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List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest ranking judicial body in the United States. Its membership, as set by the Judiciary Act of 1869, consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, any six of whom would constitute a quorum.[1][2] Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the Constitution grants plenary power to the President of the United States to nominate, and with the advice and consent (confirmation) of the United States Senate, appoint justices to the Supreme Court. Justices have life tenure,[3] and receive a salary which is set at $255,500 per year for the chief justice and at $244,400 per year for each associate justice as of 2014.[4][5][6]

The Supreme Court was created by Article III of the United States Constitution, which stipulates that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be vested in one Supreme Court,"[7] and was organized by the 1st United States Congress. Through the Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress specified the Court's original and appellate jurisdiction, created thirteen judicial districts, and fixed the number of justices at six (one chief justice and five associate justices).[8][9]

Since 1789, Congress has occasionally altered the size of the Supreme Court, historically in response to the country's own expansion in size. An 1801 act would have decreased the Court's size to five members upon its next vacancy. However, an 1802 act negated the effects of the 1801 act upon the Court before any such vacancy occurred, maintaining the Court's size at six members. Later legislation increased its size to seven members in 1807, to nine in 1837, and to ten in 1863. An 1866 act was to have reduced the Court's size from ten members to seven upon its next three vacancies, and two vacancies did occur during this period. However, before a third vacancy occurred, the Judiciary Act of 1869 intervened, restoring the Court's size to nine members, where it has remained since.[10]

While the justices of the Supreme Court are appointed for life, many have retired or resigned. Beginning in the early 20th century, many justices who left the Court voluntarily did so by retiring from the Court without leaving the federal judiciary altogether. A retired justice, according to the United States Code, is no longer a member of the Supreme Court, but remains eligible to serve by designation as a judge of a U.S. Court of Appeals or District Court, and many retired justices have served in these capacities. Historically, the average length of service on the Court has been less than 15 years. However, since 1970 the average length of service has increased to about 26 years.[11]

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  • ✪ How do US Supreme Court justices get appointed? - Peter Paccone
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  • ✪ HLS in the World (Opening Ceremony): Conversation with Six Supreme Court Justices
  • ✪ Supreme Court and Appellate Advocacy
  • ✪ Supreme Court Associate Justice Anthony Kennedy visits HLS

Transcription

There's a job out there with a great deal of power, pay, prestige, and near-perfect job security. And there's only one way to be hired: get appointed to the US Supreme Court. If you want to become a justice on the Supreme Court, the highest federal court in the United States, three things have to happen. You have to be nominated by the president of the United States, your nomination needs to be approved by the Senate, and finally, the president must formally appoint you to the court. Because the Constitution doesn't specify any qualifications, in other words, that there's no age, education, profession, or even native-born citizenship requirement, a president can nominate any individual to serve. So far, six justices have been foreign-born, at least one never graduated from high school, and another was only 32 years old when he joined the bench. Most presidents nominate individuals who broadly share their ideological view, so a president with a liberal ideology will tend to appoint liberals to the court. Of course, a justice's leanings are not always so predictable. For example, when President Eisenhower, a Republican, nominated Earl Warren for Chief Justice, Eisenhower expected him to make conservative decisions. Instead, Warren's judgements have gone down as some of the most liberal in the Court's history. Eisenhower later remarked on that appointment as "the biggest damned-fool mistake" he ever made. Many other factors come up for consideration, as well, including experience, personal loyalties, ethnicity, and gender. The candidates are then thoroughly vetted down to their tax records and payments to domestic help. Once the president interviews the candidate and makes a formal nomination announcement, the Senate leadership traditionally turns the nomination over to hearings by the Senate Judiciary Committee. Depending on the contentiousness of the choice, that can stretch over many days. Since the Nixon administration, these hearings have averaged 60 days. The nominee is interviewed about their law record, if applicable, and where they stand on key issues to discern how they might vote. And especially in more recent history, the committee tries to unearth any dark secrets or past indiscretions. The Judiciary Committee votes to send the nomination to the full Senate with a positive or negative recommendation, often reflective of political leanings, or no recommendation at all. Most rejections have happened when the Senate majority has been a different political party than the president. When the Senate does approve, it's by a simple majority vote, with ties broken by the vice president. With the Senate's consent, the president issues a written appointment, allowing the nominee to complete the final steps to take the constitutional and judicial oaths. In doing so, they solemnly swear to administer justice without respect to persons and do equal right to the poor and the rich and faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent upon a US Supreme Court justice. This job is for life, barring resignation, retirement, or removal from the court by impeachment. And of the 112 justices who have held the position, not one has yet been removed from office as a result of an impeachment. One of their roles is to protect the fundamental rights of all Americans, even as different parties take power. With the tremendous impact of this responsibility, it's no wonder that a US Supreme Court justice is expected to be, in the words of Irving R. Kaufman, "a paragon of virtue, an intellectual Titan, and an administrative wizard." Of course, not every member of the Court turns out to be an exemplar of justice. Each leaves behind a legacy of decisions and opinions to be debated and dissected by the ultimate judges, time and history.

Contents

Current justices of the Supreme Court

There are currently nine justices serving on the Supreme Court; listed in order of seniority, they are:

All justices of the Supreme Court

Since the Supreme Court was established in 1789, 114 persons have served on the Court. The length of service on the Court for the 105 non-incumbent justices ranges from William O. Douglas's 36 years, 211 days to the 163-day tenure of Thomas Johnson. As of April 20, 2019, the length of service for the nine incumbent justices ranges from Clarence Thomas' 27 years, 179 days to Brett Kavanaugh's 196 days. Five individuals were confirmed for associate justice, and later appointed chief justice separately: John Rutledge,[a] Edward Douglass White,[b] Charles Evans Hughes,[a] Harlan F. Stone,[b] and William Rehnquist.[b] While listed twice, each of them has been assigned only one index number. The justices of the Supreme Court are:[21][22]

Justice State[c] Position Replacing Date confirmed
(Vote)
Tenure Tenure length[d] Nominated by
1
John Jay (Gilbert Stuart portrait).jpg
John Jay
(1745–1829)
NY Chief
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
October 19, 1789

June 29, 1795
(Resigned)
5 years, 253 days George Washington
2
John Rutledge.jpg
John Rutledge
(1739–1800)
SC Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 15, 1790

March 4, 1791
(Resigned)
1 year, 17 days
3
WilliamCushing.jpg
William Cushing
(1732–1810)
MA Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 2, 1790

September 13, 1810
(Died)
20 years, 223 days
4
JusticeJamesWilson.jpg
James Wilson
(1742–1798)
PA Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
October 5, 1789

August 21, 1798
(Died)
8 years, 320 days
5
JohnBlair.jpg
John Blair
(1732–1800)
VA Associate
Justice
New seat September 26, 1789
(Acclamation)
February 2, 1790

October 25, 1795
(Resigned)
5 years, 265 days
6
JamesIredell.jpg
James Iredell
(1751–1799)
NC Associate
Justice
New seat February 10, 1790
(Acclamation)
May 12, 1790

October 20, 1799
(Died)
9 years, 161 days
7
Thomas Johnson (governor).jpeg
Thomas Johnson
(1732–1819)
MD Associate
Justice
J. Rutledge November 7, 1791
(Acclamation)
August 6, 1792[e]

January 16, 1793
(Resigned)
163 days
8
William Paterson copy.jpg
William Paterson
(1745–1806)
NJ Associate
Justice
T. Johnson March 4, 1793
(Acclamation)
March 11, 1793

September 8, 1806
(Died)
13 years, 181 days
2
John Rutledge.jpg
John Rutledge
(1739–1800)
SC Chief
Justice
Jay December 15, 1795
(10–14)[f]
August 12, 1795[e]

December 28, 1795
(Resigned, nomination having been rejected)
138 days
9
Samuel Chase.jpg
Samuel Chase[g]
(1741–1811)
MD Associate
Justice
Blair January 27, 1796
(Acclamation)
February 4, 1796

June 19, 1811
(Died)
15 years, 135 days
10
Oliver ellsworth.jpeg
Oliver Ellsworth
(1745–1807)
CT Chief
Justice
J. Rutledge March 4, 1796
(21–1)
March 8, 1796

December 15, 1800
(Resigned)
4 years, 282 days
11
BushrodWashington.jpg
Bushrod Washington
(1762–1829)
VA Associate
Justice
Wilson December 20, 1798
(Acclamation)
November 9, 1798[e]

November 26, 1829
(Died)
31 years, 17 days John Adams
12
AlfredMoore.jpg
Alfred Moore
(1755–1810)
NC Associate
Justice
Iredell December 9, 1799
(Acclamation)
April 21, 1800

January 26, 1804
(Resigned)
3 years, 280 days
13
John Marshall by Henry Inman, 1832.jpg
John Marshall
(1755–1835)
VA Chief
Justice
Ellsworth January 27, 1801
(Acclamation)
February 4, 1801

July 6, 1835
(Died)
34 years, 152 days
14
WilliamJohnson.jpg
William Johnson
(1771–1834)
SC Associate
Justice
Moore March 24, 1804
(Acclamation)
May 7, 1804

August 4, 1834
(Died)
30 years, 89 days Thomas Jefferson
15
Henry Brockholst Livingston.jpg
Henry Brockholst Livingston
(1757–1823)
NY Associate
Justice
Paterson December 17, 1806
(Acclamation)
January 20, 1807

March 18, 1823
(Died)
16 years, 57 days
16
Thomas Todd SCOTUS.jpg
Thomas Todd
(1765–1826)
KY Associate
Justice
New seat March 2, 1807
(Acclamation)
March 3, 1807

February 7, 1826
(Died)
18 years, 341 days
17
GabrielDuvall.jpg
Gabriel Duvall
(1752–1844)
MD Associate
Justice
S. Chase November 18, 1811
(Acclamation)
November 23, 1811

January 12, 1835
(Resigned)
23 years, 50 days James Madison
18
Daguerreotype of Joseph Story, 1844 (edit).jpg
Joseph Story
(1779–1845)
MA Associate
Justice
Cushing November 18, 1811
(Acclamation)
February 3, 1812

September 10, 1845
(Died)
33 years, 219 days
19
SmithThompson.jpg
Smith Thompson
(1768–1843)
NY Associate
Justice
Livingston December 9, 1823
(Acclamation)
September 1, 1823[e]

December 18, 1843
(Died)
20 years, 108 days James Monroe
20
RobertTrimble.jpg
Robert Trimble
(1776–1828)
KY Associate
Justice
Todd May 9, 1826
(25–5)
June 16, 1826

August 25, 1828
(Died)
2 years, 70 days John Quincy Adams
21
Justice John McLean daguerreotype by Mathew Brady 1849.jpg
John McLean
(1785–1861)
OH Associate
Justice
Trimble March 7, 1829
(Acclamation)
January 11, 1830

April 4, 1861
(Died)
31 years, 83 days Andrew Jackson
22
Henry baldwin (justice).jpg
Henry Baldwin
(1780–1844)
PA Associate
Justice
Washington January 6, 1830
(41–2)
January 18, 1830

April 21, 1844
(Died)
14 years, 94 days
23
JMWayne2.jpg
James Moore Wayne
(1790–1867)
GA Associate
Justice
W. Johnson January 9, 1835
(Acclamation)
January 14, 1835

July 5, 1867
(Died)
32 years, 172 days
24
Roger B. Taney - Brady-Handy.jpg
Roger B. Taney
(1777–1864)
MD Chief
Justice
J. Marshall March 15, 1836
(29–15)
March 28, 1836

October 12, 1864
(Died)
28 years, 198 days
25
PPBarbour.jpg
Philip Pendleton Barbour
(1783–1841)
VA Associate
Justice
Duvall March 15, 1836
(30–11)
May 12, 1836

February 25, 1841
(Died)
4 years, 289 days
26
John Catron - Brady-Handy.jpg
John Catron
(1786–1865)
TN Associate
Justice
New seat March 8, 1837
(28–15)
May 1, 1837

May 30, 1865
(Died)
28 years, 29 days
27
John McKinley.jpg
John McKinley
(1780–1852)
AL Associate
Justice
New seat September 25, 1837
(Acclamation)
January 9, 1838

July 19, 1852
(Died)
14 years, 192 days Martin Van Buren
28
PVDaniel.jpg
Peter Vivian Daniel
(1784–1860)
VA Associate
Justice
Barbour March 2, 1841
(25–5)
January 10, 1842

May 31, 1860
(Died)
18 years, 142 days
29
Samuel Nelson - Brady-Handy.jpg
Samuel Nelson
(1792–1873)
NY Associate
Justice
Thompson February 14, 1845
(Acclamation)
February 27, 1845

November 28, 1872
(Retired)
27 years, 275 days John Tyler
30
Levi Woodbury.jpg
Levi Woodbury
(1789–1851)
NH Associate
Justice
Story January 31, 1846
(Acclamation)
September 23, 1845[e]

September 4, 1851
(Died)
5 years, 346 days James K. Polk
31
Robert Cooper Grier - Brady-Handy.jpg
Robert Cooper Grier
(1794–1870)
PA Associate
Justice
Baldwin August 4, 1846
(Acclamation)
August 10, 1846

January 31, 1870
(Retired)
23 years, 174 days
32
BRCurtis.jpg
Benjamin Robbins Curtis
(1809–1874)
MA Associate
Justice
Woodbury December 20, 1851
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1851[e]

September 30, 1857
(Resigned)
5 years, 355 days Millard Fillmore
33
John Archibald Campbell - Brady-Handy.jpg
John Archibald Campbell
(1811–1889)
AL Associate
Justice
McKinley March 22, 1853
(Acclamation)
April 11, 1853

April 30, 1861
(Resigned)
8 years, 19 days Franklin Pierce
34
NClifford.jpg
Nathan Clifford
(1803–1881)
ME Associate
Justice
Curtis January 12, 1858
(26–23)
January 21, 1858

July 25, 1881
(Died)
23 years, 185 days James Buchanan
35
Noah Haynes Swayne, photo, head and shoulders, seated.jpg
Noah Haynes Swayne
(1804–1884)
OH Associate
Justice
McLean January 24, 1862
(38–1)
January 27, 1862

January 24, 1881
(Retired)
18 years, 363 days Abraham Lincoln
36
Samuel Freeman Miller - Brady-Handy.jpg
Samuel Freeman Miller
(1816–1890)
IA Associate
Justice
Daniel July 16, 1862
(Acclamation)
July 21, 1862

October 13, 1890
(Died)
28 years, 84 days
37
DDavis.jpg
David Davis
(1815–1886)
IL Associate
Justice
Campbell December 8, 1862
(Acclamation)
December 10, 1862[e]

March 4, 1877
(Resigned)
14 years, 84 days
38
Stephen Johnson Field, photo half length seated, 1875.jpg
Stephen Johnson Field
(1816–1899)
CA Associate
Justice
New seat March 10, 1863
(Acclamation)
May 10, 1863

December 1, 1897
(Retired)
34 years, 205 days
39
Mathew Brady, Portrait of Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, officer of the United States government (1860–1865).jpg
Salmon P. Chase
(1808–1873)
OH Chief
Justice
Taney December 6, 1864
(Acclamation)
December 15, 1864

May 7, 1873
(Died)
8 years, 143 days
40
William Strong judge - Brady-Handy.jpg
William Strong
(1808–1895)
PA Associate
Justice
Grier February 18, 1870
(No vote recorded)
March 14, 1870

December 14, 1880
(Retired)
10 years, 275 days Ulysses S. Grant
41
Joseph Philo Bradley - Brady-Handy.jpg
Joseph Philo Bradley
(1813–1892)
NJ Associate
Justice
New seat March 21, 1870
(46–9)
March 23, 1870

January 22, 1892
(Died)
21 years, 305 days
42
Ward Hunt - Brady-Handy.jpg
Ward Hunt
(1810–1886)
NY Associate
Justice
Nelson December 11, 1872
(Acclamation)
January 9, 1873

January 27, 1882
(Retired)
9 years, 18 days
43
Chief Justice Morrison Waite.jpg
Morrison Waite
(1816–1888)
OH Chief
Justice
S. P. Chase January 21, 1874
(63–0)
March 4, 1874

March 23, 1888
(Died)
14 years, 19 days
44
JudgeJMHarlan.jpg
John Marshall Harlan
(1833–1911)
KY Associate
Justice
Davis November 29, 1877
(Acclamation)
December 10, 1877

October 14, 1911
(Died)
33 years, 308 days Rutherford B. Hayes
45
William Burnham Woods.jpg
William Burnham Woods
(1824–1887)
GA Associate
Justice
Strong December 21, 1880
(39–8)
January 5, 1881

May 14, 1887
(Died)
6 years, 129 days
46
Thomas Stanley Matthews - Brady-Handy.jpg
Stanley Matthews
(1824–1889)
OH Associate
Justice
Swayne May 12, 1881
(24–23)
May 17, 1881

March 22, 1889
(Died)
7 years, 309 days James Garfield
47
Horacegrayphoto.jpg
Horace Gray
(1828–1902)
MA Associate
Justice
Clifford December 20, 1881
(51–5)
January 9, 1882

September 15, 1902
(Died)
20 years, 249 days Chester A. Arthur
48
Samuel Blatchford.jpg
Samuel Blatchford
(1820–1893)
NY Associate
Justice
Hunt March 22, 1882
(Acclamation)
April 3, 1882

July 7, 1893
(Died)
11 years, 95 days
49
Lucius Quintus Cincinnatus Lamar II - Brady-Handy.jpg
Lucius Quintus
Cincinnatus Lamar II

(1825–1893)
MS Associate
Justice
Woods January 16, 1888
(32–28)
January 18, 1888

January 23, 1893
(Died)
5 years, 5 days Grover Cleveland
50
Melville Weston Fuller Chief Justice 1908.jpg
Melville Fuller
(1833–1910)
IL Chief
Justice
Waite July 20, 1888
(41–20)
October 8, 1888

July 4, 1910
(Died)
21 years, 269 days
51
DavidBrewer.jpg
David Josiah Brewer
(1837–1910)
KS Associate
Justice
Matthews December 18, 1889
(53–11)
January 6, 1890

March 28, 1910
(Died)
20 years, 81 days Benjamin Harrison
52
Portrait of Henry Billings Brown.jpg
Henry Billings Brown
(1836–1913)
MI Associate
Justice
Miller December 29, 1890
(Acclamation)
January 5, 1891

May 28, 1906
(Retired)
16 years, 143 days
53
George Shiras Jr.jpg
George Shiras, Jr.
(1832–1924)
PA Associate
Justice
Bradley July 26, 1892
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1892

February 23, 1903
(Retired)
10 years, 136 days
54
Justice Howell Jackson2.jpg
Howell Edmunds Jackson
(1832–1895)
TN Associate
Justice
L. Lamar February 18, 1893
(Acclamation)
March 4, 1893

August 8, 1895
(Died)
2 years, 157 days
55
Edward White, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left, 1905.jpg
Edward Douglass White
(1845–1921)
LA Associate
Justice
Blatchford February 19, 1894
(Acclamation)
March 12, 1894

December 18, 1910
(Continued as chief justice)
16 years, 281 days Grover Cleveland
56
Rufus W. Peckham cph.3b30513.jpg
Rufus W. Peckham
(1838–1909)
NY Associate
Justice
H. Jackson December 9, 1895
(Acclamation)
January 6, 1896

October 24, 1909
(Died)
13 years, 291 days
57
Joseph McKenna (assoc justice).jpg
Joseph McKenna
(1843–1926)
CA Associate
Justice
[h]
Field January 21, 1898
(Acclamation)
January 26, 1898

January 5, 1925
(Retired)
26 years, 345 days William McKinley
58
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr circa 1930-edit.jpg
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.
(1841–1935)
MA Associate
Justice
[i]
Gray December 4, 1902
(Acclamation)
December 8, 1902

January 12, 1932
(Retired)
29 years, 35 days Theodore Roosevelt
59
William Rufus Day cph.3b31004.jpg
William R. Day
(1849–1923)
OH Associate
Justice
Shiras February 23, 1903
(Acclamation)
March 2, 1903

November 13, 1922
(Retired)
19 years, 256 days
60
WHMoody.jpg
William Henry Moody
(1853–1917)
MA Associate
Justice
Brown December 12, 1906
(Acclamation)
December 17, 1906

November 20, 1910
(Retired)
3 years, 338 days
61
HoraceHarmonLurton.jpg
Horace Harmon Lurton
(1844–1914)
TN Associate
Justice
Peckham December 20, 1909
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1910

July 12, 1914
(Died)
4 years, 204 days William Howard Taft
62
Charles Evans Hughes cph.3b15401.jpg
Charles Evans Hughes
(1862–1948)
NY Associate
Justice
Brewer May 2, 1910
(Acclamation)
October 10, 1910

June 10, 1916
(Resigned)
5 years, 244 days
55
Edward White, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly left, 1905.jpg
Edward Douglass White
(1845–1921)
LA Chief
Justice
Fuller December 12, 1910
(Acclamation)
December 19, 1910

May 19, 1921
(Died)
10 years, 151 days
63
Willis Van Devanter.jpg
Willis Van Devanter
(1859–1941)
WY Associate
Justice
E. D. White December 15, 1910
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1911[j]

June 2, 1937
(Retired)
26 years, 150 days
64
Joseph Lamar.jpg
Joseph Rucker Lamar
(1857–1916)
GA Associate
Justice
Moody December 15, 1910
(Acclamation)
January 3, 1911[j]

January 2, 1916
(Died)
4 years, 364 days
65
Mahlon Pitney cph.3b30300.jpg
Mahlon Pitney
(1858–1924)
NJ Associate
Justice
J. Harlan March 13, 1912
(50–26)
March 18, 1912

December 31, 1922
(Resigned)
10 years, 288 days
66
Jamescmcreynolds.jpg
James Clark McReynolds
(1862–1946)
TN Associate
Justice
Lurton August 29, 1914
(44–6)
October 12, 1914

January 31, 1941
(Retired)
26 years, 111 days Woodrow Wilson
67
Brandeisl.jpg
Louis Brandeis
(1856–1941)
KY Associate
Justice
J. Lamar June 1, 1916
(47–22)
June 5, 1916

February 13, 1939
(Retired)
22 years, 253 days
68
John Hessin Clarke cph.3b09252.jpg
John Hessin Clarke
(1857–1945)
OH Associate
Justice
Hughes July 24, 1916
(Acclamation)
October 9, 1916

September 18, 1922
(Retired)
5 years, 344 days
69
William Howard Taft 1909b.jpg
William Howard Taft
(1857–1930)
CT Chief
Justice
E. D. White June 30, 1921
(Acclamation)
July 11, 1921

February 3, 1930
(Retired)
8 years, 207 days Warren G. Harding
70
Justice George Sutherland 5.jpg
George Sutherland
(1862–1942)
UT Associate
Justice
Clarke September 5, 1922
(Acclamation)
October 2, 1922

January 17, 1938
(Retired)
15 years, 107 days
71
Pierce Butler of the United States Supreme Court.jpg
Pierce Butler
(1866–1939)
MN Associate
Justice
Day December 21, 1922
(61–8)
January 2, 1923

November 16, 1939
(Died)
16 years, 318 days
72
Justice Edward Terry Sanford.jpg
Edward Terry Sanford
(1865–1930)
TN Associate
Justice
Pitney January 29, 1923
(Acclamation)
February 19, 1923

March 8, 1930
(Died)
7 years, 17 days
73
Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone photograph circa 1927-1932.jpg
Harlan F. Stone
(1872–1946)
NY Associate
Justice
[k]
McKenna February 5, 1925
(71–6)
March 2, 1925

July 2, 1941
(Continued as chief justice)
16 years, 122 days Calvin Coolidge
62
Charles Evans Hughes cph.3b15401.jpg
Charles Evans Hughes
(1862–1948)
NY Chief
Justice
Taft February 13, 1930
(52–26)
February 24, 1930

June 30, 1941
(Retired)
11 years, 126 days Herbert Hoover
74
Owen J. Roberts cph.3b11988.jpg
Owen Josephus Roberts
(1875–1955)
PA Associate
Justice
Sanford May 20, 1930
(Acclamation)
June 2, 1930

July 31, 1945
(Resigned)
15 years, 59 days
75
Benjamin Cardozo.jpg
Benjamin N. Cardozo
(1870–1938)
NY Associate
Justice
Holmes February 24, 1932
(Acclamation)
March 14, 1932

July 9, 1938
(Died)
6 years, 117 days
76
HugoLaFayetteBlack.jpg
Hugo Black
(1886–1971)
AL Associate
Justice
[l]
Van Devanter August 17, 1937
(63–16)
August 19, 1937

September 17, 1971
(Retired)
34 years, 29 days Franklin D. Roosevelt
77
Stanley Forman Reed.jpg
Stanley Forman Reed
(1884–1980)
KY Associate
Justice
Sutherland January 25, 1938
(Acclamation)
January 31, 1938

February 25, 1957
(Retired)
19 years, 25 days
78
Frankfurter-Felix-LOC.jpg
Felix Frankfurter
(1882–1965)
MA Associate
Justice
Cardozo January 17, 1939
(Acclamation)
January 30, 1939

August 28, 1962
(Retired)
23 years, 210 days
79
Justice William O Douglas.jpg
William O. Douglas
(1898–1980)
CT Associate
Justice
Brandeis April 4, 1939
(62–4)
April 17, 1939

November 12, 1975
(Retired)
36 years, 211 days
80
Justice Frank Murphy.jpg
Frank Murphy
(1890–1949)
MI Associate
Justice
Butler January 16, 1940
(Acclamation)
February 5, 1940

July 19, 1949
(Died)
9 years, 164 days
73
Chief Justice Harlan Fiske Stone photograph circa 1927-1932.jpg
Harlan F. Stone
(1872–1946)
NY Chief
Justice
Hughes June 27, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 3, 1941

April 22, 1946
(Died)
4 years, 293 days
81
James F. Byrnes cph.3c32232.jpg
James F. Byrnes
(1882–1972)
SC Associate
Justice
McReynolds June 12, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 8, 1941

October 3, 1942
(Resigned)
1 year, 87 days
82
Roberthjackson.jpg
Robert H. Jackson
(1892–1954)
NY Associate
Justice
Stone July 7, 1941
(Acclamation)
July 11, 1941

October 9, 1954
(Died)
13 years, 90 days
83
Wiley Rutledge.jpg
Wiley Blount Rutledge
(1894–1949)
IA Associate
Justice
Byrnes February 8, 1943
(Acclamation)
February 15, 1943

September 10, 1949
(Died)
6 years, 207 days
84
Harold Burton.jpg
Harold Hitz Burton
(1888–1964)
OH Associate
Justice
O. Roberts September 19, 1945
(Acclamation)
October 1, 1945

October 13, 1958
(Retired)
13 years, 12 days Harry S. Truman
85
Fred m vinson.jpg
Fred M. Vinson
(1890–1953)
KY Chief
Justice
Stone June 20, 1946
(Acclamation)
June 24, 1946

September 8, 1953
(Died)
7 years, 76 days
86
Tom C. Clark.gif
Tom C. Clark
(1899–1977)
TX Associate
Justice
Murphy August 18, 1949
(73–8)
August 24, 1949

June 12, 1967
(Retired)
17 years, 292 days
87
Sherman Minton's official United States Supreme Court photograph.jpg
Sherman Minton
(1890–1965)
IN Associate
Justice
W. Rutledge October 4, 1949
(48–16)
October 12, 1949

October 15, 1956
(Retired)
7 years, 3 days
88
Earl Warren.jpg
Earl Warren
(1891–1974)
CA Chief
Justice
Vinson March 1, 1954
(Acclamation)
October 5, 1953[e]

June 23, 1969
(Retired)
15 years, 261 days Dwight D. Eisenhower
89
John Marshall Harlan II official.jpg
John Marshall Harlan II
(1899–1971)
NY Associate
Justice
R. Jackson March 16, 1955
(71–11)
March 28, 1955

September 23, 1971
(Retired)
16 years, 179 days
90
William Brennan color.jpg
William J. Brennan
(1906–1997)
NJ Associate
Justice
Minton March 19, 1957
(Acclamation)
October 16, 1956[e]

July 20, 1990
(Retired)
33 years, 277 days
91
Charles Whittaker.jpg
Charles Evans Whittaker
(1901–1973)
MO Associate
Justice
Reed March 19, 1957
(Acclamation)
March 25, 1957

March 31, 1962
(Resigned)
5 years, 6 days
92
US Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart - 1976 official portrait.jpg
Potter Stewart
(1915–1985)
OH Associate
Justice
Burton May 5, 1959
(70–17)
October 14, 1958[e]

July 3, 1981
(Retired)
22 years, 262 days
93
Justice White Official.jpg
Byron White
(1917–2002)
CO Associate
Justice
Whittaker April 11, 1962
(Acclamation)
April 16, 1962

June 28, 1993
(Retired)
31 years, 73 days John F. Kennedy
94
Arthur Goldberg (1971).jpg
Arthur Goldberg
(1908–1990)
IL Associate
Justice
Frankfurter September 25, 1962
(Acclamation)
October 1, 1962

July 25, 1965
(Resigned)
2 years, 300 days
95
SCOTUS Justice Abe Fortas.jpeg
Abe Fortas
(1910–1982)
TN Associate
Justice
Goldberg August 11, 1965
(Acclamation)
October 4, 1965

May 14, 1969
(Resigned)
3 years, 222 days Lyndon B. Johnson
96
Thurgood-marshall-2.jpg
Thurgood Marshall
(1908–1993)
NY Associate
Justice
Clark August 30, 1967
(69–11)
October 2, 1967

October 1, 1991
(Retired)
23 years, 364 days
97
Warren e burger photo.jpeg
Warren E. Burger
(1907–1995)
VA Chief
Justice
Warren June 9, 1969
(74–3)
June 23, 1969

September 26, 1986
(Retired)
17 years, 95 days Richard Nixon
98
Justice Blackmun Official.jpg
Harry Blackmun
(1908–1999)
MN Associate
Justice
Fortas May 12, 1970
(94–0)
June 9, 1970

August 3, 1994
(Retired)
24 years, 55 days
99
US Supreme Court Justice Lewis Powell - 1976 official portrait.jpg
Lewis F. Powell Jr.
(1907–1998)
VA Associate
Justice
Black December 6, 1971
(89–1)
January 7, 1972[m]

June 26, 1987
(Retired)
15 years, 170 days
100
William Rehnquist.jpg
William Rehnquist
(1924–2005)
AZ Associate
Justice
J. Harlan II December 10, 1971
(68–26)
January 7, 1972[m]

September 26, 1986
(Continued as chief justice)
14 years, 262 days
101
John Paul Stevens, SCOTUS photo portrait.jpg
John Paul Stevens
(born 1920)
IL Associate
Justice
[n]
Douglas December 17, 1975
(98–0)
December 19, 1975

June 29, 2010
(Retired)
34 years, 192 days Gerald Ford
102
Sandra Day O'Connor.jpg
Sandra Day O'Connor
(born 1930)
AZ Associate
Justice
Stewart September 21, 1981
(99–0)
September 25, 1981

January 31, 2006
(Retired)
24 years, 128 days Ronald Reagan
100
William Rehnquist.jpg
William Rehnquist
(1924–2005)
VA Chief
Justice
Burger September 17, 1986
(65–33)
September 26, 1986

September 3, 2005
(Died)
18 years, 342 days
103
Antonin Scalia Official SCOTUS Portrait crop.jpg
Antonin Scalia
(1936–2016)
VA Associate
Justice
Rehnquist September 17, 1986
(98–0)
September 26, 1986

February 13, 2016
(Died)
29 years, 140 days
104
Anthony Kennedy official SCOTUS portrait.jpg
Anthony Kennedy
(born 1936)
CA Associate
Justice
Powell February 3, 1988
(97–0)
February 18, 1988

July 31, 2018
(Retired)
30 years, 163 days
105
DavidSouter.jpg
David Souter
(born 1939)
NH Associate
Justice
Brennan October 2, 1990
(90–9)
October 9, 1990

June 29, 2009
(Retired)
18 years, 263 days George H. W. Bush
106
Clarence Thomas official SCOTUS portrait.jpg
Clarence Thomas
(born 1948)
GA Associate
Justice
T. Marshall October 15, 1991
(52–48)
October 23, 1991

Incumbent
27 years, 179 days[o]
107
Ruth Bader Ginsburg 2016 portrait.jpg
Ruth Bader Ginsburg
(born 1933)
NY Associate
Justice
B. White August 3, 1993
(96–3)
August 10, 1993

Incumbent
25 years, 253 days[o] Bill Clinton
108
Stephen Breyer, SCOTUS photo portrait.jpg
Stephen Breyer
(born 1938)
MA Associate
Justice
Blackmun July 29, 1994
(87–9)
August 3, 1994

Incumbent
24 years, 260 days[o]
109
Official roberts CJ.jpg
John Roberts
(born 1955)
MD Chief
Justice
Rehnquist September 29, 2005
(78–22)
September 29, 2005

Incumbent
13 years, 203 days[o] George W. Bush
110
Samuel Alito official photo.jpg
Samuel Alito
(born 1950)
NJ Associate
Justice
O'Connor January 31, 2006
(58–42)
January 31, 2006

Incumbent
13 years, 79 days[o]
111
Sonia Sotomayor in SCOTUS robe.jpg
Sonia Sotomayor
(born 1954)
NY Associate
Justice
Souter August 6, 2009
(68–31)
August 8, 2009

Incumbent
9 years, 255 days[o] Barack Obama
112
Elena Kagan Official SCOTUS Portrait (2013).jpg
Elena Kagan
(born 1960)
MA Associate
Justice
Stevens August 5, 2010
(63–37)
August 7, 2010

Incumbent
8 years, 256 days[o]
113
Associate Justice Neil Gorsuch Official Portrait.jpg
Neil Gorsuch
(born 1967)
CO Associate
Justice
Scalia April 7, 2017
(54–45)
April 10, 2017

Incumbent
2 years, 10 days[o] Donald Trump
114
Associate Justice Brett Kavanaugh Official Portrait.jpg
Brett Kavanaugh
(born 1965)
MD Associate
Justice
Kennedy October 6, 2018
(50–48)
October 6, 2018

Incumbent
196 days[o]
Justice State[c] Position Replacing Date confirmed
(Vote)
Tenure Tenure length Nominated by

Notes

  1. ^ a b Served on the Supreme Court twice, first as associate justice, and then, after a period of years off the Court, as chief justice.
  2. ^ a b c Elevated from associate justice to chief justice while serving on the Supreme Court. Such appointments are subject to a separate confirmation process.
  3. ^ a b State of residence at the time of appointment. For example, in 1971, Rehnquist was appointed from Arizona, but in 1986, when elevated to chief justice, he was appointed from Virginia.[23]
  4. ^ The start date given for each justice is the day he or she took the prescribed judicial oath of office, with the end date being the date of the justice's death, resignation, or retirement.[22]
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Recess appointment
  6. ^ This was the first Supreme Court nomination to be rejected by the Senate. Rutledge remains the only "recess appointed" justice not to be subsequently confirmed by the Senate.
  7. ^ Was impeached, but not convicted, and remained in office.
  8. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, May 19 – July 11, 1921.
  9. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, February 3–24, 1930.
  10. ^ a b While Willis Van Devanter and Joseph Rucker Lamar were sworn in as associate justice on the same date, their seniority (precedence) on the Supreme Court was determined by the seniority of their commissions—Van Devanter received and accepted his first—in accordance with XIII Rev. Stat. 9 § 674.
  11. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, June 30 – July 3, 1941.
  12. ^ Acted as chief justice under 36 Stat. 1152, April 22 – June 24, 1946, and again, under 62 Stat. 869, September 8 – October 5, 1953.
  13. ^ a b While Lewis Powell and William Rehnqust were sworn in as associate justice on the same date, their seniority (precedence) on the Supreme Court was determined by the seniority of their commissions—Powell received and accepted his first—in accordance with 62 Stat. 869.
  14. ^ Acted as chief justice under 62 Stat. 869, September 3–29, 2005.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i As of April 20, 2019.

Timeline of justices

This graphical timeline depicts the progression of the justices on the Supreme Court. Information regarding each justice's predecessors, successors and fellow justices, as well as their tenure on the court can be gleaned (and comparisons between justices drawn) from it. Additionally, The progression of presidents, along with the number of justices each nominated, is shown at the top of the timeline to give a more detailed historical context. There are no formal names or numbers for the individual seats of the associate justices, which are listed in the table below simply by number. Note that, due to the several changes in the size of the Court since 1789, two of the seats chronicled—"5" and "7"—have been abolished, both as a result of the Judicial Circuits Act of 1866.

Brett KavanaughNeil GorsuchElena KaganSonia SotomayorSamuel AlitoJohn RobertsStephen BreyerRuth Bader GinsburgClarence ThomasDavid SouterAnthony KennedyAntonin ScaliaSandra Day O'ConnorJohn Paul StevensWilliam RehnquistLewis F. Powell Jr.Harry BlackmunWarren E. BurgerThurgood MarshallAbe FortasArthur GoldbergByron WhitePotter StewartCharles Evans WhittakerWilliam J. Brennan Jr.John Marshall Harlan IIEarl WarrenSherman MintonTom C. ClarkFred M. VinsonHarold Hitz BurtonWiley Blount RutledgeRobert H. JacksonJames F. ByrnesFrank MurphyWilliam O. DouglasFelix FrankfurterStanley Forman ReedHugo BlackBenjamin N. CardozoOwen Josephus RobertsHarlan Fiske StoneEdward Terry SanfordPierce Butler (justice)George SutherlandWilliam Howard TaftJohn Hessin ClarkeLouis BrandeisJames Clark McReynoldsMahlon PitneyJoseph Rucker LamarWillis Van DevanterCharles Evans HughesHorace Harmon LurtonWilliam Henry MoodyWilliam R. DayOliver Wendell Holmes Jr.Joseph McKennaRufus Wheeler PeckhamEdward Douglass WhiteHowell Edmunds JacksonGeorge Shiras Jr.Henry Billings BrownDavid Josiah BrewerMelville Weston FullerLucius Q. C. LamarSamuel BlatchfordHorace GrayThomas Stanley MatthewsWilliam Burnham WoodsJohn Marshall HarlanMorrison Remick WaiteWard HuntJoseph Philo BradleyWilliam Strong (Pennsylvania judge)Salmon Portland ChaseStephen Johnson FieldDavid Davis (Supreme Court justice)Samuel Freeman MillerNoah Haynes SwayneNathan CliffordJohn Archibald CampbellBenjamin Robbins CurtisRobert Cooper GrierLevi WoodburySamuel NelsonPeter Vivian DanielJohn McKinleyJohn CatronPhilip Pendleton BarbourRoger Brooke TaneyJames Moore WayneHenry Baldwin (judge)John McLeanRobert TrimbleSmith ThompsonJoseph StoryGabriel DuvallThomas ToddHenry Brockholst LivingstonWilliam Johnson (judge)John MarshallAlfred MooreBushrod WashingtonOliver EllsworthSamuel ChaseWilliam Paterson (judge)Thomas Johnson (governor)James IredellJohn Blair Jr.James WilsonWilliam CushingJohn RutledgeJohn Jay

See also

References

  1. ^ Stathis, Stephen W. (2014). Landmark Legislation 1774–2012: Major U.S. Acts and Treaties. CQ Press. p. 122.
  2. ^ Hall, Kermit L. (2005). "Judiciary Act of 1869". In Hall, Kermit L.; Ely, James W.; Grossman, Joel B. (eds.). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. Oxford University Press. p. 548.
  3. ^ McMillion, Barry J.; Rutkus, Denis Steven (July 6, 2018). "Supreme Court Nominations, 1789 to 2017: Actions by the Senate, the Judiciary Committee, and the President" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
  4. ^ Mears, Bill (January 1, 2010). "Chief Justice Roberts has little to say at year's end". CNN. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
  5. ^ Barnes, Robert (January 1, 2010). "Supreme Court Chief Justice Roberts opts not to ask Congress to raise judicial salaries". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
  6. ^ Rowley, James (January 13, 2014). "Federal Judges in U.S. See $25,000 More as Salary Freeze Falls". Bloomberg. Retrieved May 28, 2014.
  7. ^ "Article III". Ithaca, New York: Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
  8. ^ "About The Supreme Court". Administrative Office of the U.S. Courts. Archived from the original on April 12, 2010. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
  9. ^ "Supreme Court Research Guide". Georgetown Law Library. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
  10. ^ Smith, Jean Edward (July 26, 2007). "Stacking the Court". The New York Times. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
  11. ^ Rosen, Jeffrey (February 26, 2008). "Dems' Choices For Bench Surprisingly Slim". CBS News. Retrieved February 17, 2010.
  12. ^ "Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  13. ^ "Justice Clarence Thomas". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  14. ^ "Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved October 6, 2018.
  15. ^ "Justice Stephen G. Breyer". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  16. ^ "Justice Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  17. ^ "Justice Sonia Sotomayor". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  18. ^ "Justice Elena Kagan". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  19. ^ "Justice Neil M. Gorsuch". Washington, D.C.: The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved January 13, 2018.
  20. ^ Fram, Alan; Mascaro, Lisa; Daly, Matthew. "Kavanaugh sworn to high court after rancorous confirmation". AP.
  21. ^ "U.S. Senate: Supreme Court Nominations: 1789–Present". www.senate.gov. United States Senate. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
  22. ^ a b "Justices 1789 to Present". www.supremecourt.gov. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  23. ^ "Members of the Supreme Court of the United States". www.supremecourt.gov. United States Supreme Court. Retrieved November 14, 2016.

External links

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