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List of Kapudan Pashas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Part of a series on the
Military of the
Ottoman Empire
Coat of Arms of the Ottoman Empire

The Kapudan Pasha (Ottoman Turkish: قپودان پاشا‎, Modern Turkish: Kaptan Paşa), also known in Turkish as Kaptan-ı Derya ("Captain of the Seas"), was the commander-in-chief of the navy of the Ottoman Empire. Around 160 captains served between the establishment of the post under Bayezid I and the office's replacement by the more modern Ottoman Ministry of the Navy (Bahriye Nazırlığı) during the Tanzimat reforms.

The title of Kapudan Pasha itself is only attested from 1567 onwards; earlier designations for the supreme commander of the fleet include derya begi ("beg of the sea") and re'is kapudan ("head captain").[1]

Name Appointed Vacated Notes
Kara Mürsel Bey 1324
Saruca Pasha 1390 Turk?[2][3]
Çavlı Bey 1412 Turk?[2]
Baltaoğlu Süleyman Bey 1451 1453 Bulgarian?[2][4]
Hamza Bey 1453 1456 Albanian[2]
Has Yunus Bey 1456 1459 [2][4]
Kasım Bey 1459 1460 [2]
Kadim İsmail Bey 1461 1462 Devşirme?[2]
Yakup Bey 1462 1463 Albanian[2]
Zagan Pasha 1463 1466 Albanian;,[5][6][7] Greek or Serb;[8] previously grand vizier[2]
Veli Mahmud Pasha 1466 1478 Serb[9]Devşirme; later grand vizier[2][10]
Gedik Ahmed Pasha 1478 1480 Albanian or Serb[11]>Devşirme; invaded Mediterranean and seized Santa Maura, Kefalonia, and Zante; later grand vizier[2]
Mesih Pasha 1480 1491 Greek, converted member of the Palaiologoi; later grand vizier[2]
Güveği Sinan Pasha 1491 1492 Albanian , Devşirme,[2] founder of Vlora dynasty of Albanian generals and politicians [12]
Kara Nişancı Davud 1492 1503 Devşirme?[2]
Küçük Davud Pasha 1503 1506 [2]
Hersekzade Ahmed Pasha 1506 1511 Slav; later grand vizier [2]
İskender Ağa Pasha 1511 1514 Devşirme? [2]
Sinan Bey 1514 1516 Devşirme? [2]
Frenk Cafer Ağa Pasha 1516 1520 Devşirme [2]
Parlak Mustafa Pasha 1520 1522 Bosniak [2]
Bayram Pasha 1522 [2]
Kurdoğlu Muslihiddin Reis [citation needed]
Süleyman Pasha 1531 [2]
Kemankeş Ahmed Bey 1531 1533 Devşirme? [2]
Hayreddin Barbarossa 1533 1546 Greek,[13][14] Albanian,[15][16] or Turk;[2][17][18] position raised to beylerbey, granted Eyalets of the Islands of the Mediterranean and Ottoman Algeria
Sokollu Mehmed Pasha 1546 1550 Bosniak>Devşirme; invaded Libya; later grand vizier [2]
Sinan Pasha 1550 1554 Croat; supported Turgut Reis's western raids; later grand vizier [2]
Piyale Pasha 1554 1567 Held the title of Kapudan Beg.[1] Croat;[19][20][21] captured Corsica with the French in 1554, defeated Spanish at Piombino in 1555, raided Calabria, Salerno, Tuscany, Spain, and seized the Balearics in 1558, won crushing Battle of Djerba in 1560; captured Naples in 1563 [2]
Müezzinzade Ali Pasha 1567 7 October 1571 First to hold the title of Kapudan Pasha.[1] Effected conquest of Cyprus from Venice, but killed at Lepanto[2]
Kılıç Ali Paşa 1571 21 June 1587 Italian, born Giovanni Dionigi Galeni, known after conversion as Uluç and Uluç Ali Reis;[2] rebuilt Turkish fleet, recaptured Tunis from Don Juan and ended War of Cyprus, raided Calabria and put down numerous revolts
Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha 1591 1595 Italian, born Scipione Cicala; first term; later grand vizier[2]
Cigalazade Yusuf Sinan Pasha 1599 1604 second term; previously grand vizier[2]
Derviş Pasha 1604 Bosniak[2]
Güzelce Ali Pasha 1617 ?
Cataldjali Hasan Pasha 1625 1631 [2]
Gazi Hüseyin Pasha 1632 1635 Turk; later grand vizier[2][22]
Kemankeş Mustafa Pasha 17 October 1635 24 December 1638 Albanian, later grand vizier [2]
Gazi Hüseyin Pasha 1639 1641 Turk[2]
Yusuf Pasha 164X 164X Dalmatian Slav; executed by Sultan
Koca Musa Pasha 1645 1647 Bosniak;[2] died at Kandiye during Cretan War before he could receive his promotion to grand vizier
Kara Musa Pasha 1647 21 September 1647
Kılavuz Köse Ali Pasha 1647 1648 [citation needed]
Koca Dervish Mehmed Pasha 1652 1653 Circassian; later grand vizier [2]
Kara Murad Pasha 1653 11 May 1655 Albanian;[2][23] effected the breakout First Battle of the Dardanelles during the Cretan War; prior and later grand vizier
Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha 1666 1670 Albanian; later grand vizier [2]
Bozoklu Mustafa Pasha 1680 1684 Later grand vizier
Mezzo Morto Hüseyin Pasha 1695 1701 Turk[2][24] or Aragonese;[25] commanded at Andros in 1696 during the Morean War, attempted moderate reforms and published the Kannunname
Baltacı Mehmet Pasha 1704 1704 Turk; later grand vizier[2]
Veli Mehmed Pasha 1706 1707 Turk
Moralı Ibrahim Pasha November 1707 1709
Küçük Ali Pasazade Mehmed Pasha 1709 1711 Turk
Canım Hoca Mehmed Pasha December 1714 February 1717 Turk from Koroni, former galley slave in the Venetian fleet. Led the Ottoman navy in the Ottoman–Venetian War (1714–18); first term.[26]
Kaymak Mustafa Pasha 1721 1730 Bosniak[2][27]
Canım Hoca Mehmed Pasha 1730 1730 Second term, lasted for only a few days.[26]
Hacı Hüseyin Pasha 1732 1732 [2][28]
Koca Bekir Pasha 1732 1732 Turk; first term[2][29]
Canım Hoca Mehmed Pasha 1732 1736 Third term.[26]
Hacı Mehmed Pasha c. 1735. Turk?[2]
Hatibzade Yahya Pasha 1743 1743
Râtip Ahmed Pasha 1743 1744 Turk [2]
Koca Bekir Pasha 1750 1753 Turk; second term[2]
Macar Hacı Hasan Pasha February 1761 December 1761 [30]
Ahıskalı Mehmed Pasha December 1761 August 1762 [31]
Eğribozlu İbrahim Pasha 1769 Turk?[2][32]
Mandalzade Hüsameddin Pasha 1770 1770 Removed following the disastrous naval defeat at Chesma during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774[2]
Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha 1770 1789[2] or 1790 Georgian;[33] Dislodged Russians from Aegean, commanded forces during the Russo-Turkish Wars of 1768–1774 and 1787–1792; later grand vizier
Koca Yusuf Pasha 19 December 1789 Georgian; former grand vizier[2]
Giritli Hüseyin Pasha [tr] 1789 1792 [34]
Küçük Hüseyin Pasha 11 March 1792 7 December 1803 Georgian; commanded the Turkish invasion fleet of French-occupied Egypt[2][35][36]
Mehmed Kadri Pasha 1803 1804 [2]
Hafız İsmail Pasha 1804 1805 [2] later grand vizier
Hacı Salih Pasha 1805 1805 Turk;[2] later grand vizier
Hacı Mehmed Pasha II 21 November 1806 1808 Turk[2][37]
Seydi Ali Pasha 1807 or 1808[2] 1808 Georgian
Abdullah Ramiz Efendi 1808 1808 Crimean Tatar[2]
Koca Hüsrev Mehmed Pasha 1811 1818 Abazin; later grand vizier[2][38]
Deli Abdullah Pasha 1821 Turk[2] later grand vizier
Nasuhzade Ali Pasha 1821 7 June 1822 Albanian;[2] also known as Kara-Ali Pasha; commanded Turkish fleet during the Greek War of Independence: directed Massacre of Samothrace, killed by fireship directed by Constantine Kanaris following Massacre of Chios;[39] ancestor of Turkish author Nasuh Mahruki
Kara Mehmet 1822
Husrev Pasha December 1822 1826
Aghan Ephrikian Pasha 1828 Governor
Damat Gürcü Halil Rifat Pasha 1830 1832
Çengeloğlu Tahir Mehmed Pasha November 1832 1836 Turk[2]
Ahmed Fevzi Pasha 10 November 1836 1839 Greek, defected to Egypt[2]
Topal İzzet Pasha 1840 Reformer[citation needed]
Damat Gürcü Halil Rifat Pasha 1843 1845
Damat Gürcü Halil Rifat Pasha 1847 1848
unknown Lost administrative control of the Eyalet of the Islands c. 1848
Mahmud Pasha 1853 1854
Damat Gürcü Halil Rifat Pasha 1854 1855
unknown 13 March 1867 Office abolished[40]

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See also


  1. ^ a b c Ozbaran, S. (1997). "Ḳapudan Pas̲h̲a". The Encyclopedia of Islam, New Edition, Volume IV: Ira–Kha. Leiden and New York: BRILL. pp. 571–572. ISBN 90-04-05745-5.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl İsmail Hâmi Danişmend, Osmanlı Devlet Erkânı, pp. 172 ff. Türkiye Yayınevi (Istanbul), 1971. (in Turkish)
  3. ^ "Osmanlı Dönemi Türk Deniz Kuvvetleri" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 26 January 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  4. ^ a b Tascilar, Muhammet. "İstanbul'un Fethi". Türk Tarihi (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  5. ^ Stavrides, Théoharis (2001). The Sultan of vezirs: the life and times of the Ottoman Grand Vezir Mahmud Pasha Angelovic (1453–1474). Brill. p. 63. ISBN 978-90-04-12106-5.
  6. ^ Franz Babinger, Princeton University Press, 19 October 1992, p. 47
  7. ^ Baron Kinross, Patrick Balfour (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. Morrow. p. 116. ISBN 0688030939.
  8. ^ Ellis Goldberg, Reşat Kasaba, Joel S. Migdal, "Rules and rights in the Middle East" (1993), p. 153
  9. ^ Stavrides, Théoharis (2001). The Sultan of vezirs: the life and times of the Ottoman Grand Vezir Mahmud Pasha Angelovic (1453–1474). Brill. p. 73. ISBN 978-90-04-12106-5.
  10. ^ Tascilar, Muhammet. "Mahmud Paşa (Velî)". Türk Tarihi (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  11. ^ Stavrides, Théoharis (August 2001). The Sultan of Vezirs: The Life and Times of the Ottoman Grand Vezir Mahmud Pasha Angeloviu (1453–1474) (Ottoman Empire and Its Heritage Series, Volume 24). Brill Academic Publishers, Inc. p. 65. ISBN 90-04-12106-4.
  12. ^ Clayer, Nathalie. NATHALIE CLAYER, Aux origines du nationalisme albanais : la naissance d’une nation majoritairement musulmane en Europe,Paris,.
  13. ^ Hayreddin Barbarossa, who would rise to become the ruler of Algiers, and later admiral of the Ottoman fleet, was of Greek origin and got his start raiding the southern and western shores of Anatolia on behalf of Korkud, son of Bayezid..., Virginia H. Aksan & Daniel Goffman, The early modern Ottomans: Remapping the Empire, Cambridge University Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-521-81764-6, p. 106.
  14. ^ Their father was former Muslim soldier, probably from a recent converted family of the European Provinces. Their mother is said to have been the widow of a Greek priest., Frank Ronald Charles Bagley et al., The Last Great Muslim Empires: History of the Muslim World, Brill Academic Publishers, 1997, p. 114.
  15. ^ Born in Mytilene around 1466 to a, Hayreddin, then called Hizir., Niccolò Capponi, Victory of the West: The Great Christian-Muslim Clash at the Battle of Lepanto, Da Capo Press, 2007, ISBN 978-0-306-81544-7, p. 30.
  16. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol 1, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1972, p. 147.
  17. ^ Kiel, Machiel. "The Smaller Aegean Islands in the 16th–18th Centuries According to Ottoman Administrative Documents". Op. cit. Davies, Siriol & Davis, Jack L. Between Venice and Istanbul: Colonial Landscapes in Early Modern Greece, p. 36. ASCSA, 2007. ISBN 978-0-87661-540-9.
  18. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, 14th Edition, Revised, p. 147. "Barbarossa." Encyclopædia Britannica Co., Ltd., 1963.
  19. ^ Freely, John. The Companion Guide to Istanbul and Around the Marmara.
  20. ^ Cardini, Franco. Europe and Islam.
  21. ^ Shaw, S.J. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ Tascilar, Muhammet. "Hüseyin Paşa (Gazi, Deli)". Türk Tarihi (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  23. ^ Tascilar, Muhammet. "Murad Paşa (Kara)". Türk Tarihi (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  24. ^ Tascilar, Muhammet. "Mezomorto Hüseyin Paşa". Türk Tarihi (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  25. ^ Panzac, Daniel. La Marine ottomane. De l’apogée à la chute de l’Empire (1572–1923). (in French)
  26. ^ a b c Setton, Kenneth Meyer (1991). Venice, Austria, and the Turks in the Seventeenth Century. Philadelphia, Mass.: The American Philosophical Society. p. 428. ISBN 0-87169-192-2. ISSN 0065-9738.
  27. ^ "Kaymak Mustafa Paşa" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 25 December 2006. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  28. ^ "Kaptan Hacı Hüseyin Paşa Çeşmesi". Çeþmelerden Örnekler (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  29. ^ Tascilar, Muhammet. "Bekir Paşa (Koca)". Türk Tarihi (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  30. ^ Mehmet Süreyya (1996) [1890], Nuri Akbayar; Seyit A. Kahraman (eds.), Sicill-i Osmanî (in Turkish), Beşiktaş, Istanbul: Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı and Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, p. 642
  31. ^ Mehmet Süreyya (1996) [1890], Nuri Akbayar; Seyit A. Kahraman (eds.), Sicill-i Osmanî (in Turkish), Beşiktaş, Istanbul: Türkiye Kültür Bakanlığı and Türkiye Ekonomik ve Toplumsal Tarih Vakfı, p. 1034
  32. ^ Gülen, Nejat. "Şanlı Bahriye:Kuruluş". Şanli Bahrıye (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  33. ^ King, Charles (2004), The Black Sea: a History, p.159. Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-924161-9.
  34. ^ 'Abd al-Rahman Jabarti; Thomas Philipp; Moshe Perlmann (1994). Abd Al-Rahmann Al-Jabarti's History of Egypt. 2. Franz Steiner Verlag Stuttgart. p. 294.
  35. ^ Inalcık, Halil. Trans. by Gibb, H.A.R. The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Ed., Vol. V, Fascicules 79–80, pp. 35 f. "Khosrew Pasha". E.J. Brill (Leiden), 1979. Accessed 13 Sept 2011.
  36. ^ Tascilar, Muhammet. "Hüseyin Paşa (Küçük)". Türk Tarihi (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 31 January 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  37. ^ "Hacı Mehmet Paşa Yalısı (Direkli Yalıkaptan Paşa Yalısı)" (in Turkish). Retrieved 21 February 2007.[dead link]
  38. ^ "Şanlı Bahriye: II. Mahmut Dönemi (1808–1839)" (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 20 January 2007. Retrieved 21 February 2007.
  39. ^ Woodhouse. The Story of Modern Greece. Faber and Faber, 1968.
  40. ^ Bernd Langensiepen, Ahmet Güleryüz, The Ottoman Steam Navy, 1828–1923, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland, 1995, ISBN 1-55750-659-0, p. 197.
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