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List of Jewish members of the United States Congress

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of Jewish members of the United States Congress.

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Transcription

I'm Mr. Beat The United States has 100 senators. Two for every state. and they each serve a term of six years. The Senate collectively makes up half of Congress, the folks who make laws that apply to the whole country. They represent the states, not the people. The year I was born, the average age of a U.S. Senator was 53. Today, while the average age of all Americans is my age, the average age of a Senator is 61. They're getting older, man. This dude here, is Bernie Sanders, a Senator representing Vermont, and polls say he is the most popular Senator in the country. Polls say that this dude Mitch McConnell, a Senator representing Kentucky, is the least popular Senator in the country. Does that mean Bernie is the best Senator in the country and Mitch is the worst? Absolutely not. I think? But anyway, this got me thinking What about all of American history? Who were the best Senators? Who were the worst Senators? Let’s be negative first, shall we? Based on my research, here are the 10 worst Senators in American history. And remember, of course, that this is just my measly opinion. Also, before we get into this list, I didn’t include the senators like Bernie or Mitch who are currently in office or recently got out of office because of our bias to automatically hate politicians currently in office or who recently got out of office. So, let's get right into it. How about a little corruption to start things off? #10 James Simmons Senator from Rhode Island from 1841 to 1847 and again from 1857 to 1862, Simmons got caught getting a contract for two Rhode Island rifle manufacturers in return for $20,000 in promissory notes. So basically, he was bribed to help these two companies make lots of money from the U.S. government, which needed lots of rifles as it turns out since it was fighting the Confederate forces in the Civil War. The reason why Simmons isn’t higher up on this list is because technically there wasn’t a law saying you couldn’t do this, although Congress promptly passed a law saying "you can't do that!" #9 William Blount Yeah that's how you pronounce his name. Senator from Tennessee from 1796 to 1797, Blount was a Founding Father, and the only Senator on this list to actually sign the U.S. Constitution. Originally from North Carolina, Blount was instrumental in opening up lands west of the Appalachians to settlement. He bought up millions of acres out there himself, but his risky land investments caused him to get a lot of debt. Due to this debt, he conspired with Britain to take over the Spanish-controlled Louisiana to try to raise the prices of his land. Well, he didn’t get away with it. When Congress found out in 1797, he became the first Senator kicked out of the Senate and also the first federal official to get impeached. Blount was arrested, but posted bail and went to Tennessee and never came back. He never showed up to trial, and the feds eventually gave up trying to arrest him again. #8 Joseph Burton Aw man, this dude’s from my home state. Senator from Kansas from 1901 to 1906, uh Burton had a little conflict of interest you could say. He was getting paid for defending a company successfully against the United States government while he was Senator. Eventually, he was found guilty of public corruption, which means he was misusing the power he had as Senator for private gain. Burton became the first member of the Senate to actually be convicted of a crime. Now, does that mean other Senators weren’t doing crap like this before this? Of course not, but he was the first one to get caught. #7 John Mitchell Weird coincidence, Mitchell was Senator the same time as Burton. He represented the state of Oregon from 1901 to 1905 and was all about Big Business and against most of the political reforms of the Populists. The biggest reason why he’s on this list is because of his involvement in the Oregon land fraud scandal. Yep, this was more public corruption. Mitchell abused his power, helping a client get patents to fraudulent land claims. After being found guilty, he was sentenced to six months in prison and a $1,000 fine, but he died soon after getting a tooth pulled. True story, bro. #6 Harrison Williams Senator from New Jersey from 1959 to 1982, Williams was a career politician who actually had quite a few accomplishments in his career. Many of the social programs and public urban transit Americans take for granted today is because of him. However, beginning in the 1980s, things went downhill fast for Williams. He was convicted of bribery and conspiracy after the Abscam scandal, (that is hard to say. say that three times) a FBI-led sting operation that also took out several other politicians. He resigned after the Senate was going to kick him out anyway, and was sentenced to 3 years in prison, the first time in more than 80 years that a U.S. Senator had spent time in prison by the way. #5 Bob Packwood Sorry Oregon, here’s another one from your state. He represented it from 1969 to 1995. I’ll try not to be too mean because he is still alive, however, he was mean, man. Packwood was another career politician who did accomplish a lot while in Congress. But that whole freaking time, he was consistently abusing his power by committing sexual misconduct. The Senate Ethics Committee, which recommended his expulsion in 1995, reported that he made at least 18 “separate and unwanted and unwelcome sexual advances between 1969 and 1990.” And he even wrote about it in his diary. Packwood resigned before the Senate could kick him out. And of course, after he resigned he promptly became a lobbyist. #4 Pat McCarran Senator from Nevada from 1933 to 1954, McCarran is known as one of the few Democrats who was against Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal initiatives. Of course he was racist and xenophobic, but he also had anti-Semitic beliefs. Oh, and he was a fan of fascists. He openly admired the Spanish dictator Francisco Franco. He also was in bed with the oil industry. Most infamously, he was a big reason the Second Red Scare happened. He hated communism so much that he didn’t even care if he trampled right over civil liberties, sponsoring the paranoia-based Internal Security Act and establishing the Subversive Activities Control Board to start witch hunts targeting communists. He was so bad, that Nevada representatives recently even called for the removal his statue that’s sitting in the National Statuary Hall Collection. Yep, here’s one you have probably heard of... #3 Joseph McCarthy Senator from Wisconsin from 1947 to 1957, McCarthy became the face of the Second Red Scare of the late 1940s and early 1950s. After three years of not doing much in the Senate, McCarthy all of a sudden became a household name in February 1950 when he claimed he had a list of members of communist spies and members of the Communist Party employed within the State Department. Did he ever reveal that list to the public? No. Did he continue to throw out baseless allegations? Absolutely. He stirred up so much communist hatred and paranoia in the United States that today we name it after him. It’s called McCarthyism. Oh yeah, and don’t forget the Lavender Scare he also stirred up, which was another witch hunt that targeted homosexuals, causing them to lose their government jobs throughout the 1950s. And later he helped turn socialism into a dirty word, too. McCarthy is not known for policy or getting sweeping legislation passed. He’s known today for just causing mass hysteria. Even the Senate had had enough of him so much that they censured him in 1954. “Censured” just means they officially said “you did bad, stop it, we disapprove.” And here’s one you probably HAVEN’T heard of. #2 Theodore Bilbo Senator from Mississippi from 1935 to 1947 and poster boy for white supremacy and segregation in the South. While most Senators throughout American history have been at least somewhat racist, Bilbo was a special kind of racist. First of all, he was a member of the KKK, so there’s that. He didn’t just hate African Americans. He hated communists, Jews, unions, and of course immigrants. As governor of Mississippi, he did nothing as mobs lynched African Americans in the streets. Also as governor, he tried to get a bunch of teachers fired and caused his state to almost go bankrupt. Wait a second, why didn’t this dude make my Worst Governors video? Anyway, his ego was ridiculously big and he always liked to be the center of attention, wearing bright, flashy suits and...no joke...always referring to himself in the third person. And finally, after his re-election to the Senate in 1946, a group of African American World War II vets said they and several other blacks were not allowed to vote in the election. But before the Senate could act on the charges, Bilbo died in his mansion. And #1. It's a tie. and if you saw my Worst Governors video, this one may not be much of a surprise. These are all of the Senators who left the Union to join the Confederacy during the Civil War. All of them declared allegiance to the Confederacy in the name of preserving the institution of slavery. Maybe you CAN call them traitors. Regardless, they should have stuck with the Union. So that’s it. The ten worst senators in American history. I know I left a lot of bad senators off this list. And maybe you disagree with this list. Yeah, yeah, go ahead and tell me how wrong I am. Also, I want to get a list going of (dis)honorable mentions. Get it? (Dis)honorable? And I want to gather those and put them in the description of this video and maybe pin a comment. A special shout out to Ian for suggesting the topic of this video. Ian and his mother are long time Patreon supporters. Thank you so much guys. It means the world. Next week, I have another Patreon-requested video coming. Get excited! Thanks for watching. Now how do I get out of here? How did I even get here? Why is it so warm outside? Is this real?

Contents

Senate

Picture Senator
(lifespan)
Party State Term start Term end Notes
David Levy Yulee - Brady-Handy.jpg
David Levy Yulee[1][a]
(1810–1886)
Democratic
Florida Moseley Flag.svg
Florida
July 1, 1845 March 4, 1851 Lost renomination
March 4, 1855 January 21, 1861 Withdrew from the Senate in 1861 following the secession of Florida from the Union
Judah P Benjamin crop.jpg
Judah Benjamin[3]
(1811–1884)
Whig
(1853–1856)
Louisiana Louisiana March 4, 1853 February 4, 1861 Withdrew from the Senate in 1861 following the secession of Louisiana from the Union
Democratic
(1856–1861)
Benjamin F. Jonas - Brady-Handy.jpg
Benjamin Jonas[4]
(1834–1911)
Democratic Louisiana Louisiana March 4, 1879 March 4, 1885 Lost renomination
Joseph Simon of Oregon.jpg
Joseph Simon[5]
(1851–1935)
Republican
Flag of Oregon.svg
Oregon
October 7, 1898 March 4, 1903 Retired
Isidor Rayner standing photograph portrait.jpg
Isidor Rayner[6]
(1850–1912)
Democratic Maryland Maryland March 4, 1905 November 25, 1912 Died in office
Simon Guggenheim cph.3a02257.jpg
Simon Guggenheim[7]
(1867–1941)
Republican Colorado Colorado March 4, 1907 March 4, 1913 Retired
Herbert Lehman.jpg
Herbert Lehman[8]
(1878–1963)
Democratic New York (state) New York November 9, 1949 January 3, 1957 Retired
Richard Lewis Neuberger.jpg
Richard Neuberger[9]
(1912–1960)
Democratic Oregon Oregon January 3, 1955 March 9, 1960 Died in office
Jacob Javits.jpg
Jacob Javits[10]
(1904–1986)
Republican New York (state) New York January 9, 1957 January 3, 1981 Lost Republican Party renomination, and lost reelection as Liberal Party nominee
Ernest Gruening (D-AK).jpg
Ernest Gruening[11]
(1887–1974)
Democratic Alaska Alaska January 3, 1959 January 3, 1969 Lost renomination
Lost write-in reelection
Abraham ribicoff.jpg
Abraham Ribicoff[12]
(1910–1998)
Democratic Connecticut Connecticut January 3, 1963 January 3, 1981 Retired
Howard Metzenbaum.jpg
Howard Metzenbaum[13]
(1917–2008)
Democratic Ohio Ohio January 4, 1974 January 23, 1974 Lost nomination to finish term
December 29, 1976 January 3, 1995 Retired
Richardbernardstone.jpg
Dick Stone[14]
(1928–2019)
Democratic Florida Florida January 1, 1975 December 31, 1980 Lost renomination
ZorinskyE(D-NE).jpg
Edward Zorinsky[15]
(1928–1987)
Democratic Nebraska Nebraska December 28, 1976 March 6, 1987 Died in office
RudyBoschwitz.jpg
Rudy Boschwitz[16]
(born 1930)
Republican Minnesota Minnesota December 30, 1978 January 3, 1991 Lost reelection
Carl Levin official portrait.jpg
Carl Levin[17]
(born 1934)
Democratic Michigan Michigan January 3, 1979 January 3, 2015 Retired
Warren Rudman.jpg
Warren Rudman[18]
(1930–2012)
Republican New Hampshire New Hampshire December 29, 1980 January 3, 1993 Retired
Arlen Specter, official Senate photo portrait.jpg
Arlen Specter[19]
(1930–2012)
Republican (1981–2009) Pennsylvania Pennsylvania January 3, 1981 January 3, 2011 Switched to the Democratic Party and lost nomination
Democratic (2009–2011)
Frank Lautenberg, official portrait, 112th portrait.jpg
Frank Lautenberg[20]
(1924–2013)
Democratic New Jersey New Jersey December 27, 1982 January 3, 2001 Retired
January 3, 2003 June 3, 2013 Died in office
Chic Hecht.JPG
Chic Hecht[21]
(1928–2006)
Republican Nevada Nevada January 3, 1983 January 3, 1989 Lost reelection
Herbert Kohl, official photo.jpg
Herb Kohl[22]
(born 1935)
Democratic Wisconsin Wisconsin January 3, 1989 January 3, 2013 Retired
Joe Lieberman official portrait 2 (cropped 2).jpg
Joe Lieberman[23]
(born 1942)
Democratic (1989–2006) Connecticut Connecticut January 3, 1989 January 3, 2013 Lost renomination and elected on the Connecticut for Lieberman ticket in 2006
Retired
Independent Democrat (2006–2013)
Paul Wellstone, official Senate photo portrait.jpg
Paul Wellstone[24]
(1944–2002)
Democratic Minnesota Minnesota January 3, 1991 October 25, 2002 Died in office
Dianne Feinstein, official Senate photo 2.jpg
Dianne Feinstein[25]
(born 1933)
Democratic California California November 10, 1992 present
Barbara Boxer, Official Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Barbara Boxer[26]
(born 1940)
Democratic California California January 3, 1993 January 3, 2017 Retired
Russ Feingold Official Portrait 3.jpg
Russ Feingold[27]
(born 1953)
Democratic Wisconsin Wisconsin January 3, 1993 January 3, 2011 Lost reelection
Ron Wyden official portrait crop.jpg
Ron Wyden[28]
(born 1949)
Democratic Oregon Oregon February 6, 1996 present
Chuck Schumer official photo (cropped).jpg
Chuck Schumer[29]
(born 1950)
Democratic New York (state) New York January 3, 1999 present
NormColemanCrop2.jpg
Norm Coleman[30]
(born 1949)
Republican Minnesota Minnesota January 3, 2003 January 3, 2009 Lost reelection
Ben Cardin official Senate portrait (cropped).jpg
Ben Cardin[31]
(born 1943)
Democratic Maryland Maryland January 3, 2007 present
Bernie Sanders.jpg
Bernie Sanders[32]
(born 1941)
Independent Vermont Vermont January 3, 2007 present Elected as an Independent.
Began identifying alternately as an Independent or Democrat while running in the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries, though never officially joining that party.
Al Franken Official Senate Portrait.jpg
Al Franken[33]
(born 1951)
Democratic Minnesota Minnesota July 7, 2009 January 2, 2018 Resigned
Michael Bennet Official Photo.jpg
Michael Bennet[34]
(born 1964)
Democratic Colorado Colorado January 21, 2009 present
Richard Blumenthal Official Portrait.jpg
Richard Blumenthal[35]
(born 1946)
Democratic Connecticut Connecticut January 3, 2011 present
Brian Schatz, official portrait, 113th Congress 2.jpg
Brian Schatz[36]
(born 1972)
Democratic Hawaii Hawaii December 26, 2012 present
Jacky Rosen official photo 115th congress (cropped).jpg
Jacky Rosen[37]
(born 1957)
Democratic Nevada Nevada January 3, 2019 present

House of Representatives

Picture Representative
(lifespan)
Party State Term start Term end Notes
LCLevin-small.jpg
Lewis Levin[38]
(1808–1860)
American (Know Nothing) Pennsylvania March 4, 1845 March 4, 1851 Lost reelection
E. B. Hart.jpg
Emanuel Hart[39]
(1809–1897)
Democratic New York March 4, 1851 March 4, 1853 Lost renomination
Philip Phillips.jpg
Philip Phillips[40]
(1807–1884)
Democratic Alabama March 4, 1853 March 4, 1855 Retired
Henry Myer Phillips (Pennsylvania Congressman).jpg
Henry Phillips[41]
(1811–1884)
Democratic Pennsylvania March 4, 1857 March 4, 1859 Lost reelection
Michael Hahn.jpg
Michael Hahn[42]
(1830–1886)
Unionist Louisiana December 3, 1862 April 4, 1863 Retired
Republican March 4, 1885 March 15, 1886 Died in office
Leonard Myers - Brady-Handy.jpg
Leonard Myers [43]
(1827–1905)
Republican Pennsylvania March 4, 1863 March 3, 1875 Lost reelection
No image.svg
Myer Strouse[44]
(1825–1878)
Democratic Pennsylvania March 4, 1863 March 4, 1867 Retired
No image.svg
William Levy[45]
(1827–1882)
Democratic Louisiana March 4, 1875 March 4, 1877 Lost reelection
LeopoldMorse.jpg
Leopold Morse[46]
(1831–1892)
Democratic Massachusetts March 4, 1877 March 4, 1885 Retired
March 4, 1887 March 4, 1889 Retired
Edwin Einstein.jpg
Edwin Einstein[47]
(1842–1905)
Republican New York March 4, 1879 March 4, 1881 Retired
JuliusHouseman2.jpg
Julius Houseman[48]
(1832–1891)
Democratic Michigan March 4, 1883 March 4, 1885 Retired
JosephPulitzerPinceNeznpsgov.jpg
Joseph Pulitzer[49]
(1847–1911)
Democratic New York March 4, 1885 April 10, 1886 Resigned
Isidor Rayner standing photograph portrait.jpg
Isidor Rayner[6]
(1850–1912)
Democratic Maryland March 4, 1887 March 4, 1889 Lost reelection
March 4, 1891 March 4, 1895 Retired
NathanFrank.jpg
Nathan Frank[50]
(1852–1931)
Republican Missouri March 4, 1889 March 4, 1891 Retired
AdolphMeyerLA.jpg
Adolph Meyer[51]
(1842–1908)
Democratic Louisiana March 4, 1891 March 8, 1908 Died in office
JuliusGoldzier.jpg
Julius Goldzier[52]
(1854–1925)
Democratic Illinois March 4, 1893 March 4, 1895 Lost reelection
Isidor Straus 1903.jpg
Isidor Straus[52]
(1845–1912)
Democratic New York January 30, 1894 March 4, 1895 Retired
Israel F. Fischer.jpeg
Israel Fischer[53]
(1858–1940)
Republican New York March 4, 1895 March 4, 1899 Lost reelection
Lucius Littauer.jpg
Lucius Littauer[54]
(1859–1944)
Republican New York March 4, 1897 March 4, 1907 Retired
Portrait of Julius Kahn.jpg
Julius Kahn[55]
(1861–1924)
Republican California March 4, 1899 March 4, 1903 Lost reelection
March 4, 1905 December 18, 1924 Died in office
Jefferson Levy.jpg
Jefferson Levy[56]
(1852–1924)
Democratic New York March 4, 1899 March 4, 1901 Retired
March 4, 1911 March 4, 1915 Retired
Mitchell May.jpg
Mitchell May[57]
(1870–1961)
Democratic New York March 4, 1899 March 4, 1901 Lost reelection
Henry M Goldfogle.jpg
Henry Goldfogle[58]
(1856–1929)
Democratic New York March 4, 1901 March 4, 1915 Lost reelection
March 4, 1919 March 4, 1921 Lost reelection
Montague Lessler.jpg
Montague Lessler[59]
(1869–1938)
Republican New York January 7, 1903 March 4, 1903 Lost reelection
Martin Emerich (Illinois Congressman).jpg
Martin Emerich[60]
(1846–1922)
Democratic Illinois March 4, 1903 March 4, 1905 Retired
Adolph J. Sabath cph.3c27913.jpg
Adolph Sabath[61]
(1866–1952)
Democratic Illinois March 4, 1907 November 6, 1952 Died in office
No image.svg
Harry Wolf[62]
(1880–1944)
Democratic Maryland March 4, 1907 March 4, 1909 Lost reelection
Victor L. Berger.jpg
Victor Berger[63]
(1860–1929)
Socialist Wisconsin March 4, 1911 March 4, 1913 Lost reelection
March 4, 1919 November 10, 1919 House refused to seat due to conviction under the Espionage Act
March 4, 1923 March 4, 1929 Lost reelection
Jacob A. Cantor.jpg
Jacob Cantor[64]
(1854–1921)
Democratic New York November 4, 1913 March 4, 1915 Lost reelection
Isaac Bacharach (New Jersey Congressman).jpg
Isaac Bacharach[65]
(1870–1956)
Republican New Jersey March 4, 1915 January 3, 1937 Lost reelection
Meyer London.jpg
Meyer London[66]
(1871–1926)
Socialist New York March 4, 1915 March 4, 1919 Lost reelection
March 4, 1921 March 4, 1923 Lost reelection
Isaac Siegel.jpg
Isaac Siegel[67]
(1880–1947)
Republican New York March 4, 1915 March 4, 1923 Retired
No image.svg
Milton Kraus[68]
(1866–1942)
Republican Indiana March 4, 1917 March 4, 1923 Lost reelection
Nathan D. Perlman.jpg
Nathan Perlman[69]
(1887–1952)
Republican New York November 2, 1920 March 4, 1927 Lost reelection
Lester D. Volk.jpg
Lester Volk[70]
(1884–1962)
Republican New York November 2, 1920 March 4, 1923 Retired
Martin Ansorge.jpg
Martin Ansorge[71]
(1882–1967)
Republican New York March 4, 1921 March 4, 1923 Lost reelection
BenjaminLRosenbloom.jpg
Benjamin Rosenbloom[72]
(1880–1965)
Republican West Virginia March 4, 1921 March 4, 1925 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for United States Senate
Albert B. Rossdale.jpg
Albert Rossdale[73]
(1878–1968)
Republican New York March 4, 1921 March 4, 1923 Lost reelection
Sol Bloom 1923.jpg
Sol Bloom[74]
(1870–1949)
Democratic New York January 30, 1923 March 7, 1949 Died in office
Emanuel Celler – 1943.jpg
Emanuel Celler[75]
(1888–1981)
Democratic New York March 4, 1923 January 3, 1973 Lost renomination
Samuel Dicksten.jpg
Samuel Dickstein[76]
(1885–1954)
Democratic New York March 4, 1923 December 30, 1945 Resigned to take seat on the New York Supreme Court
Meyer Jacobstein.jpg
Meyer Jacobstein[77]
(1880–1963)
Democratic New York March 4, 1923 March 4, 1929 Retired
No image.svg
Benjamin Golder[78]
(1891–1946)
Republican Pennsylvania March 4, 1925 March 4, 1933 Lost reelection
Florence Prag Kahn.jpg
Florence Kahn[79]
(1866–1948)
Republican California March 4, 1925 January 3, 1937 Lost reelection
William Wolfe Cohen.jpg
William Cohen[80]
(1874–1940)
Democratic New York March 4, 1927 March 4, 1929 Retired
William Sirovich.jpg
William Sirovich[81]
(1882–1939)
Democratic New York March 4, 1927 December 17, 1939 Died in office
Henry Ellenbogen.jpg
Henry Ellenbogen[82]
(1900–1985)
Democratic Pennsylvania March 4, 1933 January 3, 1938 Resigned to take seat on the Allegheny County Court of Common Pleas
HermanKopplemann.jpg
Herman Kopplemann[83]
(1880–1957)
Democratic Connecticut March 4, 1933 January 3, 1939 Lost reelection
January 3, 1941 January 3, 1943 Lost reelection
January 3, 1945 January 3, 1947 Lost reelection
Theodore A. Peyser.jpg
Theodore Peyser[84]
(1873–1937)
Democratic New York March 4, 1933 August 8, 1937 Died in office
WilliamMCitron.jpg
William Citron[85]
(1896–1976)
Democratic Connecticut January 3, 1935 January 3, 1939 Lost reelection
No image.svg
Leon Sacks[86]
(1902–1972)
Democratic Pennsylvania January 3, 1937 January 3, 1943 Lost reelection
M. Michael Edelstein.jpg
Morris Edelstein[87]
(1888–1941)
Democratic New York February 6, 1940 June 4, 1941 Died in office
SamuelAWeiss.jpg
Samuel Weiss[88]
(1902–1977)
Democratic Pennsylvania January 3, 1941 January 7, 1946 Resigned to take seat on the Allegheny County Court of Common Pleas
Arthur G. Klein.jpg
Arthur Klein[89]
(1904–1968)
Democratic New York July 29, 1941 January 3, 1945 Retired
February 19, 1946 December 31, 1956 Resigned to take seat on the New York Supreme Court
No image.svg
Daniel Ellison[90]
(1886–1960)
Republican Maryland January 3, 1943 January 3, 1945 Lost reelection
Benjamin J. Rabin.jpg
Benjamin Rabin[91]
(1896–1969)
Democratic New York January 3, 1945 December 31, 1947 Resigned to take seat on the New York Supreme Court
Leo F. Rayfiel.jpg
Leo Rayfiel[92]
(1888–1978)
Democratic New York January 3, 1945 September 13, 1947 Resigned to take seat on the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of New York
Jacob Javits.jpg
Jacob Javits[10]
(1904–1986)
Republican New York January 3, 1947 December 31, 1954 Resigned to take office as New York Attorney General
Abraham J. Multer.jpg
Abraham Multer[93]
(1900–1986)
Democratic New York November 4, 1947 December 31, 1967 Resigned to take seat on the New York Supreme Court
Leo Isacson.jpg
Leo Isacson[94]
(1910–1996)
American Labor New York February 17, 1948 January 3, 1949 Lost reelection
No image.svg
Earl Chudoff[95]
(1907–1993)
Democratic Pennsylvania January 3, 1949 January 5, 1958 Resigned to take seat on the Philadelphia Court of Common Pleas
Isidore Dollinger.jpg
Isidore Dollinger[96]
(1903–2000)
Democratic New York January 3, 1949 December 31, 1959 Resigned to take office as Bronx County District Attorney
Abraham ribicoff.jpg
Abraham Ribicoff[12]
(1910–1998)
Democratic Connecticut January 3, 1949 January 3, 1953 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate
Sidney R. Yates.jpg
Sidney Yates[97]
(1909–2000)
Democratic Illinois January 3, 1949 January 3, 1963 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate
January 3, 1965 January 3, 1999 Retired
No image.svg
Leonard Irving[98]
(1898–1962)
Democratic Missouri January 3, 1949 January 3, 1953 Lost renomination
Louis B. Heller.jpg
Louis Heller[99]
(1905–1993)
Democratic New York February 15, 1949 July 21, 1954 Resigned to take seat on the New York Court of Special Sessions.
Sidney A. Fine.jpg
Sidney Fine[100]
(1903–1982)
Democratic New York January 3, 1951 January 2, 1956 Resigned to take seat on the New York Supreme Court
Samuel Friedel.jpg
Samuel Friedel[101]
(1898–1979)
Democratic Maryland January 3, 1953 January 3, 1971 Lost renomination
Lester Holtzman.jpg
Lester Holtzman[102]
(1913–2002)
Democratic New York January 3, 1953 December 31, 1961 Resigned to take seat on the New York Supreme Court
Irwin D. Davidson NYWTS.jpg
Irwin Davidson[103]
(1906–1981)
Democratic New York January 3, 1955 December 31, 1956 Resigned to take seat on the New York Court of General Sessions.
Herbert Zelenko.jpg
Herbert Zelenko[104]
(1906–1979)
Democratic New York January 3, 1955 January 3, 1963 Lost renomination
Leonard Farbstein.jpg
Leonard Farbstein[105]
(1902–1993)
Democratic New York January 3, 1957 January 3, 1971 Lost renomination
Ludwig Teller.jpg
Ludwig Teller[106]
(1911–1965)
Democratic New York January 3, 1957 January 3, 1961 Lost renomination
Seymour Halpern.jpg
Seymour Halpern[107]
(1913–1997)
Republican New York January 3, 1959 January 3, 1973 Retired
Herman Toll.jpg
Herman Toll[108]
(1907–1967)
Democratic Pennsylvania January 3, 1959 January 3, 1967 Retired
Jacob H. Gilbert.jpg
Jacob Gilbert[109]
(1920–1981)
Democratic New York March 8, 1960 January 3, 1971 Lost renomination
C Joelson.png
Charles Joelson[110]
(1916–1999)
Democratic New Jersey January 3, 1961 September 4, 1969 Resigned to take seat on the New Jersey Superior Court
Benjamin S. Rosenthal.jpg
Benjamin Rosenthal[111]
(1923–1983)
Democratic New York February 20, 1962 January 4, 1983 Died in office
1979 p96 Richard Ottinger.jpg
Richard Ottinger[112]
(born 1929)
Democratic New York January 3, 1965 January 3, 1971 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate
January 3, 1975 January 3, 1985 Retired
Joseph Y. Resnick.jpg
Joseph Resnick[113]
(1924–1969)
Democratic New York January 3, 1965 January 3, 1969 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for United States Senate
James H Scheuer.jpg
Jim Scheuer[114]
(1920–2005)
Democratic New York January 3, 1965 January 3, 1973 Lost renomination
January 3, 1975 January 3, 1993 Retired
Herbert Tenzer.jpg
Herbert Tenzer[115]
(1905–1993)
Democratic New York January 3, 1965 January 3, 1969 Retired
Lester L. Wolff.jpg
Lester Wolff[116]
(born 1919)
Democratic New York January 3, 1965 January 3, 1981 Lost reelection
Joshua Eilberg.jpg
Joshua Eilberg[117]
(1921–2004)
Democratic Pennsylvania January 3, 1967 January 3, 1979 Lost reelection
Sam Steiger.jpg
Sam Steiger[118]
(1929–2012)
Republican Arizona January 3, 1967 January 3, 1977 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate
Bertram L. Podell.jpg
Bert Podell[119]
(1925–2005)
Democratic New York February 20, 1968 January 3, 1975 Lost renomination
Ed Koch 95th congress.jpg
Ed Koch[120]
(1924–2013)
Democratic New York January 3, 1969 December 31, 1977 Resigned to take office as Mayor of New York City
Allard K. Lowenstein.jpg
Allard Lowenstein[121]
(1929–1980)
Democratic New York January 3, 1969 January 3, 1971 Lost reelection
Abner Mikva.jpg
Abner Mikva[122]
(1926–2016)
Democratic Illinois January 3, 1969 January 3, 1973 Lost reelection
January 3, 1975 September 26, 1979 Resigned to take seat on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit
Bella Savitsky Abzug.jpg
Bella Abzug[123]
(1920–1998)
Democratic New York January 3, 1971 January 3, 1977 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for the United States Senate
Bengilman.jpg
Ben Gilman[124]
(1922–2016)
Republican New York January 3, 1973 January 3, 2003 Retired
Elizabeth Holtzman.jpg
Elizabeth Holtzman[125]
(born 1941)
Democratic New York January 3, 1973 January 3, 1981 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate
WilliamLehman.jpg
William Lehman[126]
(1913–2005)
Democratic Florida January 3, 1973 January 3, 1993 Retired
Edward Mezvinsky.jpg
Ed Mezvinsky[127]
(born 1937)
Democratic Iowa January 3, 1973 January 3, 1977 Lost reelection
Bill Gradison 95th Congress 1977.jpg
Bill Gradison[128]
(born 1928)
Republican Ohio January 3, 1975 January 31, 1993 Resigned
John H Krebs.png
John Krebs[129]
(1926–2014)
Democratic California January 3, 1975 January 3, 1979 Lost reelection
ELivitas.png
Elliott Levitas[130]
(born 1930)
Democratic Georgia January 3, 1975 January 3, 1985 Lost reelection
Fred Richmond.jpg
Fred Richmond[131]
(born 1923)
Democratic New York January 3, 1975 August 25, 1982 Resigned
Stephen Solarz 100th Congress.jpg
Stephen Solarz[132]
(1940–2010)
Democratic New York January 3, 1975 January 3, 1993 Lost renomination
Gladys noon spellman.jpg
Gladys Spellman[133]
(1918–1988)
Democratic Maryland January 3, 1975 February 24, 1981 Seat declared vacant after suffering a debilitating heart attack and becoming comatose
Henry Waxman, official portrait, 111th Congress.jpg
Henry Waxman[134]
(born 1939)
Democratic California January 3, 1975 January 3, 2015 Retired
Abeilenson.jpg
Tony Beilenson[135]
(1932–2017)
Democratic California January 3, 1977 January 3, 1997 Retired
Mickey Edwards.jpg
Mickey Edwards[136]
(born 1937)
Republican Oklahoma January 3, 1977 January 3, 1993 Lost renomination
Dan glickman.jpg
Dan Glickman[137]
(born 1944)
Democratic Kansas January 3, 1977 January 3, 1995 Lost reelection
Marc L. Marks.jpg
Marc Marks[138]
(1927–2018)
Republican Pennsylvania January 3, 1977 January 3, 1983 Retired
Theodore S. Weiss 100th Congress 1987.jpg
Ted Weiss[139]
(1927–1992)
Democratic New York January 3, 1977 September 14, 1992 Died in office
S. William Green.jpg
Bill Green[140]
(1929–2002)
Republican New York February 14, 1978 January 3, 1993 Lost reelection
MartinFrost.jpg
Martin Frost[141]
(born 1942)
Democratic Texas January 3, 1979 January 3, 2005 Lost reelection
Kenneth B. Kramer, Assistant Secretary of the Army.jpg
Ken Kramer[142]
(born 1942)
Republican Colorado January 3, 1979 January 3, 1987 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate
Howard Wolpe 99th Congress 1985.jpg
Howard Wolpe[143]
(1939–2011)
Democratic Michigan January 3, 1979 January 3, 1993 Retired
Bobbi Fiedler (R–CA).jpg
Bobbi Fiedler[144]
(1937-2019)
Republican California January 3, 1981 January 3, 1987 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for the United States Senate
Barneyfrank.jpg
Barney Frank[145]
(born 1940)
Democratic Massachusetts January 3, 1981 January 3, 2013 Retired
Repsamgejdenson.jpg
Sam Gejdenson[146]
(born 1948)
Democratic Connecticut January 3, 1981 January 3, 2001 Lost reelection
Tom Lantos.jpg
Tom Lantos[147]
(1928–2008)
Democratic California January 3, 1981 February 11, 2008 Died in office
Charles Schumer official portrait.jpg
Chuck Schumer[29]
(born 1950)
Democratic New York January 3, 1981 January 3, 1999 Retired to run successfully for the United States Senate
Bob Shamansky 97th Congress 1981.jpg
Bob Shamansky[148]
(1927–2011)
Democratic Ohio January 3, 1981 January 3, 1983 Lost reelection
Ron Wyden official portrait.jpg
Ron Wyden[28]
(born 1949)
Democratic Oregon January 3, 1981 February 5, 1996 Resigned after being elected to the United States Senate
Howardberman.jpeg
Howard Berman[149]
(born 1941)
Democratic California January 3, 1983 January 3, 2013 Lost reelection
Barbara Boxer, Official Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Barbara Boxer[26]
(born 1940)
Democratic California January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 Retired to run successfully for the United States Senate
Ben Erdreich 102nd Congress 1991.png
Ben Erdreich[150]
(born 1938)
Democratic Alabama January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 Lost reelection
Sander Levin, Official Portrait.JPG
Sandy Levin[151]
(born 1931)
Democratic Michigan January 3, 1983 January 3, 2019 Retired
Mel Levine.png
Mel Levine[152]
(born 1943)
Democratic California January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for the United States Senate
NormanSisisky.jpg
Norman Sisisky[153]
(1927–2001)
Democratic Virginia January 3, 1983 March 29, 2001 Died in office
LJSmith.png
Lawrence Smith[154]
(born 1941)
Democratic Florida January 3, 1983 January 3, 1993 Retired
Gary Ackerman Portrait c111-112th Congress.jpg
Gary Ackerman[155]
(born 1942)
Democratic New York March 1, 1983 January 3, 2013 Retired
SalaBurton.jpg
Sala Burton[156]
(1925–1987)
Democratic California June 21, 1983 February 1, 1987 Died in office
Miller photo 150.jpg
John Miller[157]
(1938–2017)
Republican Washington January 3, 1985 January 3, 1993 Retired
Ben Cardin portrait.jpg
Ben Cardin[31]
(born 1943)
Democratic Maryland January 3, 1987 January 3, 2007 Retired to run successfully for the United States Senate
Eliot Engel, official photo portrait.jpg
Eliot Engel[158]
(born 1947)
Democratic New York January 3, 1989 present
Rep Nita Lowey.jpg
Nita Lowey[159]
(born 1937)
Democratic New York January 3, 1989 present
StevenSchiff.jpg
Steven Schiff[160]
(1947–1998)
Republican New Mexico January 3, 1989 March 25, 1998 Died in office
Bernie Sanders.jpg
Bernie Sanders[32]
(born 1941)
Independent Vermont January 3, 1991 January 3, 2007 Retired to run successfully for the United States Senate
Richard Alan Zimmer portrait.gif
Dick Zimmer[161]
(born 1944)
Republican New Jersey January 3, 1991 January 3, 1997 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate
Jerrold Nadler official photo.jpg
Jerry Nadler[162]
(born 1947)
Democratic New York November 3, 1992 present
Sam Coppersmith.jpg
Sam Coppersmith[163]
(born 1955)
Democratic Arizona January 3, 1993 January 3, 1995 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate
Reppeterdeutsch.jpg
Peter Deutsch[164]
(born 1957)
Democratic Florida January 3, 1993 January 3, 2005 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for the United States Senate
Bob Filner mayoral portrait.jpg
Bob Filner[165]
(born 1942)
Democratic California January 3, 1993 December 3, 2012 Resigned to take office as Mayor of San Diego
Eric Fingerhut 103nd Congress 1993.jpg
Eric Fingerhut[166]
(born 1959)
Democratic Ohio January 3, 1993 January 3, 1995 Lost reelection
Daniel Hamburg 103rd Congress 1993.jpg
Dan Hamburg[167]
(born 1948)
Democratic California January 3, 1993 January 3, 1995 Lost reelection
Jane Harman, official portrait, 111th Congress.jpg
Jane Harman[168]
(born 1945)
Democratic California January 3, 1993 January 3, 1999 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for Governor of California
January 3, 2001 February 28, 2011 Resigned to head the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars
Herbert Klein.jpg
Herb Klein[169]
(born 1930)
Democratic New Jersey January 3, 1993 January 3, 1995 Lost reelection
David A. Levy.jpg
David Levy[170]
(born 1953)
Republican New York January 3, 1993 January 3, 1995 Lost renomination
MarjorieMargolies-Mezvinsky2.jpg
Marjorie Margolies[171]
(born 1942)
Democratic Pennsylvania January 3, 1993 January 3, 1995 Lost reelection
Lynn Schenk.jpg
Lynn Schenk[172]
(born 1945)
Democratic California January 3, 1993 January 3, 1995 Lost reelection
Jon Fox.jpg
Jon Fox[173]
(1947–2018)
Republican Pennsylvania January 3, 1995 January 3, 1999 Lost reelection
Steve Rothman, official photo portrait color.jpg
Steve Rothman[174]
(born 1952)
Democratic New Jersey January 3, 1997 January 3, 2013 Lost renomination
Brad Sherman official photo.jpg
Brad Sherman[175]
(born 1954)
Democratic California January 3, 1997 present
RobertWexlerPhoto.jpg
Robert Wexler[176]
(born 1961)
Democratic Florida January 3, 1997 January 3, 2010 Resigned
Shelley Berkley, official portrait, 112th Congress 2.jpg
Shelley Berkley[177]
(born 1951)
Democratic Nevada January 3, 1999 January 3, 2013 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate
Schakowsky-Portrait-2013.jpg
Jan Schakowsky[178]
(born 1944)
Democratic Illinois January 3, 1999 present
Anthony Weiner, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Anthony Weiner[179]
(born 1964)
Democratic New York January 3, 1999 June 21, 2011 Resigned
Eric Cantor, official 113th Congress photo portrait.jpg
Eric Cantor[180]
(born 1963)
Republican Virginia January 3, 2001 August 18, 2014 Lost renomination and resigned
First Jewish House Majority Leader
Susan Davis Cropped.jpg
Susan Davis[181]
(born 1944)
Democratic California January 3, 2001 present
Steve Israel, official photo portrait, 2009.jpeg
Steve Israel[182]
(born 1958)
Democratic New York January 3, 2001 January 3, 2017 Retired
Adam Schiff 115th official photo (cropped).jpg
Adam Schiff[183]
(born 1960)
Democratic California January 3, 2001 present
Rahm Emanuel, official photo portrait color.jpg
Rahm Emanuel[184]
(born 1959)
Democratic Illinois January 3, 2003 January 2, 2009 Resigned to become White House Chief of Staff
Debbie Wasserman Schultz official photo.jpg
Debbie Wasserman Schultz[185]
(born 1966)
Democratic Florida January 3, 2005 present
Allysonschwartz.jpg
Allyson Schwartz[186]
(born 1948)
Democratic Pennsylvania January 3, 2005 January 3, 2015 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination for Governor of Pennsylvania
Stevecohen.jpeg
Steve Cohen[187]
(born 1949)
Democratic Tennessee January 3, 2007 present
Gabrielle Giffords official portrait.jpg
Gabby Giffords[188]
(born 1970)
Democratic Arizona January 3, 2007 January 25, 2012 Resigned to recover from the assassination attempt on her life in 2011.
Paul Hodes official 110th Congress photo.jpg
Paul Hodes[189]
(born 1951)
Democratic New Hampshire January 3, 2007 January 3, 2011 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the United States Senate
Steve Kagen, official 110th Congress photo portrait, color.JPG
Steve Kagen[190]
(born 1949)
Democratic Wisconsin January 3, 2007 January 3, 2011 Lost reelection
Ron Klein official 110th Congress photo.jpg
Ron Klein[191]
(born 1957)
Democratic Florida January 3, 2007 January 3, 2011 Lost reelection
John Yarmuth official photo.jpg
John Yarmuth[192]
(born 1947)
Democratic Kentucky January 3, 2007 present
Rep. John Adler.jpg
John Adler[193]
(1959–2011)
Democratic New Jersey January 3, 2009 January 3, 2011 Lost reelection
Alan Grayson high res.jpg
Alan Grayson[194]
(born 1958)
Democratic Florida January 3, 2009 January 3, 2011 Lost reelection
January 3, 2013 January 3, 2017 Retired to run unsuccessfully for the Democratic nomination to the United States Senate
Jared Polis Official 2012.jpg
Jared Polis[195]
(born 1975)
Democratic Colorado January 3, 2009 January 3, 2019 Retired to run successfully for Governor of Colorado
TedDeutsch2016.jpg
Ted Deutch[196]
(born 1966)
Democratic Florida April 13, 2010 present
David Cicilline, Official Portrait, 112th Congress 2.jpg
David Cicilline[197]
(born 1961)
Democratic Rhode Island January 3, 2011 present
Suzanne Bonamici.jpg
Suzanne Bonamici[198]
(born 1954)
Democratic Oregon January 31, 2012 present
Lois Frankel, Official portrait, 113th Congress.jpg
Lois Frankel[199]
(born 1948)
Democratic Florida January 3, 2013 present
Alan Lowenthal 113th Congress Portrait.jpeg
Alan Lowenthal[200]
(born 1941)
Democratic California January 3, 2013 present
Brad Schneider official photo.jpg
Brad Schneider[201]
(born 1961)
Democratic Illinois January 3, 2013 January 3, 2015 Lost reelection
January 3, 2017 present
Lee Zeldin new official portrait.jpg
Lee Zeldin[202]
(born 1980)
Republican New York January 3, 2015 present
Josh Gottheimer Photo.jpg
Josh Gottheimer[203]
(born 1975)
Democratic New Jersey January 3, 2017 present
Kustoff Official Headshot.jpg
David Kustoff[201]
(born 1966)
Republican Tennessee January 3, 2017 present
Jamie Raskin official.jpg
Jamie Raskin[204]
(born 1962)
Democratic Maryland January 3, 2017 present
Jacky Rosen official photo 115th congress (cropped).jpg
Jacky Rosen[37]
(born 1957)
Democratic Nevada January 3, 2017 January 3, 2019 Retired to run successfully for the United States Senate
Susan Wild, Official Portrait, 115th Congress.jpg
Susan Wild[205]
(born 1957)
Democratic Pennsylvania November 27, 2018 present
Andy Levin, official portrait, 116th Congress.jpg
Andy Levin[206]
(born 1960)
Democratic Michigan January 3, 2019 present
Elaine Luria, Official Portrait, 116th Congress.jpg
Elaine Luria[207]
(born 1975)
Democratic Virginia January 3, 2019 present
Dean Phillips, official portrait, 116th Congress.jpg
Dean Phillips[208]
(born 1969)
Democratic Minnesota January 3, 2019 present
Max Rose, official 116th Congress photo portrait.jpg
Max Rose[209]
(born 1986)
Democratic New York January 3, 2019 present
Kim Schrier, official portrait, 116th Congress.jpg
Kim Schrier[210]
(born 1968)
Democratic Washington January 3, 2019 present
Elissa Slotkin, official portrait, 116th Congress.jpg
Elissa Slotkin[211]
(born 1976)
Democratic Michigan January 3, 2019 present

Elected, but not seated

Picture Representative-elect
(lifespan)
Party State Year elected Notes
No image.svg
Samuel Marx[212]
(1867–1922)
Democratic New York 1922 Not seated due to death prior to start of term

Non-voting members

Picture Delegate
(lifespan)
Party Territory Term start Term end Notes
David Levy Yulee - Brady-Handy.jpg
David Levy Yulee[1][a]
(1810–1886)
Democratic Florida March 4, 1841 March 3, 1845 Office eliminated when Territory of Florida was admitted to the Union as the State of Florida

Notes

  1. ^ Born (and raised) Jewish, but converted to Episcopalianism in his mid-to-late 30s while serving as a U.S. Senator.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b Stone, Kurt F. (2011). The Jews of Capitol Hill: A Compendium of Jewish Congressional Members. p. 3. ISBN 9780810857315.
  2. ^ Allman, T.D. (2013). Finding Florida: The True History of the Sunshine State. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 9780802120762.
  3. ^ Stone (2011), p. 15.
  4. ^ Stone (2011), p. 35.
  5. ^ Stone (2011), p. 60.
  6. ^ a b Stone (2011), p. 46.
  7. ^ Stone (2011), p. 78.
  8. ^ Stone (2011), p. 182.
  9. ^ Stone (2011), p. 206.
  10. ^ a b Stone (2011), p. 160.
  11. ^ Stone (2011), p. 210.
  12. ^ a b Stone (2011), p. 167.
  13. ^ Stone (2011), p. 281.
  14. ^ Stone (2011), p. 267.
  15. ^ Stone (2011), p. 348.
  16. ^ Stone (2011), p. 328.
  17. ^ Stone (2011), p. 340.
  18. ^ Stone (2011), p. 350.
  19. ^ Stone (2011), p. 401.
  20. ^ Stone (2011), p. 431.
  21. ^ Stone (2011), p. 441.
  22. ^ Stone (2011), p. 469.
  23. ^ Stone (2011), p. 451.
  24. ^ Stone (2011), p. 473.
  25. ^ Stone (2011), p. 505.
  26. ^ a b Stone (2011), p. 415.
  27. ^ Stone (2011), p. 499.
  28. ^ a b Stone (2011), p. 395.
  29. ^ a b Stone (2011), p. 385.
  30. ^ Stone (2011), p. 572.
  31. ^ a b Stone (2011), p. 447.
  32. ^ a b Stone (2011), p. 483.
  33. ^ Stone (2011), p. 619.
  34. ^ "Bennet's Views on Religion". October 28, 2010.
  35. ^ Hamilton, Elizabeth (October 3, 2004). "The Public And Private Life Of Dick Blumenthal". The Hartford Courant. Retrieved January 10, 2017.
  36. ^ "Hawaii's Jewish lieutenant governor chosen for US Senate seat". The Times of Israel. 2012-12-27. Retrieved 2018-06-26.
  37. ^ a b "Jacky Rosen". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved May 10, 2019.
  38. ^ Stone (2011), p. 9.
  39. ^ Stone (2011), p. 13.
  40. ^ Stone (2011), p. 14.
  41. ^ Stone (2011), pp. 22–23.
  42. ^ Stone (2011), p. 23.
  43. ^ Morais, Henry S. (1994). The Jews of Philadelphia: their history from the earliest settlements to the present time; a record of events and institutions, and of leading members of the Jewish community in every sphere of activity. p. 396.
  44. ^ Stone (2011), p. 25.
  45. ^ Stone (2011), p. 31.
  46. ^ Stone (2011), p. 33.
  47. ^ Stone (2011), p. 37.
  48. ^ Stone (2011), p. 38.
  49. ^ Stone (2011), p. 40.
  50. ^ Stone (2011), p. 49.
  51. ^ Stone (2011), p. 51.
  52. ^ a b Stone (2011), p. 52.
  53. ^ Stone (2011), p. 56.
  54. ^ Stone (2011), p. 57.
  55. ^ Stone (2011), p. 66.
  56. ^ Stone (2011), p. 68.
  57. ^ Stone (2011), pp. 71–73.
  58. ^ Stone (2011), p. 72.
  59. ^ Stone (2011), p. 75.
  60. ^ Stone (2011), p. 76.
  61. ^ Stone (2011), p. 82.
  62. ^ Stone (2011), p. 77.
  63. ^ Stone (2011), p. 87.
  64. ^ Stone (2011), p. 90.
  65. ^ Stone (2011), p. 91.
  66. ^ Stone (2011), p. 94.
  67. ^ Stone (2011), p. 98.
  68. ^ Stone (2011), p. 100.
  69. ^ Stone (2011), p. 108.
  70. ^ Stone (2011), p. 110.
  71. ^ Stone (2011), p. 112.
  72. ^ Stone (2011), p. 114.
  73. ^ Stone (2011), p. 93.
  74. ^ Stone (2011), p. 128.
  75. ^ Stone (2011), p. 115.
  76. ^ Stone (2011), p. 120.
  77. ^ "Meyer Jacobstein". www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org.
  78. ^ Stone (2011), p. 130.
  79. ^ Stone (2011), p. 125.
  80. ^ Stone (2011), p. 134.
  81. ^ Stone (2011), p. 132.
  82. ^ Stone (2011), p. 140.
  83. ^ Stone (2011), p. 136.
  84. ^ Stone (2011), p. 138.
  85. ^ Stone (2011), p. 143.
  86. ^ Stone (2011), p. 144.
  87. ^ Stone (2011), p. 151.
  88. ^ Stone (2011), p. 150.
  89. ^ Stone (2011), p. 154.
  90. ^ Stone (2011), p. 153.
  91. ^ Stone (2011), p. 156.
  92. ^ Stone (2011), p. 157.
  93. ^ Stone (2011), p. 166.
  94. ^ Stone (2011), p. 177.
  95. ^ Stone (2011), p. 188.
  96. ^ Stone (2011), p. 197.
  97. ^ Stone (2011), p. 172.
  98. ^ Bruce Zuckerman, Dan Schnur, Lisa Ansell (eds.). American Politics and the Jewish Community. Vol. 11. West Lafatette Ind.: Purdue University Press, 2013, p. 109.
  99. ^ Stone (2011), p. 180.
  100. ^ Stone (2011), p. 189.
  101. ^ Stone (2011), p. 195.
  102. ^ Stone (2011), p. 198.
  103. ^ Stone (2011), p. 201.
  104. ^ Stone (2011), p. 203.
  105. ^ Stone (2011), p. 204.
  106. ^ Stone (2011), p. 205.
  107. ^ Stone (2011), p. 215.
  108. ^ Stone (2011), p. 217.
  109. ^ Stone (2011), p. 214.
  110. ^ Lawrence Kestenbaum. "Charles S. Joelson Info". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved December 26, 2006.
  111. ^ Stone (2011), p. 220.
  112. ^ Stone (2011), pp. 223–225.
  113. ^ Stone (2011), p. 225.
  114. ^ Stone (2011), p. 226.
  115. ^ Stone (2011), p. 240.
  116. ^ Stone (2011), p. 230.
  117. ^ Stone (2011), p. 243.
  118. ^ Stone (2011), p. 233.
  119. ^ Stone (2011), p. 237.
  120. ^ Stone (2011), p. 258.
  121. ^ Stone (2011), p. 250.
  122. ^ Stone (2011), p. 246.
  123. ^ Stone (2011), p. 256.
  124. ^ Stone (2011), p. 278.
  125. ^ Stone (2011), p. 299.
  126. ^ Stone (2011), p. 270.
  127. ^ Stone (2011), p. 273.
  128. ^ Stone (2011), p. 310.
  129. ^ Stone (2011), p. 286.
  130. ^ Stone (2011), p. 294.
  131. ^ Stone (2011), p. 356.
  132. ^ Stone (2011), p. 305.
  133. ^ Stone (2011), p. 298.
  134. ^ Tugend, Tom (January 26, 2001). "Undefeated Champion Rep. Henry Waxman wants to help Democrats". The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. Archived from the original on October 27, 2006. Retrieved November 10, 2006.
  135. ^ Stone (2011), p. 320.
  136. ^ Retrieved from the Atlantic website May 5, 2010
  137. ^ Stone (2011), p. 324.
  138. ^ Stone (2011), p. 335.
  139. ^ Stone (2011), p. 392.
  140. ^ Stone (2011), p. 332.
  141. ^ Frost, Martin (May 15, 2009). "Jewish pols, players emerging". Politico. Retrieved June 28, 2012.
  142. ^ Stone (2011), p. 337.
  143. ^ Stone (2011), p. 345.
  144. ^ Stone (2011), p. 366.
  145. ^ Stone (2011), p. 377.
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