To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

List of Major League Baseball franchise postseason droughts

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Throughout the history of Major League Baseball (MLB), franchises have had various postseason and World Series droughts.

All 16 of the original Major League franchises (i.e., those in place when the first World Series was played in 1903) have won the World Series, with the longest wait for a franchise's first championship being for the Phillies (77 seasons, ending in 1980). Since expansion began in 1961, six of the 14 expansion teams have never won the World Series. Furthermore, one franchise, the Cleveland Guardians, currently has a championship drought that pre-dates the expansion era. The three longest championship droughts in history were ended recently by the Red Sox (85 seasons, ending in 2004), the White Sox (87 seasons, ending in 2005), and the Cubs (107 seasons, ending in 2016).

Only one expansion franchise (the Seattle Mariners) has never won a pennant (i.e., the league championship, the two winners of which meet in the World Series). The three longest pennant droughts in history were recently ended by the Nationals (51 years, starting with the team's foundation and ending in 2019, and including the franchise's entire 36 years as the Montreal Expos), the Rangers (49 years, starting with the team's foundation and ending in 2010) and the Cubs (70 years, ending in 2016). As the Nationals are the third franchise to be based in the city of Washington, their 2019 pennant also ended a drought of 53 seasons played in Washington since their last pennant, which was in 1933 (here we discount the 33 seasons during which there was no team in Washington).

As of the 2021 season, every active MLB franchise has qualified for the playoffs, especially since expansion of the playoffs in 1994 made that feat easier. The Tigers and the Angels are tied with the longest active postseason drought at 8 years. Long postseason droughts were ended recently by the Nationals (30 years for the franchise, 45 seasons over 78 years for the city, ending in 2012), the Pirates (20 years, ending in 2013), the Royals (28 years, ending in 2014), the Blue Jays (21 years, ending in 2015), the Mariners (21 years, ending in 2022), and the Phillies (11 years, ending in 2022).

This list includes only the modern World Series between the American League (AL) and the National League (NL), not the various 19th-century championship series. Those teams which have never achieved a particular accomplishment in their franchise history are listed by the date they entered the leagues.

World Series championship droughts

Longest current World Series championship droughts

No World Series was played in 1994, and counts as a drought season for those franchises.

Seasons Team Last World Series championship won Last World Series appearance
74 Cleveland Guardians 1948 2016
62 Texas Rangers Never (franchise began 1961) 2011
54 Milwaukee Brewers Never (franchise began 1969) 1982
54 San Diego Padres Never (franchise began 1969) 1998
46 Seattle Mariners Never (franchise began 1977) Never
43 Pittsburgh Pirates 1979 1979
39 Baltimore Orioles 1983 1983
38 Detroit Tigers 1984 2012
36 New York Mets 1986 2015
33 Oakland Athletics 1989 1990
32 Cincinnati Reds 1990 1990
31 Minnesota Twins 1991 1991
30 Colorado Rockies Never (franchise began 1993) 2007
29 Toronto Blue Jays 1993 1993
25 Tampa Bay Rays Never (franchise began 1998) 2020
21 Arizona Diamondbacks 2001 2001
20 Los Angeles Angels 2002 2002
19 Miami Marlins 2003 2003
17 Chicago White Sox 2005 2005
14 Philadelphia Phillies 2008 2022
13 New York Yankees 2009 2009
11 St. Louis Cardinals 2011 2013
8 San Francisco Giants 2014 2014
7 Kansas City Royals 2015 2015
6 Chicago Cubs 2016 2016
4 Boston Red Sox 2018 2018
3 Washington Nationals 2019 2019
2 Los Angeles Dodgers 2020 2020
1 Atlanta Braves 2021 2021
0 Houston Astros 2022 2022

Longest World Series championship droughts through history

The first World Series was played in 1903. No World Series was played in 1904 or 1994. This list only shows droughts of 30 or more seasons. Active droughts are listed in bold type.

Seasons Team Previous Title Drought Streak Next Title
107 Chicago Cubs 1908 1909—2015 2016
87 Chicago White Sox 1917 1918—2004 2005
85 Boston Red Sox 1918 1919—2003 2004
77 Philadelphia Phillies 1903—1979 1980
74 Cleveland Indians/Guardians 1948 1949—2022
63 St. Louis Browns/Baltimore Orioles 1903—1965 1966
62 Washington Senators/Minnesota Twins 1924 1925—1986 1987
62 Washington Senators/Texas Rangers 1961—2022
55 Houston Colt .45s/Astros 1962—2016 2017
55 New York/San Francisco Giants 1954 1955—2009 2010
54 San Diego Padres 1969—2022
54 Seattle Pilots/Milwaukee Brewers 1969—2022
52 Brooklyn Dodgers 1903—1954 1955
50 Montreal Expos/Washington Nationals 1969—2018 2019
46 Seattle Mariners 1977—2022
43 Pittsburgh Pirates 1979 1980—2022
42 Boston/Milwaukee Braves 1914 1915—1956 1957
41 Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics 1930 1931—1971 1972
41 Los Angeles/California/Anaheim Angels 1961—2001 2002
39 Baltimore Orioles 1983 1984—2022
38 Detroit Tigers 1984 1985—2022
37 Milwaukee/Atlanta Braves 1957 1958—1994 1995
36 New York Mets 1986 1987—2022
34 Pittsburgh Pirates 1925 1926—1959 1960
34 Cincinnati Reds 1940 1941—1974 1975
33 Oakland Athletics 1989 1990—2022
32 Detroit Tigers 1903—1934 1935
32 Cincinnati Reds 1990 1991—2022
31 Los Angeles Dodgers 1988 1989—2019 2020
31 Minnesota Twins 1991 1992—2022
30 Colorado Rockies 1993—2022

World Series championship droughts by city/region

This list only includes cities/regions with current Major League Baseball franchises. Years during which a city/region did not field a Major League Baseball team are not counted.

Region Drought (seasons) Last World Series title
Cleveland 74 Cleveland Indians, 1948
Milwaukee 61* Milwaukee Braves, 1957
San Diego 54‡ None
Dallas-Ft. Worth 51‡ None
Seattle 47‡ † None
Pittsburgh 43 Pittsburgh Pirates, 1979
Baltimore 39 Baltimore Orioles, 1983
Detroit 38 Detroit Tigers, 1984
Cincinnati 32 Cincinnati Reds, 1990
Minneapolis–Saint Paul 31 Minnesota Twins, 1991
Denver 30‡ None
Toronto 29 Toronto Blue Jays, 1993
Tampa-St. Petersburg 25‡ None
Phoenix 21 Arizona Diamondbacks, 2001
Miami-Ft. Lauderdale 19 Florida Marlins, 2003
Philadelphia 14 Philadelphia Phillies, 2008
New York City 13 New York Yankees, 2009
St. Louis 11 St. Louis Cardinals, 2011
San Francisco Bay Area 8 San Francisco Giants, 2014
Kansas City 7 Kansas City Royals, 2015
Chicago 6 Chicago Cubs, 2016
Boston 4 Boston Red Sox, 2018
Washington, D.C. 3 Washington Nationals, 2019
Los Angeles 2 Los Angeles Dodgers, 2020
Atlanta 1 Atlanta Braves, 2021
Houston 0 Houston Astros, 2022

*city without Major League Baseball franchise for 4 seasons (19661969)

†city without Major League Baseball franchise for 7 seasons (19701976)

‡number does not indicate a title won, but rather total seasons played.

World Series in which neither team had previously won a championship

In these instances, the World Series matchup ensured that one team would win the first championship in its history.

Season Won Lost
1980 Philadelphia Phillies Kansas City Royals
1920 Cleveland Indians Brooklyn Dodgers
1909 Pittsburgh Pirates Detroit Tigers
1907 Chicago Cubs Detroit Tigers
1906* Chicago White Sox Chicago Cubs
1905* New York Giants Philadelphia Athletics
1903* Boston Americans Pittsburgh Pirates

*In these cases, each team was making its first World Series appearance.

World Series in which neither team had previously lost a championship

In these instances, the World Series matchup ensured that one team would lose the first championship in its history.

Season Won Lost
1948 Cleveland Indians Boston Braves
1915 Boston Red Sox Philadelphia Phillies
1906* Chicago White Sox Chicago Cubs
1905* New York Giants Philadelphia Athletics
1903* Boston Americans Pittsburgh Pirates

*In these cases, each team was making its first World Series appearance.

World Series in which both teams had ended pennant droughts of 20-plus seasons

Season Won Drought (seasons) Lost Drought (seasons)
2005 Chicago White Sox 45 Houston Astros 43
1948 Cleveland Indians 27 Boston Braves 33

World Series in which neither franchise had won a championship in 30-plus seasons

Teams that had never won the World Series are included, even if they were less than 30 seasons old at the time. Bold denotes team that won.

Season American League Drought (seasons) National League Drought (seasons)
2020 Tampa Bay Rays 22* Los Angeles Dodgers 31
2016 Cleveland Indians 67 Chicago Cubs 107
2010 Texas Rangers 49* San Francisco Giants 55
2005 Chicago White Sox 87 Houston Astros 43*
2002 Anaheim Angels 41* San Francisco Giants 47
1997 Cleveland Indians 48 Florida Marlins 4*
1995 Cleveland Indians 46 Atlanta Braves 37
1992 Toronto Blue Jays 15* Atlanta Braves 34
1980 Kansas City Royals 11* Philadelphia Phillies 77*
1975 Boston Red Sox 56 Cincinnati Reds 34
1972 Oakland Athletics 40 Cincinnati Reds 31
1920 Cleveland Indians 17* Brooklyn Dodgers 17*
1909 Detroit Tigers 6* Pittsburgh Pirates 6*
1907 Detroit Tigers 4* Chicago Cubs 4*
1906 Chicago White Sox 3* Chicago Cubs 3*
1905 Philadelphia Athletics 2* New York Giants 2*
1903 Boston Americans 0* Pittsburgh Pirates 0*

Numbers marked with * indicates that the number is counted from either the franchise's first year of existence or the first year of the modern World Series (1903).

World Series Championship droughts by division

Division Last World Series championship Seasons
American League Central 2015 — Royals 7
National League Central 2016 — Cubs 6
American League East 2018 — Red Sox 4
National League West 2020 — Dodgers 2
National League East 2021 — Braves 1
American League West 2022 — Astros 0

World Series appearance droughts

Longest current World Series appearance droughts

No World Series was played in 1994 due to the players' strike that year.

Seasons Team Last World Series appearance
46 Seattle Mariners Never (franchise started in 1977)
43 Pittsburgh Pirates 1979
40 Milwaukee Brewers 1982 (never since joining NL in 1998)
39 Baltimore Orioles 1983
32 Cincinnati Reds 1990
32 Oakland Athletics 1990
31 Minnesota Twins 1991
29 Toronto Blue Jays 1993
24 San Diego Padres 1998
21 Arizona Diamondbacks 2001
20 Los Angeles Angels 2002
19 Miami Marlins 2003
17 Chicago White Sox 2005
15 Colorado Rockies 2007
13 New York Yankees 2009
11 Texas Rangers 2011
10 Detroit Tigers 2012
9 St. Louis Cardinals 2013
8 San Francisco Giants 2014
7 Kansas City Royals 2015
7 New York Mets 2015
6 Chicago Cubs 2016
6 Cleveland Guardians 2016
4 Boston Red Sox 2018
3 Washington Nationals 2019
2 Tampa Bay Rays 2020
2 Los Angeles Dodgers 2020
1 Atlanta Braves 2021
0 Houston Astros 2022
0 Philadelphia Phillies 2022

Longest Major League pennant droughts through history

List begins with 1903, about the time the current configuration of National League and American League stabilized and also the year of the first World Series. No pennants were won in 1994 due to the players strike that year. This list only shows droughts of 20 or more seasons. Active droughts are listed in bold type.

Seasons Team Previous Pennant Drought Streak Next Pennant
70 Chicago Cubs 1945 1946—2015 2016
50 Montreal Expos/Washington Nationals 1969—2018 2019
49 Washington Senators/Texas Rangers 1961—2009 2010
46 Seattle Mariners 1977—2022
45 Chicago White Sox 1959 1960—2004 2005
43 Houston Colt .45s/Astros 1962—2004 2005
43 Pittsburgh Pirates 1979 1980—2022
41 St. Louis Browns 1903—1943 1944
41 Los Angeles/California/Anaheim Angels 1961—2001 2002
40 Philadelphia/Kansas City/Oakland Athletics 1931 1932—1971 1972
40 Cleveland Indians 1954 1955—1994 1995
40 Milwaukee Brewers 1982 1983—2022
39 Chicago White Sox 1919 1920—1958 1959
39 Baltimore Orioles 1983 1984—2022
34 Philadelphia Phillies 1915 1916—1949 1950
33 Boston Braves 1914 1915—1947 1948
32 Pittsburgh Pirates 1927 1928—1959 1960
32 Milwaukee/Atlanta Braves 1958 1959—1990 1991
32 Cincinnati Reds 1990 1991—2022
32 Oakland Athletics 1990 1991—2022
31 Washington Senators/Minnesota Twins 1933 1934—1964 1965
31 Minnesota Twins 1991 1992—2022
29 Philadelphia Phillies 1950 1951—1979 1980
29 Toronto Blue Jays 1993 1994—2022
28 Kansas City Royals 1985 1986—2013 2014
28 Los Angeles Dodgers 1988 1989—2016 2017
27 Boston Red Sox 1918 1919—1945 1946
27 Cleveland Indians 1920 1921—1947 1948
26 San Francisco Giants 1962 1963—1988 1989
24 Detroit Tigers 1909 1910—1933 1934
24 San Diego Padres 1998 1999—2022
23 St. Louis Cardinals 1903—1925 1926
22 Detroit Tigers 1945 1946—1967 1968
21 Washington Senators 1903—1923 1924
21 St. Louis Browns/Baltimore Orioles 1944 1945—1965 1966
21 Minnesota Twins 1965 1966—1986 1987
21 Detroit Tigers 1984 1985—2005 2006
21 Atlanta Braves 1999 2000—2020 2021
21 Arizona Diamondbacks 2001 2002—2022
20 Brooklyn Dodgers 1920 1921—1940 1941
20 Cincinnati Reds 1940 1941—1960 1961
20 Boston Red Sox 1946 1947—1966 1967
20 Anaheim Angels/Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim/Los Angeles Angels 2002 2003—2022

Major League pennant droughts by city/region

This list only includes cities/regions with current Major League Baseball franchises. Years during which a city/region did not field a Major League Baseball team are not counted.

Region Drought (seasons) Last pennant
Seattle 47* † None
Pittsburgh 43 Pittsburgh Pirates, 1979
Milwaukee 40 Milwaukee Brewers, 1982 (in A.L.)
Baltimore 39 Baltimore Orioles, 1983
Cincinnati 32 Cincinnati Reds, 1990
Minneapolis–Saint Paul 31 Minnesota Twins, 1991
Toronto 29 Toronto Blue Jays, 1993
San Diego 24 San Diego Padres, 1998
Phoenix 21 Arizona Diamondbacks, 2001
Miami-Ft. Lauderdale 19 Florida Marlins, 2003
Denver 15 Colorado Rockies, 2007
Dallas-Ft. Worth 11 Texas Rangers, 2011
Detroit 10 Detroit Tigers, 2012
St. Louis 9 St. Louis Cardinals, 2013
San Francisco Bay Area 8 San Francisco Giants, 2014
Kansas City 7 Kansas City Royals, 2015
New York City 7 New York Mets, 2015
Cleveland 6 Cleveland Indians, 2016
Chicago 6 Chicago Cubs, 2016
Boston 4 Boston Red Sox, 2018
Washington, D.C. 3 Washington Nationals, 2019
Tampa-St. Petersburg 2 Tampa Bay Rays, 2020
Los Angeles 2 Los Angeles Dodgers, 2020
Atlanta 1 Atlanta Braves, 2021
Houston 0 Houston Astros, 2022
Philadelphia 0 Philadelphia Phillies, 2022

*city without Major League Baseball franchise for 7 seasons (19701976)

†number does not indicate a title won, but rather total seasons played.

League championship appearance droughts

Longest current league championship appearance droughts

No league championships were played in 1994 due to the players' strike that year.

Seasons Team Last appearance
30 Pittsburgh Pirates 1992
27 Cincinnati Reds 1995
21 Seattle Mariners 2001
20 Minnesota Twins 2002
19 Miami Marlins 2003
17 Chicago White Sox 2005
16 Oakland Athletics 2006
15 Arizona Diamondbacks 2007
15 Colorado Rockies 2007
13 Los Angeles Angels 2009
11 Texas Rangers 2011
9 Detroit Tigers 2013
8 San Francisco Giants 2014
8 Baltimore Orioles 2014
7 Kansas City Royals 2015
7 New York Mets 2015
6 Toronto Blue Jays 2016
6 Cleveland Indians 2016
5 Chicago Cubs 2017
4 Milwaukee Brewers 2018
3 St. Louis Cardinals 2019
3 Washington Nationals 2019
2 Tampa Bay Rays 2020
1 Atlanta Braves 2021
1 Boston Red Sox 2021
1 Los Angeles Dodgers 2021
0 Houston Astros 2022
0 New York Yankees 2022
0 Philadelphia Phillies 2022
0 San Diego Padres 2022

League division champion droughts

Longest current division champion droughts

No league division champions were won in 1994 due to the players' strike that year.

Seasons Team Division Last division champion
30 Colorado Rockies NL West Never (franchise began in 1993)
30 Miami Marlins* NL East Never (franchise began in 1993)
30 Pittsburgh Pirates** NL Central 1992 (never since moved from NL East in 1994)
21 Seattle Mariners AL West 2001
16 San Diego Padres NL West 2006
11 Arizona Diamondbacks NL West 2011
11 Philadelphia Phillies NL East 2011
10 Cincinnati Reds NL Central 2012
8 Baltimore Orioles AL East 2014
8 Detroit Tigers AL Central 2014
8 Los Angeles Angels AL West 2014
7 Kansas City Royals AL Central 2015
7 New York Mets NL East 2015
7 Toronto Blue Jays AL East 2015
6 Texas Rangers AL West 2016
5 Washington Nationals NL East 2017
4 Boston Red Sox AL East 2018
2 Chicago Cubs NL Central 2020
2 Oakland Athletics AL West 2020
2 Minnesota Twins AL Central 2020
1 San Francisco Giants NL West 2021
1 Tampa Bay Rays AL East 2021
1 Chicago White Sox AL Central 2021
1 Milwaukee Brewers NL Central 2021
0 Atlanta Braves NL East 2022
0 Cleveland Guardians AL Central 2022
0 Houston Astros AL West 2022
0 Los Angeles Dodgers NL West 2022
0 New York Yankees AL East 2022
0 St. Louis Cardinals NL Central 2022

* Because of the wild card postseason berth, the franchise have won two World Series championships (1997, 2003) without winning the division.
** Also the franchise without a winning record for 20 consecutive seasons (1993–2012).

Longest division championship droughts through history

List begins with 1969, the time divisional play started in Major League Baseball. This list only shows droughts of 10 or more seasons. Active droughts are listed in bold type.

Seasons Team Previous Division Title Drought Streak Next Division Title
30 Montreal Expos/Washington Nationals 1981 1982—2011 2012
30 Pittsburgh Pirates 1992 1993—2022
30 Colorado Rockies 1993—2022
30 Florida/Miami Marlins 1993—2022
29 Kansas City Royals 1985 1986—2014 2015
28 Milwaukee Brewers 1982 1983—2010 2011
27 Washington Senators/Texas Rangers 1969—1995 1996
26 Cleveland Indians 1969—1994 1995
23 Detroit Tigers 1987 1988—2010 2011
21 Toronto Blue Jays 1993 1993—2014 2015
21 Seattle Mariners 2001 2002—2022
18 Seattle Mariners 1977—1994 1995
17 California/Anaheim Angels 1986 1987—2003 2004
17 New York Mets 1988 1989—2005 2006
16 Minnesota Twins 1970 1971—1986 1987
16 Baltimore Orioles 1997 1998—2013 2014
16 San Diego Padres 2006 2007—2022
15 Chicago Cubs 1969—1983 1984
15 San Diego Padres 1969—1983 1984
15 San Francisco Giants 1971 1972—1986 1987
15 Houston Astros 2001 2002—2016 2017
14 Chicago White Sox 1969—1982 1983
14 New York Yankees 1981 1982—1995 1996
14 Cincinnati Reds 1995 1996—2009 2010
13 St. Louis Cardinals 1969—1981 1982
13 Baltimore Orioles 1983 1984—1996 1997
13 Chicago Cubs 1989 1990—2002 2003
13 Philadelphia Phillies 1993 1994—2006 2007
12 Montreal Expos 1969—1980 1981
12 Seattle Pilots/Milwaukee Brewers 1969—1980 1981
12 New York Mets 1973 1974—1985 1986
12 Chicago White Sox 2008 2009—2020 2021
12 Atlanta Braves 1969 1970—1981 1982
11 Houston Astros 1969—1979 1980
11 Detroit Tigers 1972 1973—1983 1984
11 San Diego Padres 1984 1985—1995 1996
11 Boston Red Sox 1995 1996—2006 2007
11 Arizona Diamondbacks 2011 2012—2022
11 Philadelphia Phillies 2011 2012—2022
10 California Angels 1969—1978 1979
10 Boston Red Sox 1975 1976—1985 1986
10 Cincinnati Reds 1979 1980—1989 1990
10 Pittsburgh Pirates 1979 1980—1989 1990
10 Houston Astros 1986 1987—1996 1997
10 Minnesota Twins 1991 1992—2001 2002
10 Tampa Bay Devil Rays/Rays 1998—2007 2008
10 Texas Rangers 1999 2000—2009 2010

Postseason droughts

Longest current postseason droughts

Seasons Team Last appearance
8 Detroit Tigers 2014 ALDS
8 Los Angeles Angels 2014 ALDS
7 Pittsburgh Pirates 2015 NL Wild Card
7 Kansas City Royals 2015 World Series
6 Baltimore Orioles 2016 AL Wild Card
6 Texas Rangers 2016 ALDS
5 Arizona Diamondbacks 2017 NLDS
4 Colorado Rockies 2018 NLDS
3 Washington Nationals 2019 World Series
2 Minnesota Twins 2020 AL Wild Card
2 Chicago Cubs 2020 NL Wild Card
2 Cincinnati Reds 2020 NL Wild Card
2 Oakland Athletics 2020 ALDS
2 Miami Marlins 2020 NLDS
1 Chicago White Sox 2021 ALDS
1 Milwaukee Brewers 2021 NLDS
1 San Francisco Giants 2021 NLDS
1 Boston Red Sox 2021 ALCS
2022 postseason teams
0 New York Mets 2022 NL Wild Card
0 St. Louis Cardinals 2022 NL Wild Card
0 Tampa Bay Rays 2022 AL Wild Card
0 Toronto Blue Jays 2022 AL Wild Card
0 Atlanta Braves 2022 NLDS
0 Cleveland Guardians 2022 ALDS
0 Los Angeles Dodgers 2022 NLDS
0 Seattle Mariners 2022 ALDS
0 New York Yankees 2022 ALCS
0 San Diego Padres 2022 NLCS
0 Houston Astros 2022 World Series
0 Philadelphia Phillies 2022 World Series

Longest postseason droughts in the expanded-postseason era

After the postseason was expanded in 1995 to include eight teams (further expanded in 2012 to ten teams and again expanded in 2022 to 12 teams), 18 of the 30 teams qualified within the first five years, and few teams went for long droughts without at least participating in the first round of the postseason. This list only shows droughts of 15 or more seasons that occurred primarily in the expanded-postseason era. Active droughts are listed in bold type.

Seasons Team Previous Postseason Appearance Next Postseason Appearance
30 Montreal Expos/Washington Nationals 1981 2012
28 Kansas City Royals 1985 2014
25 Milwaukee Brewers 1982 2008
21 Toronto Blue Jays 1993 2015
20 Pittsburgh Pirates 1992 2013
20 Seattle Mariners 2001 2022
18 Detroit Tigers 1987 2006
16 Florida/Miami Marlins 2003 2020
15 California/Anaheim Angels 1986 2002

See also

References

This page was last edited on 26 January 2023, at 07:21
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.