison, I think, is the next figure. And if you look at the list of his achievements, you get a feel for this, I think. First, of course, the calling of the Constitutional Convention in 1787 when the nation was at risk of falling apart. The Federalist Papers which were written to support the ratification of the convention -- of the Constitution. He then led the battle for ratification itself. He was the first leading member of Congress which established the new government. He wrote the Bill of Rights and secured their adoption. I'm only halfway through my list yet. He was co-founder of the first American political party, then called the Republican Party. In the pivotal election of 1800, he was the co-architect of the transfer of government from the federalist party of John Adams to the Thomas Jefferson as leader of the Republicans. It was many times said that the true test of a representative government is if you can have a peaceful transfer of power between contending parties. And we did achieve that in 1800. That's when we came of age. Secretary of State for the Louisiana Purchase. Which doubled the size of the nation. He was our first war-time President. Through the war of 1812. Not always a glorious chapter in our history but one that was ended successfully enough, I suppose is the best way to say it. And he was perhaps our only two-term President who had a better second term than first term. Now, think about that and think about your own life and the Presidents you've known who have served two terms. It is very tough to have a good second term. And Madison when he left office was really acclaimed around the country. He had some very difficult times through the war, but the country was flourishing. Peace had brought tremendous benefits, and he ended up being of all of our Presidents the President for whom the most cities, counties, and municipalities are named. More even than Washington or Franklin. So we have this tremendous list of achievements. But then there is the undeniable fact that Madison is often ignored. I found myself telling my editor that I think of him sometimes as the Zelig of the founding. He is there but he is not really noticed. That's an interesting question. Why? There is a flip answer. He was short. He was skinny. He had a soft voice. This is a picture -- an artist's rendition of the Constitutional Convention. And there he is next to Washington at the front holding a pen. That's how you can tell, he has got a quill pen. You can pick out Madison there. Yeah, he is short, he's skinny, he has got a receding hairline. He had a soft voice. And in rooms that were filled with noisy people like John Adams and Alexander Hamilton or with large and charismatic men like George Washington or Thomas Jefferson, Madison was pretty easy to miss. It is a flip answer but I think there's something to that actually. But there is another answer, too. He was different from most great leaders. We think of great leaders most often as men -- most often men, but women too, who have strong streaks of narcissism. They need to be at the front of the parade. They prefer to be on a white horse or in a big convertible. They crave recognition and acclaim. Madison had none of those qualities. He just disliked public events. He never became comfortable at them. At his first inaugural ball, this is the pinnacle of his political career, he has become the President of the United States, a nation that he has done so much to found. He goes to the great party and a friend greets him and congratulates him warmly and Madison says, thank you very much, but I would rather be home in bed. (laughter). He was a man who cared about results, not applause, about making the American experiment in self-government a success, about realizing the promise of the revolution that was what he gave, dedicated his career to. I became very interested in tribute from a long time colleague who wrote, "under all circumstances Madison was collected and ever mindful of what was due to him from others and cautious not to wound the feelings of anyone." It doesn't sound like a lot of great leaders, does it? Ever mindful of what was due from him to others. My impression is they are a lot more mindful from us to them and that they are not necessarily cautious not to wound the feelings of anyone. As I continued to examine Madison's remarkable contributions, it became clear to me that he never really operated alone or at least very rarely did. His greatest achievements were really the fruit of partnerships. And it seemed to me that it was almost as though he had taken what today would be called a modern personality assessment, the sort of thing organizations like their people to do and turn them into extroverts, introverts, whatever. And that Madison was able to conclude that he was, in fact, short and skinny and he had soft voice and he had zero charisma. But if he was doing an honest self-assessment, he would have noticed some real powerful positives. He was smarter than almost anybody he met. He had a rare appetite for hard work. He had a gift for making contact and connecting with people and extraordinary political judgment and foresight. So why not take those gifts and marry them to someone else who has the gifts he doesn't have? Now, we don't know that Madison actually did that, made such an assessment, stared at the mirror for the requisite period of seconds. But I found that the concept provided a clarifying lens through which to look at his extraordinary career. He was a man who understood the power of partnership. And modestly, I would even suggest that there are some important lessons from his style that can be applied to any era of political life but maybe particularly to our era as well. I became persuaded that the best way to think about Madison was in terms of five central partnerships. Some of them waxed and waned through his career. He had a long public career, 40 years. And they were formed with very different people. The first is with Alexander Hamilton, a very different character. Hamilton was flashy. He was charismatic. He was effectively orphaned at age 13. He came from nothing, came from fly spec island in the Caribbean. He had to make his own way in the world speck. Madison by contrast was a fortunate son, the inheriter of a great estate, a man who owned 5,000 acres of Virginia land. He never had his own home until he was 43. Just would live in rooming houses or go back to Montpellier. He lived with his mom until he was 78. Dolly was very tolerant. But they recognized something in each other when they first met each other as the two youngest men serving in the Confederation Congress. This is in 1783 when we are still operating under the Articles of Confederation. I think they recognized in each other, first, great intelligence. Between them they were definitely the two smartest men in the room but also a shared impatience to make the United States a great nation and a true nation which in 1783 we really weren't. There was much talk and serious talk that we should simply form three nations: New England and the middle states and in the south would be the southern nations. Maybe another nation on the other side of the Appalachian Mountains. Hamilton who took a backseat to nobody for impatience had first decreed the need to have a national convention to rewrite the Articles of Confederation before the articles had even been adopted. But Madison came along after a couple of years and agreed with him that that was the only practical way to deal with the problems that the country was having. They collaborated in a campaign to call the Constitutional Convention in the summer of 1787. And then they collaborated again most importantly in the campaign to ratify the Constitution. We often forget what a close struggle that was. They jointly wrote the Federalist Papers. They wrote them as a propaganda piece. But they've endured as really the finest writing about political theory, political philosophy that any Americans have ever produced. And then they went out as practical politicians and each one ran ratifications in their conventions. Madison in Virginia and Hamilton in New York, The second partner is, of course, George Washington. And Madison would never be a peer of Washington. Nobody was a peer of Washington. Washington wouldn't have that. He was the great man of America. He had won the Revolutionary War. There is a wonderful anecdote that when King George III heard that Washington after winning the war had resigned his commission and gone back to be a farmer in Mount Vernon, the king had said, if that's true, he's the greatest man in the world. And Washington had won extraordinary trust of every American, not only by winning the war but then by being willing to give up power. He was the trump card of American politics. Madison could see that, and he could see that if he was an ally of George Washington, the things he wanted to get done could get done better. So Washington was the indispensable man. So Madison made himself the indispensable man to the indispensable man. When Washington wanted to get through the Virginia assembly the development of the Potomac river or anything else, Madison would make it happen. He would be the leader. If he needed legislation through Congress, the Confederation Congress, Madison would make that happen, too. And over a period of five years, Madison became Washington's closest political confidant. He spent days at Mount Vernon closeted with the general. Washington's diary, and he kept a diary his whole life, would say spent today in conversation with Mr. Madison. Indeed, during the first Congress, Madison is often referred to as having served as Washington's prime minister. Their most important achievement, most durable achievement I think, was the Bill of Rights. There was a wonderful moment in Washington's first administration when he is first coming to office. He needs an inaugural address, so he asks Madison to write him an inaugural address which is done. And it asks for only one thing, a Bill of Rights, constitutional amendments to protect individual rights. Congress wants to write an answer to Washington and a gesture of respect.They ask Madison to write the answer. (laughter) Washington's flustered so he asks Madison to write the reply. Congress in many ways of a conversation among Madison. (laughter). But the Bill of Rights comes the closest to being Madison's solo achievement. He wrote them. He got them through Congress. He made it happen. But he also made it happen with Washington's essential support. Now, the third figure is Thomas Jefferson. In many ways, his soul-mate. They came from the same background. They grew up 30 miles apart in Virginia Piedmont country, both from the same background. Jefferson inherited his 3,000 acres when he was 14, not when he was 49. That was their biggest difference. They were both book worms, both interested in everything, both knew something about almost everything. Their correspondence to each other is a delight. They would write about everything, science, philosophy, animals, crops, and politics. They agreed on most political questions but they had a different style many times. Jefferson was more the visionary. He was not so good on details. Madison had a very analytical mind and was extremely good at that sort of thing. And Jefferson adopted a program through his career of when he would have an interesting idea that excited him, he would first run it by Madison. And Madison was not shy about saying usually in a very polite way "that's a wonderful idea but have you thought about these nine problems with it." (laughter). And Jefferson would take his advice. They both became very disenchanted with Hamilton's financial system. This is the great switch. Madison enters Congress as George Washington's prime minister. But after a year and then some, he discovers that the secretary of the treasury has a financial program that he can't support, nor can Jefferson as secretary of state. So Madison goes into opposition with Jefferson. In order to oppose the Hamiltonian policy which they found unduly centralized the government, they thought it introduced financial instability -- we had a number of financial panics under the Hamiltonian system. They had to create a political vehicle for this opposition. And, although they both despised partisan politics, they created our first political party. I think they would both be appalled to be remembered for it. But they did it. They did it very assiduously and very well. And they did win the 1800 election as I mentioned. And their party dominated American politics for the next six decades. Now, Monroe was a bit of a revelation to me. I had not studied him much. I was really discouraged at first to discover just how many people who were his contemporaries and felt it necessary to recall that he really was a little dim. This was not what I was looking for. He was a military type. He had been a soldier as a very young man in the revolution. He always had a military bearing. He was a strapping six-footer, charismatic, not an intellectual. His letters with Madison are friendly. They're warm. They're collegial. He was a very canny politician, but we don't get a lot of political philosophy. This is not what James Monroe did. They were sometimes rivals. Indeed they ran against each other in the first election for Congress in 1789. They are the only future Presidents whoever opposed each other for a lower office. It was a bit of gerrymandering. Patrick Henry had actually set it up so Madison would have to run against Monroe. Henry had a real vendetta against Madison and was hoping to get him beaten. Madison won fair-handedly. Nearly 20 years later when Madison is a candidate for President, Monroe stands as a candidate against him and actually is on the ballot in 1808. He's not a serious candidate, but it was a measure that they had a serious falling out after many years of close relationship. And, indeed, they didn't speak for two years or have any contact at all. But Madison reached a point as President in his first administration when he thought it was essential that the United States go to war with Britain. Britain had been seizing our ships at sea for years as a result of the Napoleonic conflict. They had been taking our sailors and impressing them into the British Navy. And Madison simply thought for our own self-esteem, for our own respectability as a nation, we could no longer just take it. But Madison was not a man anybody would think of as a military sort. He needed somebody to put a little steel into his administration. And Monroe was the perfect character. He had great experience in Europe as well and credibility as a diplomat. He had negotiated the Louisiana Purchase. So he reached out to Monroe. They were able to patch up their differences. He brought Monroe into his administration as Secretary of State where he was an essential pillar of the government through the war. In fact, for periods of the war, he served as both Secretary of State and Secretary of War simultaneously, a fairly neat trick. Now, his final partner is the one I want to talk about most and is in many ways the most interesting one, and that's Dolly, of course. His wife of 42 years. She was the star. Madison would never be the star. It just wasn't in his skill set. She brought charisma and warmth, great charm. Well, Madison hated the spotlight. Dolly bloomed in the spotlight. She loved it. She was a natural. She started out in life as Dolly Payne, and like James she grew up on a southern plantation. Although it was a significant difference. As this image -- it is the earliest image we have of her -- reflects, she's wearing a Quaker bonnet there. She was raised a Quaker. On instruction from the Quaker hierarchy, when she was a young teenager, her father sold the family slaves and moved to Philadelphia and tried to start a business there. His business failed. But Dolly flourished. She was tall for the time. She had an hour glass figure, a mischievous smile. You could sometimes see it in her images, almost all of them. Black hair, creamy complexion, blue eyes. Men liked her. Men liked her a lot. And I always like to point out that say what you will about James Madison, small stature, his receding hairline, his social reserve and awkwardness, of all the founders, he had the hottest wife. (laughter). Now, Dolly married a Quaker lawyer. She had a first marriage and had two sons with him. But her husband and won son died in a yellow fever epidemic in 1793. As a single mother, she was in great demand. She did not want suitors at all. But one of the most ardent was James Madison. The story is he saw her on the street or at a social event and essentially said "who is that woman" and learned who she was and discovered his good friend from college, Aaron Burr was renting a room from her mother. So he arranged for Aaron Burr to introduce them. And he was 17 years older. That was not viewed as a great obstacle in those days. I'm not sure it is today either. And on the occasion of that first meeting, I love the note that Dolly sent to a friend that afternoon which reveals both her playful nature and her sophistication because she writes to her friend that she is going to meet the great little Madison. And she really captures him. Because, of course, he is short. He's balding. But he also was great. He was a national figure politically, leader of the Republican Party. He was wealthy. He was kind. He was intelligent. And in a Jane Austen era when the match you made was so important for a woman's life, you could do a great deal worse than James Madison. In studying their relationship was a delight in many ways. I was able to see a side of Madison that you just don't get. The political philosophers had drained the life out of them to some extent. I discovered he could be flirtatious. The few letters to Dolly, they were rarely apart but he did write letters to her. They were warm and loving, long after the infatuation would have cooled. In his flirtatiousness, Dolly's sister moved into the White House and lived there for several years Madison according to these accounts delighted in kissing Dolly in front of her sister and asking whether it made her sister's mouth water. (laughter). I'll admit it is a little creepy. (laughter). But that's not the way you've ever thought about James Madison. Another aspect that was fun to learn about was that, although the Madisons never had children of their own and are sometimes imagined as the semi-sad childless couple, usually had a house that was overrun with children. They had dozens of nieces and nephews, upwards of 50 as near as I can tell. And they were often would them for weeks on end, sometimes months. Friends would send their children to stay with them for a long period, particularly when they were in the White House. And Dolly would always see that the young ladies were introduced to suitable potential matches. It is also often missed that the Madisons were a lot of fun. In small groups, James was quick with quip and humorous anecdote. He was reported to keep the table in stitches. Dolly was always vivacious and engaging. A niece called her a faux to dullness. One of the entertaining stories is on the front porch at Montpellier, you can see in this image, it is not a huge front porch but apparently James and Dolly would run races against each other. It was in their retirement so they weren't looking for a long racetrack. But it gives you a feel for the spirit they had with each other. Indeed there is an account that in retirement, Dolly who was always a bit taller than James and became a good bit wider than James would load him on her back and carry him around the mansion. (laughter). But I want to emphasize that their fun had a purpose. Through James' eight years as Secretary of State and eight as President, Dolly set a bright social tone. I like this image to give you a feel for sort of Dolly Madison in her flower. She was gay, she was gracious. She always sought out the most awkward, uncomfortable person in the room and to put him or her at their ease. She is understood the need to provide charisma and glamour to the government which, again, is not something James could do. She was wife of the President and she was called sometimes the lady President Tess. We didn't use the term first lady yet. She took to wearing turbines, either of velvet or silk and she would stick flowers or fruit at the top of the turbine. The result was in a big crowded room, you always knew where Dolly was. (laughter). You could miss James very easily, but Dolly was visible. She had a famous exchange with Henry Clay which may have been apocryphal. They played cards together. They took snuff together. He was reported to say everyone loves Mrs. Madison and, of course, she responded, that's because Mrs. Madison loves everybody. It wasn't strictly speaking true. She actually was better at keeping a grudge than James was. But it seemed to be true. And as we know in politics, that's far more were than what is true. The Madisons freely mixed foreigners and federalists and Republicans, producing a social swirl that allowed the sinus of policy and politics to form in an informal setting, sometimes that's a terribly valuable opportunity. Office seekers would come to Dolly and ask her to intercede with the President to get jobs. And as near as we can tell, she was pretty good at it. In fact, she really was a political partner, always a loyal and sure-footed one who not only warmed his private life but also helped him forge a new Republican style for the nation. Indeed, the losing federalist candidate in 1808 claimed he had lost to Mr. and Mrs. Madison. "I might have had a better chance had I faced Mr. Madison alone." So many of you will recall Dolly's shining moment during the War of 1812 which came actually on James' worst day probably of his entire career. In late August of 1814, British Army had been disembarked from ships in the Chesapeake Bay, marched on Washington. There was a very brief skirmish at Bladensburg. Sometimes referred to as the Bladensburg races because our militia ran so quickly. Madison had gone to the field to rally the troops and inspire them but it was just not something that he was going to be able to do. And the militia wasn't ever going to be inspired anyway. So the British marched into Washington and they burned the public buildings. This is a black mark on his presidency which sometimes I think has caused him to be underestimated over the years. But there was a shining moment which is right before the British got there, Dolly who had to flee remembered to take down the portrait of George Washington. We were a republic. We were not a monarchy. We didn't have crown jewels. But we did cherish the memory of George Washington. And this was a presence of mind, a spirit, a redoubtable attitude which was much valued through the country. James Madison was reviled by many of his countrymen after the burning of Washington's public buildings. He was called a coward repeatedly. But people kept a warm spot in their hearts for Dolly. Now, their retirement at Montpellier was generally a happy one but a dark cloud formed increasingly over it. He lived for almost -- James lived for almost 20 years in retirement. He lived to be 85. For a fellow who was sick much his life, it was a surprise to him that he lived so long. And that dark shadow was slavery. I was struck that it is so rarely remarked upon that Madison's grandfather was poisoned to death by his own slave. This is an episode that Madison never commented on and one has to assume was not really talked about at Montpellier. Madison often lived there with five or six or seven other white people and about a hundred black slaves. But I think we can assume also that all of the white people and all of the black people knew that story, and it created a very corrosive environment. Madison's opinion of slavery was of abhorrence. He struggled between his commitments to human liberty and the fact that he lived on the labor of slaves. He bought land in upstate New York and he wrote a friend that he hoped to move there and never to rely upon the labor of slaves. He didn't do it. We don't know exactly why, the pull of his family, the pull of his success. It seems to me as he gets into the core of his public career, he is able to put these feelings about slavery aside and he simply doesn't confront them. But then in retirement, he can't look away anymore. It is there every day in Montpellier. It is all around him. And he's living into an era, the Missouri compromise, the rise of abolitionism, and that rebellion in 1831. 160 people are slaughtered as part of that rebellion. He now can see what he's always predicted as a young man. He predicted that slavery was the one thing that could tear the nation apart, and now he could see that it is coming. And he almost compulsively tried to figure out a way out of the box, how do we fix slavery? And he's a creature of intellect, more on policy issues. He figured out how to set up a government. He figured out how to take on the British. And he wants to figure out slavery. And he writes memos to himself. Well, we can sell off all the land out west that's owned by the government and we will use that money to pay the slave owners. We have to get the slaves out of the country because prejudice is so bad that they will have terrible lives if they stay here. We will just have more violence. So we have to then get them over to Africa or South America or anywhere else. And it is a poignant, terrible, disturbing spectacle. This great statesmen grappling with this issue that he can't solve because he is failing to see it for what it really is, which is a failure of the human heart that is prejudice at its core. That is why he can't solve it. Indeed, one of the sort of pathetic things he does -- this is at Montpellier.If you visited, and I encourage you to, they have done a wonderful job restoring his place. They are reconstructing slave cabins he built late in his life. It was customary, of course, to have your slaves live somewhere where nobody could see them because they didn't live very nicely. They were kept in poor conditions. Well, Madison built essentially a Village of slave cottages. He got tired of having northerners and Europeans come and lecture him about slavery. So he built these nice slave cabins. They were sort of duplexes with glass windows and hung doors. And it was to show people that slavery wasn't so bad. And it is pretty sad, frankly, that that was the best he was able to manage. He never did free any of his slaves. Indeed, Dolly despite her Quaker background leaves not a word spoken ever about slavery. So we don't actually know what she thought either. In his final years, James became increasingly decrepit. I love this image of him two years before he died. He spent his days in his dressing gown and night cap. He really lived in two rooms at Montpellier. But his mind remained bright, his intellect sharp. These years were hard on Dolly. She had to take care of him all the time. She wrote once that his hands and fingers are sill so swelled and sore to be nearly useless but I lend him mine. He could always be happy with ideas or at least occupied with ideas and newspapers and books. She needed people and it was hard for her to be isolated without them. When he died in 1836 at the age of 85, she moved back to Washington City and reentered the social world. And we got this wonderful blessing which is she lived long enough to have her photograph taken. This is taken just a year or so before she died in the Zachary Taylor administration. Her reentry into the social life was applauded. She had a good time for few years but then the money ran out. Financial management was not among her gifts. She had her own son who was a bit of a waster and burned up a lot of money, too. She ended up in a sort of Gentile poverty with only a couple of slaves who were sold upon her death. Now, having held forth on two of Madison's productive partnerships or just one of them, actually, I want to close with a note about Madison himself. I do think he was able to form these partnerships because of who he was. He was not the dry creature of intellect that we sometimes think of. He was referred to by a contemporary as I have never seen so much mind and so little matter. (laughter). But he had a genuineness and an integrity and open-heartedness. These qualities for me shine through in the way he received the news of the Treaty of Ghent which is the agreement that ended the War of 1812. As I said, he pushed the nation into war and it didn't go terribly well much of the time. It's February 13, 1815. Just about 200 years before now. He's actually living in an octagon house which still stands over on 17th Street. A rumor arrives that the treaty has been signed with Britain and that Pennsylvania senator rushes to Octagon House to ask Madison if it is true. Let me just read a short passage from the book. "the senator found the house dark, the President sitting solitary in his parlor. In perfect tranquility. Not even a servant in waiting. The senator asked if the rumor was true. Madison bad him sit down. I will tell you all I know, he said. Then confirmed that he thought there was peace but he had no official confirmation. The senator recalled with some wonder what he called the President's self-command on the occasion and greatness of mind." The War of 1812 truly had been Mr. Madison's war, as his opponents called it. It was about principles, not gain. It was fought with a quiet tenacity, sometimes ineptly and with endless tolerance of those who opposed it. As a friend of Madison's wrote years later, the war had been conducted in perfect keeping with the character of the President of whom it may be said that no one had to a greater extent firmness, mildness and self-possession. And when peace came, Madison welcomed it in a darkened house alone with his thoughts. Thank you. (applause) Thank you. I would be happy to take questions but it is great if you could make your way to one of the microphones. >> Thank you for that informative presentation. In the dim recesses of my memory, I remember writing a paper in college. I think it was about a landmark case, was it Marbury versus Madison. Can you refresh my memory? I don't recall any specifics. >> David Stewart: Really? (laughter). It's kind of an accident that his name is on the case. It was because he was Secretary of State. The case involved the midnight judges of John Adams. At the very end of Adams' administration, he appoints a bunch of judges in the last 24-hours before he leaves office. And they are not able to take their commissions and have them confirmed and take office. So when Jefferson becomes President, these judges show up and Mr. Marbury was to be some sort of officer in the District of Columbia. They go to the Secretary of State and say, okay, here's our commission. We are now in office. And Madison said, no, you're not. And they brought suit saying they were entitled to the office. This ends up -- it takes two years to litigate, God bless the lawyers. And it ends up before Chief Justice Marshall who rules in Madison's favor and in favor of Jefferson saying these judges can't take office. But it does so on such a technicality. And after basically holding that -- the courts have the right to judge the Constitutionality of every federal statute that Jefferson hates the ruling. So I'm pretty sure my federal jurisdiction professor would be appalled by that description of the case. But that's a quick description. >> Thank you very much. >> David Stewart: Yes, sir? >> Thanks also for a wonderful presentation. You stress the rigger of Madison's intellect. What was his formal education, where and how? >> David Stewart: He was sent away to a secondary school which he resided at. He was largely taught by Scotts which in America was in that era the best way to be taught. There was a lot of Scotts who had come overlooking for opportunity who were very well-educated and were fine instructors. He then did not do what most Virginia young gentlemen would do which is to go to the College of William and Mary. His family sent him to Princeton which was also run by Scotts. This had two effects. It put him in the influence group of John Witherspoon who was President of the school at the time and other instructors who were engaged with the Scottish enlightenment and it exposed to a non-Virginia culture. I think it was a very formative experience for him. And all these Scotts were Presbyterians. They were a minority, a somewhat discriminated against minority. And I think it gave him a heightened sense in how minorities can be picked on by majorities. So it was a terribly important experience. He finished Princeton in two years and then stayed for a third year of graduate study but worked himself into a breakdown. And the rest of his life his intellectual self-discipline is kind of staggering. He would -- the year before the Constitutional Convention, he basically trained himself to be a lawyer. He had never practiced law. He didn't have any need to or interest in it. But he knew he had to understand law to do what he wanted to do in setting up the government. So he just read everything there was to know about British and civil law. He always had this ability with incredible powers of concentration. He was very obsessive about his work. He did tend to work himself sick. That was a pattern also in his life. >> Thank you. The founders were opposed to a standing Army and they preferred state militias. With respect to the Second Amendment, from your research and from your background, would Madison's interpretation of the Second Amendment be in conformity with the Heller case? >> David Stewart: It's not an easy question to answer. Let me answer something easier first, which is the attitude towards the standing Army, you are exactly right. They terribly mistrusted it. As did Madison. It was his attitude. When he was President during the War of 1812, he discovered, in fact, the militia was a lousy way to fight a war. We had militia when we wanted to invade Canada they would stop at the border and say "I didn't sign up for that." And they were not well-trained, by definition. They could not stand up to British regulars. And at the end of the war with his first budget after the war, he says to Congress, he issues -- sends a statement in his budget and says we do need to have an Army. I was wrong. You really do need an Army. So he was -- his opinion was changed on that subject. The question to the Second Amendment is not an easy one because he never commented on it. He had no reason to. It was never a disputed subject in his life time. So you are just left with the text of the amendment. It wasn't really debated in Congress when the Second Amendment goes through Congress. We only have records from the House because the Senate met in secret in those days and we have nothing for what they did. My sense is that there's so much about the modern world that Madison could not have imagined that the proliferation of guns in an urban society would surprise him. He grew up on the frontier, a society that had guns and needed guns. There were Indiana scares around his house when he was a boy. There was violence everywhere. The French and Indian War was in his childhood. So he did not have a negative attitude about guns. And would he feel the same way today? Hard to say. I think we can't do much better frankly than fall back on the language of the amendment. >> Thank you. If you don't mind. I would just like to add an addendum to your response to the question about Marbury versus Madison because I think it is probably one of the three or four most important cases the Supreme Court ever decided in 1806 because it laid the foundation for the continued power of the Supreme Court right up until today to declare acts of Congress and federal treaties and everything that the states do, if they're ever challenged in the courts, unconstitutional. The Supreme Court's original jurisdiction -- excuse me. Congress had passed The Judiciary Act of 179 which was the act under which Marbury brought his suit. In that act, Congress expanded the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court which otherwise is provided for only in the Constitution. >> David Stewart: We need to stick with Madison here. >> Pardon me? Well, this is about Marbury versus Madison. So it is about Madison. But it is a very extremely important case. >> David Stewart: It is absolutely, and possibly the most important. I would also emphasize that it was anticipated very much by Hamilton federalist paper number 78 which also does talk about judicial review. I think it was not an unanticipated outcome. I think many of the Framers intended it. >> Doug Stewart, white, fascinating, thank you. Two quick ones. First, Dolly and then Madison for a quick one. Did Dolly -- which southern plantation did she grow up? Just curious. >> David Stewart: I wish you hadn't asked. There's arguments about this. North Carolina puts in a claim for her. I found only evidence of Virginia locations. It is not even clear if her father owned the plantation or if he was a manager or was leasing the plantations. It's not clear. >> Okay. Then she had been a mentor so to speak for a number of women because of her (inaudible). That's just fascinating what she did. Madison himself, the main thing besides the brilliance and his influence which doesn't get there with the other grates, but did he ever cross paths with Benjamin Franklin? >> David Stewart: I didn't understand -- >> Did Madison ever cross paths with Benjamin Franklin? >> David Stewart: Did Madison cross paths with Ben Franklin? Certainly during the Constitutional Convention. He made it a point of cultivating Franklin. He went to Franklin's house many times during the convention and basically was sit at his knee and ask him questions and listen to him and have him tell stories. He admired him tremendously. He was young enough to be Franklin's grandson. There was a big age difference. But it was somebody he valued. They were never peers, of course. But for that one period, they did have a lot of contact. >> Thank you much. >> David Stewart: You bet. Last question here? >> I wonder if you thought that a slave in the White House by Paul Jennings gives any light, can you comment on that at all? >> David Stewart: The question relates to there was a book a couple years ago "A Slave in the White House" which are recollections of Paul Jennings, who was Madison's valet in the White House. He became a slave to the Madisons when he was about 8. And ultimately bought his way out of slavery with Dolly after James died using money that was loaned to him by Daniel Webster. And he became a free man and a self-supporting individual here. His family descendants still live in the area. And it is an impressive story about Jennings, again, a disappointing story about the Madisons that the only way out was to buy your way out. Thank you very much. (applause).



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National Historic Landmark
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Hash-tag National Memorial and National Historic Landmark

National Historical Landmarks

[5] Landmark name Image Date designated[6] Location County Description
1 Akima Pinšiwa Awiiki (Chief Jean-Baptiste de Richardville House) March 2, 2012
Fort Wayne
41°01′53″N 85°09′52″W / 41.0314°N 85.1644°W / 41.0314; -85.1644 (Akima Pinšiwa Awiiki (Chief Jean-Baptiste de Richardville House))
Allen This house is a rare surviving example of a treaty house. Built as part of the terms of the 1826 Treaty of Mississinewas between the Miami and the United States, it is associated with Pinšiwa, the akima (civil chief) of the Miami.[7]
2 Allen County Courthouse July 31, 2003
Fort Wayne
41°04′47″N 85°08′22″W / 41.0797°N 85.1394°W / 41.0797; -85.1394 (Allen County Courthouse)
Allen A Beaux-Arts-style building that was built in 1902, the Allen County Courthouse is a unique combination of fine art, sculpture, and architecture.[8]
3 Angel Mounds January 29, 1964
37°56′31″N 87°27′19″W / 37.9419°N 87.4553°W / 37.9419; -87.4553 (Angel Mounds)
Warrick, Vanderburgh[9] From AD 1000 to 1600, a town on this site was home to people of the Middle Mississippian culture. They built many mounds at this 100-acre (0.40 km2) community.[10]
4 Athenæum (Das Deutsche Haus) October 31, 2016
39°46′24″N 86°09′01″W / 39.773333°N 86.150278°W / 39.773333; -86.150278 (Athenæum (Das Deutsche Haus))
Marion Home of the Normal College of the North American Gymnastic Union for 63 years and the nation’s oldest, continuously active school of physical education.[11]
5National Historic Landmark District Auburn Cord Duesenberg Automobile Facility April 5, 2005
41°21′21″N 85°03′25″W / 41.3558°N 85.057°W / 41.3558; -85.057 (Auburn Cord Duesenberg Automobile Facility)
DeKalb The three buildings of the Auburn, Cord, and Duesenberg automobile manufacturing facility represent different stages in automotive development and construction. It is one of the few remaining automobile companies that made hand-assembled rather than mass-produced automobiles. The site includes the Art Deco showroom and administration building, service and new parts department building, and the Cord L-29 building.[12]
6National Historic Landmark District Joseph Bailly Homestead December 29, 1962
41°37′23″N 87°05′39″W / 41.6231°N 87.0942°W / 41.6231; -87.0942 (Joseph Bailly Homestead)
Porter Joseph Bailly acquired the Homestead and surrounding lands in 1822 when the Calumet was opened to white settlement. He established a trading post that was a meeting place for both Indians and whites and a stopping place for travelers and missionaries. It is now at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.[13]
7 Broad Ripple Park Carousel February 27, 1987
39°48′39″N 86°09′25″W / 39.8108°N 86.15708°W / 39.8108; -86.15708 (Broad Ripple Park Carousel)
Marion Originally located at Broad Ripple Village, this carousel was brought to Indiana in 1917 and is one of three surviving Dentzel menagerie carousels. Its animals predate 1900 and it is now housed in The Children's Museum of Indianapolis.[14]
8 Duck Creek Aqueduct
Duck Creek Aqueduct
August 25, 2014
Spanning Duck Creek at Whitewater Canal
39°26′46″N 85°07′48″W / 39.4462°N 85.13°W / 39.4462; -85.13 (Duck Creek Aqueduct)
Franklin Built in 1846, this is the only surviving covered bridge aqueduct in the United States.[15]
9 Butler Fieldhouse February 27, 1987
39°50′36″N 86°10′02″W / 39.84342°N 86.1673°W / 39.84342; -86.1673 (Butler Fieldhouse)
Marion Located at Butler University and now called Hinkle Fieldhouse, it is the sixth-oldest basketball arena still used and was once the largest in the United States. It hosted the Indiana high school basketball tournament until 1971.[16]
10 Cannelton Cotton Mill July 17, 1991
37°54′41″N 86°44′44″W / 37.91130555555556°N 86.74563888888889°W / 37.91130555555556; -86.74563888888889 (Cannelton Cotton Mill)
Perry The Cannelton mill, overlooking the Ohio River, manufactured thread and cloth for over 100 years from 1851 to 1954. Its innovative design used steam power and Southern cotton, and its utility and aesthetics attempted to make Southern Indiana an industrial center.[17]
11 Levi Coffin House June 23, 1965
Fountain City
39°57′23″N 84°55′03″W / 39.956250000000004°N 84.91736111111112°W / 39.956250000000004; -84.91736111111112 (Levi Coffin House)
Wayne Levi Coffin lived in this house from 1827 to 1847, where he helped as many as 2,000 slaves escape to freedom. The house was known as the Union Depot of the Underground Railroad, and it contained secret doors that could hide fugitives.[18]
12 Eugene V. Debs Home November 13, 1966
Terre Haute
39°28′18″N 87°24′20″W / 39.47166666666667°N 87.40555555555557°W / 39.47166666666667; -87.40555555555557 (Eugene V. Debs Home)
Vigo Eugene V. Debs, founder of Industrial Workers of the World and the American Railway Union, lived in this home from its construction in 1890 until his death in 1926. He ran as a Socialist candidate in the 1900, 1904, 1908, 1912, and 1920 United States presidential elections.[19]
13 Eleutherian College Classroom and Chapel Building February 18, 1997
38°49′51″N 85°30′59″W / 38.83083333333334°N 85.51638888888888°W / 38.83083333333334; -85.51638888888888 (Eleutherian College Classroom and Chapel Building)
Jefferson Founded in 1848 by abolitionist Baptist Church members, Eleutherian College was the first college in Indiana to admit students regardless of race or gender. The Chapel building was completed in 1854 and is the last structure remaining.[20]
14 First Baptist Church May 16, 2000
39°14′01″N 85°52′20″W / 39.23361111111111°N 85.87222222222222°W / 39.23361111111111; -85.87222222222222 (First Baptist Church)
Bartholomew Completed in 1965, the First Baptist Church is an example of modern architecture in Columbus. It was designed by architect Harry Weese.[21]
15 First Christian Church January 3, 2001
39°12′11″N 85°55′08″W / 39.20305555555556°N 85.91888888888889°W / 39.20305555555556; -85.91888888888889 (First Christian Church)
Bartholomew Designed by Finnish architect Eliel Saarinen in 1942, the First Christian Church was one of the first modern-style churches in America.[22]
16 Thomas Gaff House (Hillforest) October 5, 1992
39°03′14″N 84°54′06″W / 39.053888888888885°N 84.90166666666667°W / 39.053888888888885; -84.90166666666667 (Thomas Gaff House (Hillforest))
Dearborn Located above the Ohio River, Hillforest was built in 1855 in the Italian Renaissance architectural style. Designed by Isaiah Rogers, its full-width frontal porch is reminiscent of a steamboat's deck.[23]
17 Grouseland December 19, 1960
38°41′08″N 87°31′34″W / 38.68555555555555°N 87.5261111111111°W / 38.68555555555555; -87.5261111111111 (Grouseland)
Knox Grouseland was the home of William Henry Harrison from 1804 to 1812, while he was Governor of the Indiana Territory. He held conferences there with Native Americans, including Shawnee leader Tecumseh. Harrison later became the 9th President, serving one month in 1841.[24]
18 Benjamin Harrison Home January 29, 1964
39°47′02″N 86°09′15″W / 39.78388888888889°N 86.15416666666667°W / 39.78388888888889; -86.15416666666667 (Benjamin Harrison Home)
Marion Benjamin Harrison lived in this Italianate house from 1875 until his death there in 1901, except from 1889 to 1893 while he was the 23rd President. He was also a Senator from Indiana from 1881 to 1887. Harrison accepted the Republican nomination for the Presidential election in 1888 and conducted his Front Porch Campaign here.[25]
19National Historic Landmark District Indiana War Memorial Plaza October 11, 1994
39°46′25″N 86°09′25″W / 39.7736°N 86.1569°W / 39.7736; -86.1569 (Indiana War Memorial Plaza)
Marion The Indiana World War Memorial, begun in 1926 and finished in 1965, is a building commemorating World War I and II veterans. It is 210 feet (64 m) tall, made of Indiana limestone, and based on the Mausoleum of Mausolus. Within it is a military museum. The Plaza also includes the American Legion headquarters, Cenotaph square, an obelisk, and fountains.[26] Originally "Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District", it was enlarged and renamed in December 2016.[27]
20National Historic Landmark District Indianapolis Motor Speedway February 27, 1987
39°47′46″N 86°14′05″W / 39.796°N 86.2347°W / 39.796; -86.2347 (Indianapolis Motor Speedway)
Marion The Indianapolis Motor Speedway is home to the Indianapolis 500, first held in 1911. The track, built in 1909, is the world's oldest continuously operating automobile race course. The 500 is the largest single-day sporting event in the world in terms of attendance, and with seating of over 250,000, it is also the world's largest sporting facility.[28]
21 Irwin Union Bank and Trust May 16, 2000
39°12′13″N 85°55′17″W / 39.203611111111115°N 85.9213888888889°W / 39.203611111111115; -85.9213888888889 (Irwin Union Bank and Trust)
Bartholomew Designed by Eero Saarinen in 1954, the Irwin Bank is meant to be welcoming, being the first open bank with glass walls. It has a Miesian glass pavilion and influenced subsequent bank designs.[29]
22 Lanier Mansion April 19, 1994
38°44′06″N 85°23′14″W / 38.735°N 85.38722222222223°W / 38.735; -85.38722222222223 (Lanier Mansion)
Jefferson Banker and international financier James Lanier lived in this home, built in the early 1840s, for seven years. It is an example of Greek Revival style from architect Francis Costigan and is now a museum.[30]
23National Memorial Lincoln Boyhood Home December 19, 1960
Lincoln City
38°07′13″N 86°59′49″W / 38.12027777777778°N 86.99694444444445°W / 38.12027777777778; -86.99694444444445 (Lincoln Boyhood Home)
Spencer The 16th US President Abraham Lincoln grew up here from 1816 to 1830. The site features the foundation of the original cabin, a replica farm house, the gravesite of Lincoln's mother Nancy Hanks Lincoln, and a memorial building.[31]
24National Historic Landmark District Madison Historic District March 20, 2006
38°44′32″N 85°22′38″W / 38.742222222222225°N 85.37722222222222°W / 38.742222222222225; -85.37722222222222 (Madison Historic District)
Jefferson The Madison Historic District showcases architecture from 1817 to 1939, having many buildings in Federal, Greek Revival and Italianate styles. Infrastructure and houses remain from the 19th century, related to leaders of the Underground Railroad.[32]
25 Mabel McDowell Elementary School January 3, 2001
39°12′07″N 85°53′31″W / 39.20194444444445°N 85.89194444444445°W / 39.20194444444445; -85.89194444444445 (Mabel McDowell Elementary School)
Bartholomew Architect John Carl Warnecke designed this contextual work as part of the movement to improve the quality of life in Columbus through outstanding architecture. This school in the modern style contains five separate one-story buildings linked by landscaped courtyards and covered walkways. Four classroom buildings flank the central hub which contains the cafeteria and administration spaces. It has been converted to an adult education center.[33]
26 Miller House May 16, 2000
39°13′38″N 85°55′23″W / 39.227222222222224°N 85.92305555555556°W / 39.227222222222224; -85.92305555555556 (Miller House)
Bartholomew Associated with Cummins founder J. Irwin Miller, the Miller House is a work of Eero Saarinen representing International style. The building is integrated with the modern landscape of Dan Kiley.[34]
27National Historic Landmark District New Harmony Historic District June 23, 1965
New Harmony
38°07′48″N 87°56′08″W / 38.13°N 87.93555555555555°W / 38.13; -87.93555555555555 (New Harmony Historic District)
Posey New Harmony was founded in 1815 by Rappites, and in 1825 Robert Owen attempted to create a utopian society. Many original Harmony Society buildings remain.[35]
28 North Christian Church May 16, 2000
39°13′48″N 85°54′58″W / 39.230000000000004°N 85.91611111111112°W / 39.230000000000004; -85.91611111111112 (North Christian Church)
Bartholomew Completed in 1964, this was designed by Finnish architect Eero Saarinen. It has a hexagonal shape with an elevated hexagonal sanctuary in the center and pews surrounding the altar. From the roof rises a 192-foot (59 m) spire and cross, which represents Christianity arising from Judaism.[36]
29National Historic Landmark District Oldfields (J. K. Lilly House) July 31, 2003
39°49′42″N 86°11′08″W / 39.82833333333333°N 86.18541666666667°W / 39.82833333333333; -86.18541666666667 (Oldfields (J. K. Lilly House))
Marion On the grounds of the Indianapolis Museum of Art, Oldfields is a 26-acre (110,000 m2) estate. The 22-room mansion was the home of philanthropist and businessman Josiah K. Lilly Jr. and was designed by Olmsted Brothers.[37]
30 The Republic Newspaper Office October 16, 2012
39°11′59″N 85°55′18″W / 39.19972222222222°N 85.92166666666667°W / 39.19972222222222; -85.92166666666667 (The Republic Newspaper Office)
Bartholomew Myron Goldsmith of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill designed this newspaper publishing house. It is the youngest architectural National Historic Landmark ever designated.[38]
31 James Whitcomb Riley House December 29, 1962
39°46′20″N 86°08′52″W / 39.77222222222222°N 86.14777777777779°W / 39.77222222222222; -86.14777777777779 (James Whitcomb Riley House)
Marion Located in the Lockerbie Square Historic District, this Victorian style building was home to Hoosier Poet James Whitcomb Riley for 23 years.[39]
32 Charles Shrewsbury House April 19, 1994
38°44′05″N 85°22′58″W / 38.734722222222224°N 85.38277777777778°W / 38.734722222222224; -85.38277777777778 (Charles Shrewsbury House)
Jefferson Francis Costigan designed this Classical Revival house for merchant Charles L. Shrewsbury. It was completed in 1849 and is an example of Regency architecture.[40]
33 Spencer Park Dentzel Carousel February 27, 1987
40°45′34″N 86°21′20″W / 40.75944444444445°N 86.35555555555555°W / 40.75944444444445; -86.35555555555555 (Spencer Park Dentzel Carousel)
Cass This is one of three remaining Dentzel menagerie carousels in good condition. It is also called the Riverside Park Carousel.[41]
34 Clement Studebaker House December 22, 1977
South Bend
41°40′35″N 86°15′28″W / 41.67638888888889°N 86.25777777777778°W / 41.67638888888889; -86.25777777777778 (Clement Studebaker House)
St. Joseph Carriagemaker and founder of H & C Studebaker Company Clement Studebaker lived here from 1889 until his death in 1901. In the 1890s the company was the world's largest producer of horse-drawn vehicles. It later converted into an automobile manufacturer. The mansion was named Tippecanoe Place and has been turned into a restaurant.[42]
35 Tippecanoe Battlefield October 9, 1960
Battle Ground
40°28′08″N 86°50′43″W / 40.46888888888889°N 86.84527777777777°W / 40.46888888888889; -86.84527777777777 (Tippecanoe Battlefield)
Tippecanoe In the Battle of Tippecanoe on November 7, 1811, Indiana Territory Governor William Henry Harrison and his force of 1,000 men defeated the Shawnee and their leader Tenskwatawa.[43]
36 Samara (John E Christian House) February 27, 2015
West Lafayette
40°26′19″N 86°54′59″W / 40.438556°N 86.916526°W / 40.438556; -86.916526 (Samara (John E Christian House))
Tippecanoe Completed in 1956, Samara is an outstanding and mature example of a Usonian house designed by Frank Lloyd Wright during his late period (1941-59). It is a remarkably complete Usonian design, incorporating more than 40 Wrightian design elements, including character-defining Usonian features such as modular design, indoor-outdoor connections, slab floor construction, flat roofs, and open-plan public spaces conducive to simple living for average middle-class families.[44]
37 Wallace Circus Winter Headquarters February 27, 1987
40°45′16″N 86°01′11″W / 40.754445°N 86.01972°W / 40.754445; -86.01972 (Wallace Circus Winter Headquarters)
Miami This building was used by the Hagenbeck-Wallace Circus, the American Circus Corporation and the Ringling Brothers Circus as a winter headquarters. It is now the Circus Hall of Fame and has many artifacts from classic circuses.[45]
38 General Lew Wallace Study May 11, 1976
40°02′26″N 86°53′40″W / 40.04055555555556°N 86.89444444444445°W / 40.04055555555556; -86.89444444444445 (General Lew Wallace Study)
Montgomery Lew Wallace was a Civil War general, governor of the New Mexico Territory, and minister to the Ottoman Empire, and he is best known for writing Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ. He used this building as his study from 1895 until his death in 1905. Wallace designed it himself, and it is now a museum.[46]
39 Madam C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company July 17, 1991
39°46′33″N 86°10′01″W / 39.77583333333333°N 86.16694444444445°W / 39.77583333333333; -86.16694444444445 (Madam C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company)
Marion Madam C. J. Walker founded a manufacturing company that produced hair care products and cosmetics for Black women, and it was the most successful Black business for years. Finished in 1927, the building also served as a community cultural center. It has since been restored and hosts many performing arts and educational programs.[47]
40 Marie Webster House November 4, 1993
40°33′09″N 85°39′36″W / 40.552499999999995°N 85.66000000000001°W / 40.552499999999995; -85.66000000000001 (Marie Webster House)
Grant This was the home of quilter Marie Webster, who wrote Quilts: Their History and How to Make Them. It is now the home of the Quilters Hall of Fame.[48]
41 West Baden Springs Hotel February 27, 1987
West Baden Springs
38°34′02″N 86°37′05″W / 38.56722°N 86.61805°W / 38.56722; -86.61805 (West Baden Springs Hotel)
Orange West Baden Springs has many natural mineral water springs. This hotel was built in 1902, and its 200-foot (61 m) glass dome was once the largest dome in the world.[49]
42 West Union Covered Bridge December 23, 2016
39°51′18″N 87°20′09″W / 39.85493°N 87.33576°W / 39.85493; -87.33576 (West Union Covered Bridge)
Parke One of the nation's best-preserved examples of a 19th-century Burr Truss covered bridge.[50]

National Historic Landmarks formerly in Indiana

[5] Landmark name Image Date listed Locality County Description
1 Donald B (Towboat)
Black-and-white photo of long towboat on the water
December 20, 1989 Bellaire Belmont The Donald B. was built in 1923 and is the only 1920s unchanged diesel sternwheel towboat left in the United States. It still operates towing barges in the Ohio River.[51] After years of being located near Vevay in Switzerland County, its home port was moved to Bellaire, Ohio in 2012.[52]
2 Milwaukee Clipper (Passenger Steamship)
Starboard side of a gray-white boat with two lifeboats, four decks, and a small smokestack docked on a pier
April 11, 1989 Muskegon Muskegon The Milwaukee Clipper was a museum ship at Navy Pier in Chicago, Illinois when declared an NHL. In 1990 it was moved to Hammond, Indiana and in 1997 moved to Muskegon, Michigan.[2]

See also


  1. ^ "National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of National Historic Landmarks by State" (PDF). National Park Service. June 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-11-05. Retrieved 2011-07-04.
  2. ^ a b "MILWAUKEE CLIPPER (Passenger Steamship)". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2010-07-29. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  3. ^ a b c "National Historic Landmarks Program: Questions and Answers". National Park Service, National Historic Landmarks Program. Retrieved 2007-09-21.
  4. ^ a b c "Title 36 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 65". US Government Printing Office. Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2008-04-05.
  5. ^ a b Numbers represent an ordering by significant words. Various colorings, defined here, differentiate National Historic Landmarks and historic districts from other NRHP buildings, structures, sites or objects.
  6. ^ The eight-digit number below each date is the number assigned to each location in the National Register Information System database, which can be viewed by clicking the number.
  7. ^ "America's Great Outdoors: Secretary Salazar Designates Thirteen New National Historic Landmarks". US Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2012-03-25.
  8. ^ "Allen County Courthouse". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2012-10-08. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  9. ^ Weiss, Francine. National Register of Historic Places Inventory/Nomination: Angel Mounds. National Park Service, 1975-07, 11.
  10. ^ "Angel Mounds". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-06-07. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  11. ^ "Secretary Jewell, Director Jarvis Announce 10 New National Historic Landmarks Illustrating America's Diverse History, Culture". Department of the Interior. November 2, 2016. Retrieved 3 November 2016.
  12. ^ "Auburn Cord Duesenberg Automobile Facility, Auburn, Indiana". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2012-10-08. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  13. ^ "Bailly, Joseph, Homestead". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  14. ^ "Broad Ripple Park Carousel". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  15. ^ "Secretary Jewell, Director Jarvis Announce Nine New National Historic Landmarks Highlighting America's Diverse History and Culture". United States Department of the Interior. Retrieved 2014-10-09.
  16. ^ "Butler Fieldhouse". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-01-14. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  17. ^ "Cannelton Cotton Mills". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  18. ^ "Coffin, Levi, House". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  19. ^ "Debs, Eugene V., Home". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  20. ^ "Eleutherian College Classroom and Chapel Building". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2012-10-08. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  21. ^ "First Baptist Church (Columbus)". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  22. ^ "First Christian Church". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  23. ^ "Gaff, Thomas, House (Hillforest)". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  24. ^ "Grouseland (William Henry Harrison House)". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  25. ^ "Harrison, Benjamin, Home". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  26. ^ "Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2008-06-21. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  27. ^ "Draft NHL nomination for Indiana War Memorial Plaza (boundary expansion and rename of Indiana World War Memorial Plaza Historic District" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2017-03-20.
  28. ^ "Indianapolis Motor Speedway". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  29. ^ "Irwin Union Bank and Trust". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  30. ^ "Lanier Mansion". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  31. ^ "Lincoln Boyhood Home". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  32. ^ "Madison Historic District". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  33. ^ "McDowell, Mabel, Elementary School". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2012-10-10. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  34. ^ "Miller House". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2007-07-03. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  35. ^ "New Harmony Historic District". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  36. ^ "North Christian Church". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  37. ^ "Oldfields (Josiah Kirby Lilly, Jr. House)". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-01-14. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  38. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-22. Retrieved 2013-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ "Riley, James Whitcomb, House". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-01-14. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  40. ^ "Shrewsbury, Charles L., House". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  41. ^ "Spencer Park Dentzel Carousel". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  42. ^ "Studebaker, Clement, House". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  43. ^ "Tippecanoe Battlefield". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  44. ^ "Secretary Jewell, Director Jarvis Announce Five New National Historic Landmarks Highlighting America's Diverse Heritage". U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
  45. ^ "Wallace Circus Winter Headquarters". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  46. ^ "Wallace, General Lew, Study". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
    "General Lew Wallace Study and Museum". City of Crawfordsville. Archived from the original on 15 December 2009. Retrieved 13 January 2010.
  47. ^ "Madame C.J. Walker Manufacturing Company". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2009-01-14. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  48. ^ "Webster, Marie, House". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  49. ^ "West Baden Springs Hotel". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2010-12-27. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  50. ^ "Parke County covered bridge named National Historic Landmark". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved 2017-01-15.
  51. ^ "Donald B. (Towboat)". National Historic Landmarks Program. National Park Service. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
  52. ^ Contact Us Archived 2011-07-26 at the Wayback Machine, Historic Preservation Society [former owner], n.d. Accessed 2012-06-24.

External links

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