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List of Governors of Louisiana

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Governor of Louisiana
Gouverneurs de Louisiane
Seal of Louisiana.svg
John Bel Edwards

since January 11, 2016
StyleThe Honorable
ResidenceLouisiana Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once[1]
PrecursorGovernor of Orleans Territory
Inaugural holderWilliam C. C. Claiborne
FormationApril 30, 1812
(206 years ago)
DeputyLieutenant Governor of Louisiana
SalaryUS$130,000 per year

This is a list of the Governors of Louisiana (French: Gouverneurs de Louisiane), from acquisition by the United States in 1803 to the present day. For earlier governors of Louisiana see List of colonial governors of Louisiana.

The longest-serving Governor is Edwin Edwards, who served for 16 years from (1972-1980; 1984-1988; 1992-1996).

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I’m Mr. Beat, and I’m running for governor of Kansas in 2018. Here’s Chris Christie, the former governor of New Jersey. At one time, he was one of the most popular governors in the United States. However, by the time he left office, his approval rating had dropped all the way down to 14%. (Chris Christie clip) Many in New Jersey say he is the worst governor in their state’s history. But what about the worst governors in other states? Based on my research, here are the 10 worst governors in American history that I could find. Oh, and before we get into this list, I didn’t include the governors who are currently in office or recently got out of office. What can I say? We are always biased to have hatred to more recent politicians. #10 Edwin Edwards Governor of Louisiana from 1972 to 1980, 1984 to 1988, and 1992 to 1996, serving 16 years total in office, or 5,784 days, the sixth-longest amount of time in office for any governor since the Constitution. Widely considered one of the most corrupt governors in American history, he actually got caught for racketeering, extortion, money laundering, mail fraud, wire fraud, and conspiracy. He went to federal prison for eight years. He was unapologetic about receiving illegal campaign donations. He was accused of obstruction of justice and bribery. The only reason why Edwards is not higher up on my list is because is dedication to civil rights and protecting minorities and the poor. #9 Joel Aldrich Matteson Or MATTson. Both pronunciations are correct. I'll call him Mattyson because that's more fun. Oh Louisiana and Illinois. You both have a long history of electing corrupt and just, plain horrible governors. And Matteson is one of them. Governor of Illinois from 1853 to 1857, he actually had a few accomplishments during his tenure. This was when Illinois began public education, and Matteson oversaw a strong economy and the reduction of the state’s debt. However, after he got out of office people started to find out about his shadiness. You see, while in office, Matteson had found essentially IOU money in the form of scrips to pay for the Illinois and Michigan Canal. Even though scrips had already been cashed in, Matteson found out they could be used again due to poor record keeping. So he took a bunch of them for himself and cashed them in later on. They were like blank checks from the state. It was later estimated, that Matteson stole at least $5 million this way, adjusted for inflation. He would have probably stolen more if it weren’t for getting caught. So Matteson stole a bunch of taxpayer money. Oh yeah, and Abraham Lincoln hated him, too, so there’s that. #8 Peter Hardeman Burnett California’s first governor, and probably its worst. He was also the first California governor to resign, in office for just 14 months, from late 1849 to early 1851. He wanted the American West for whites only, supporting laws that banned blacks from living in Oregon when he lived up there and trying to get laws passed in California to ban blacks from living there after it became a state under his watch. He was also outspokenly racist toward Native Americans and Chinese immigrants. He pushed for heavy taxes on immigrants and for Indian removal. Oh, and he wanted the death penalty for theft. Peter, you were not a good start for California. #7 George Wallace Yeah, you’ve probably heard of George Wallace, he’s one of the most infamous in American history and ran for President several times. He was even in Forrest Gump. But if you want a great bio about him, I recommend this video by Connor Higgins. He’s most infamously known for the “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever” and racist stuff of his tenure, in which he embraced the KKK and basically argued that blacks and whites being in the same room was one of the worst things ever. He even freaking stood in front of a door to prevent black students from attending classes at the University of Alabama. But here’s the thing...he lost his first race for governor because he criticized the KKK and spoke out for African Americans. Later in life, after being paralyzed in an assassination attempt, he reversed his ways also by condemning his past racism. This just makes me assume he said whatever the majority of people wanted to hear in his state to get elected. George Wallace, were you racist or were you not? Ok yeah I think he truly was, though. He was so power hungry he got his wife elected after he couldn’t run for re-election due to term limit laws, and to do so, he hid her cancer diagnosis from her. She ended up dying less than 200 days after she took office. The bottom line is, George Wallace was as us vs. them as one could get. He knew how to divide Americans not only in Alabama, but across the country. Wallace would be higher up on this list if not for changing later in life, asking forgiveness from African Americans. "I was wrong. Those days are over, and they ought to be over." #6 Orval Faubus From one Southern racist governor to another, but at least this one has a cool name. Faubus was governor or Arkansas from 1955 to 1967. Now Faubus really just had one major decision that tainted his legacy Similar to Wallace, he was more about his political power, starting out more moderate when it came to civil rights issues, then all of sudden taking a firm pro-segregation stance after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision. In 1957, he became internationally infamous in what is known as the Little Rock Crisis. After the federal government ordered racial desegregation, he was like, “nope,” sending the Arkansas National Guard to stop African Americans from attending Little Rock Central High School. President Eisenhower had to send in federal troops to escort them in. And then at the end of the year, the school shut down. What’s frustrating about Faubus is that he really didn’t seem that racist. He just stubbornly did the wrong thing fueled the hatred of blacks in the South. And he never apologized for it, like Wallace did. #5 Lilburn Boggs Governor of Missouri from 1836 to 1840 Boggs is best known for Missouri Executive Order 44, or as many Mormons call it, the “Extermination Order.” It was a response to the growing violence during what became known as the 1838 Mormon War, a series of clashes between Mormons and those they threatened in northeast Missouri. Governor Boggs issued the order to drive Mormons out of the state because of their “open and avowed defiance of the laws, and of having made war upon the people of this State.” He also added, “The Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace.” Geez, dude. And yep, it worked. The Mormons fled to the town of Nauvoo, Illinois. Other great stuff about Boggs. He wasted a bunch of taxpayer money building a new capitol. Oh, and he almost caused a war with Iowa Territory due to a border dispute. Actually, it was known as a war. The Honey War. Awwww, what a sweet name for a war. #4 Len Small Well, here we go. Another Illinois governor. In office during the Roaring Twenties, from 1921 to 1929. His corruption started long before he was governor, back when he was the Illinois Treasurer. He was charged with embezzling over a million dollars through money laundering, by “misplacing” state funds into a fake bank. He went to trial for it while he was governor, and despite there being pretty good evidence that he was guilty, got off scot-free. Coincidentally, eight of the jurors who said he was not guilty in his trial later got cushy state jobs, and so did the brothers of the judge in that case. Coincidence? In 1925, when the Illinois Supreme Court said that yep, Small was guilty and he had to pay back that $1 million after all, Small fought back with a legal team and forced his own state employees to help pay for his defense. Small pardoned or released more than 1000 convicted felons, including a dude who was convicted of kidnapping young girls and making them slaves in which they were forced to be prostitutes. Also, Small released a bootlegger who later became the leader of one of the most powerful bootlegging gangs in Chicago. Oh Lenny. I can’t make this stuff up, can I? #3 Wilson Lumpkin Another great name, another bad governor. He was in office for the lovely state of Georgia from 1831 to 1835. He thought his biggest accomplishment, you know, something he was most proud of, was the removal of the peaceful Cherokee Indians from north Georgia. Yep, he was proud of kicking the Cherokee off their land, which led to the Trail of Tears and eventual death of 4,000 people. Wow, Wilson. Just wow. Did I mention he went against the Supreme Court by kicking them out? Check out that decision, by the way, I have a video about that called Worcester v. Georgia. He encouraged white settlers to take their land while they were still there. And did I mention he was a big supporter of slavery? Of course he was. And speaking of slavery... For #2, it’s a tie. In fact, 28 governors all tie for #2 on this list. They are the 28 Southern governors who all agreed to secede from the Union and become leaders in the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. Here are their names. I’m not going to read them off for you, but all of them declared allegiance to the Confederacy in the name of preserving the institution of slavery. I’m not going to call them traitors, because they didn’t think they were traitors. But they were wrong, and in my opinion, they do not deserve to be honored. And this last one will likely surprise you… #1 Brigham Young If you’re one of his 1,000 direct descendants, I’m pretty sure you are going to be offended by what I’m about to say. And if you’re Mormon, well I talked trash about Boggs earlier so hopefully this evens out. In case you didn’t know, Brigham Young was governor of the Territory of Utah from 1851 to 1858. Governor? Dictator might be a better word. I mean, he had absolute power. And there was no separation of church and state, it was a theocracy. After he led his Mormon followers into what is now known as Utah, and before the Feds go involved, whatever he said went. He argued slavery was a “divine institution.” Yep, people forget Utah used to allow slavery. Ok, and obviously the polygamy thing. He had 55 wives, for crying out loud. After he couldn’t convert the local Native American population to the Church of Latter Day Saints, he basically ordered to kill them. Yep. Genocide. Ethnic cleansing. And under his watch, the Mountain Meadows Massacre happened. Just Google it. It’s horrific, and it caused him to step down as governor. When the federal government came to challenge him during the Utah War, Young declared marital law and told his followers they may have to burn down their homes, hide in the woods, and conduct guerilla warfare to defend their way of life. He maybe started out as a nice guy, but in the end I think the power corrupted him, as power tends to do. So that’s it. I’m sure that last one surprised you, probably because you didn’t realize how horrible Brigham Young was or maybe you didn't realize he was a governor for a short while. He does have tons of monuments out there celebrating him and even a university named after him that’s one of the biggest universities in the country. Before I go, I want to point out that I was fairly out of my comfort zone when researching for this video There are so many governors in American history. that it's really hard to keep track of them. Plus, there's a lot of really bad ones and a lot of governors that we don't know much about in the early years. So if there are any governors that I did not include, that I totally missed please let me know in the comments. I will not be offended. Just let it all out. I do have a list of honorable mentions. Or should I say "DIShonorable mentions." That I included in the description of this video. They didn't quite make the cut. But as far as I know, this is the only video out there about the worst governors in American history. And thank you to Ian for giving me the idea. This video is dedicated to him. And to his mom. Thank you to you both for your support on Patreon. It means so much. I'll be back with a new episode of Supreme Court Briefs next week. Thank you for watching. And there's just one more thing. I'm really not running for Kansas governor in 2018. I just made that up.



Governor of Orleans Territory

In 1803, Europe was about to become involved in a continental war. The French Empire, led by Napoleon, had begun an aggressive expansionist policy which challenged the interests of United Kingdom. When the Haitian Revolution, with British support, overthrew the French colonial rule on that island, the French Empire began reorganizing its military. To finance this, Napoleon sold the colony of Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. From 1804 to 1812, the lower area, which would eventually become the modern state, was known as the "Territory of Orleans". The vast area to the north and west of the Mississippi River was called the "Louisiana Territory".

Governor of the Territory of Orleans
Governor Term in office Appointed by
William C C Claiborne rectangleLAState.jpg
William C. C. Claiborne December 20, 1803[a]

July 30, 1812
Thomas Jefferson
James Madison

Governors of Louisiana

Governors of the State of Louisiana
No. Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[b]
William C C Claiborne rectangleLAState.jpg
  William C. C. Claiborne July 30, 1812

December 17, 1816
Office did not exist
Jacques Villere.jpg
Jacques Villeré December 17, 1816

December 18, 1820
Governor Thomas B. Robertson.jpg
Thomas B. Robertson December 18, 1820

November 15, 1824
Henry S. Thibodaux November 15, 1824

December 13, 1824
Henry Johnson December 13, 1824

December 15, 1828
Pierre Derbigny.jpg
Pierre Derbigny December 15, 1828

October 6, 1829
Armand Beauvais October 6, 1829

January 14, 1830
Jacques Dupré.jpg
Jacques Dupré January 14, 1830

January 31, 1831
Andre B. Roman January 31, 1831

February 4, 1835
Edward Douglass White Sr. February 4, 1835

February 4, 1839
Whig 1834
Andre B. Roman February 4, 1839

January 30, 1843
Whig 1838
Alexandre Mouton jeune.jpg
Alexandre Mouton January 30, 1843

February 12, 1846
Democratic 1842
Isaac Johnson February 12, 1846

January 28, 1850
Democratic 1846   Trasimond Landry
Joseph Marshall Walker - Gouverneur.jpg
Joseph Marshall Walker January 28, 1850

January 18, 1853
Democratic 1849
Jean Baptiste Plauché
Paul Octave Hébert.jpg
Paul Octave Hébert January 18, 1853

January 22, 1856
Democratic 1852
William W. Farmer
(died October 29, 1854)
Robert C. Wickliffe
Robert C. Wickliffe January 22, 1856

January 23, 1860
Democratic 1855 Charles Homer Mouton
(resigned 1856)
William F. Griffin
Thomas Overton Moore January 23, 1860

January 25, 1864
Democratic 1859
Henry M. Hyams
Gen. George F. Shepley - NARA - 528647.jpg
George Foster Shepley July 2, 1862

March 4, 1864
Henry Watkins Allen January 25, 1864

June 2, 1865
Democratic 1863
  Benjamin W. Pearce
Michael Hahn.jpg
Michael Hahn March 4, 1864

March 4, 1865
Republican 1864
James Madison Wells
James Madison Wells.jpg
James Madison Wells March 4, 1865

June 3, 1867
Republican Vacant
Albert Voorhies[l]
Benjamin Franklin Flanders.jpg
Benjamin Flanders June 3, 1867

January 8, 1868
Republican Vacant
Joshua Baker.jpg
Joshua Baker January 8, 1868

June 27, 1868
Henry Clay Warmoth.jpg
Henry C. Warmoth June 27, 1868

December 9, 1872
Republican 1868
Oscar Dunn
(died November 22, 1871)
P. B. S. Pinchback
P. B. S. Pinchback - Brady-Handy.jpg
P. B. S. Pinchback December 9, 1872

January 13, 1873
Republican Vacant
John McEnery.jpg
John McEnery January 13, 1873

May 22, 1873
Democratic 1872
Davidson B. Penn
William P. Kellogg - Brady-Handy.jpg
William Pitt Kellogg January 13, 1873

January 8, 1877
Republican Caesar Antoine
Stephen B. Packard - History of Iowa.jpg
Stephen B. Packard January 8, 1877

April 25, 1877
Republican 1876
Caesar Antoine
Francis T. Nicholls.jpg
Francis T. Nicholls January 8, 1877

January 14, 1880
Democratic Louis A. Wiltz
Louis Alfred Wiltz.jpg
Louis A. Wiltz January 14, 1880

October 16, 1881
Democratic 1879
Samuel D. McEnery
Samuel Douglas McEnery.jpg
Samuel D. McEnery October 16, 1881

May 20, 1888
Democratic William A. Robertson
(removed December 24, 1881)
George L. Walton
1884 Clay Knobloch
Francis T. Nicholls.jpg
Francis T. Nicholls May 20, 1888

May 10, 1892
Democratic 1888 James Jeffries
Murphy James Foster.jpg
Murphy J. Foster May 10, 1892

May 8, 1900
Democratic 1892 Charles Parlange
(resigned December 11, 1893)
Hiram R. Lott
(died June 2, 1895)
Robert H. Snyder
William Wright Heard.jpg
William Wright Heard May 8, 1900

May 10, 1904
Democratic 1900 Albert Estopinal
Newton Crain Blanchard.jpg
Newton C. Blanchard May 10, 1904

May 20, 1908
Democratic 1904 Jared Y. Sanders Sr.
Jared Young Sanders.jpg
Jared Y. Sanders Sr. May 20, 1908

May 14, 1912
Democratic 1908 Paul M. Lambremont
Luther Egbert Hall - Gouverneur von Louisiana.jpg
Luther E. Hall May 14, 1912

May 9, 1916
Democratic 1912 Thomas C. Barret
Ruffin Golson Pleasant.jpg
Ruffin Pleasant May 9, 1916

May 11, 1920
Democratic 1916 Fernand Mouton
John M. Parker May 11, 1920

May 13, 1924
Democratic 1920 Hewitt Bouanchaud
(resigned April 12, 1924)
Delos R. Johnson
Henry L. Fuqua May 13, 1924

October 11, 1926
Democratic 1924
Oramel H. Simpson
Oramel H. Simpson October 11, 1926

May 21, 1928
Democratic Philip H. Gilbert
Huey Long May 21, 1928

January 25, 1932
Democratic 1928
Paul N. Cyr
(removed March 4, 1931)
Alvin Olin King
Alvin Olin King January 25, 1932

May 10, 1932
Democratic Vacant
Oscar K. Allen.jpg
Oscar K. Allen May 10, 1932

January 28, 1936
Democratic 1932
John B. Fournet
(resigned January 2, 1935)
James A. Noe
James Noe portrait.jpg
James A. Noe January 28, 1936

May 12, 1936
Democratic Vacant
Gov Richard Leche.jpg
Richard W. Leche May 12, 1936

June 26, 1939
Democratic 1936
Earl Long
Earl Long portrait.jpg
Earl Long June 26, 1939

May 14, 1940
Democratic Coleman Lindsey
Sam H. Jones portrait.jpg
Sam H. Jones May 14, 1940

May 9, 1944
Democratic 1940 Marc M. Mouton
Jimmie Davis May 9, 1944

May 11, 1948
Democratic 1944 J. Emile Verret
Earl Long portrait.jpg
Earl Long May 11, 1948

May 13, 1952
Democratic 1948 Bill Dodd
Robert F. Kennon portrait.jpg
Robert F. Kennon May 13, 1952

May 8, 1956
Democratic 1952 C. E. "Cap" Barham
Earl Long portrait.jpg
Earl Long May 8, 1956

May 10, 1960
Democratic 1956 Lether Frazar
Jimmie Davis May 10, 1960

May 12, 1964
Democratic 1959–60 Taddy Aycock
49 John McKeithen May 12, 1964

May 9, 1972
Democratic 1963–64
Edwin Edwards.jpg
Edwin Edwards May 9, 1972

March 10, 1980
Democratic 1971–72 Jimmy Fitzmorris
Dave Treen.jpg
Dave Treen March 10, 1980

March 12, 1984
Republican 1979 Bobby Freeman
Edwin Edwards.jpg
Edwin Edwards March 12, 1984

March 14, 1988
Democratic 1983
Buddy Roemer Congress.jpg
Buddy Roemer March 14, 1988

January 13, 1992
Democratic 1987 Paul Hardy
Edwin Edwards.jpg
Edwin Edwards January 13, 1992

January 8, 1996
Democratic 1991 Melinda Schwegmann
GovFoster1 (cropped).JPG
Mike Foster January 8, 1996

January 12, 2004
Republican 1995 Kathleen Blanco
Kathleen Blanco January 12, 2004

January 14, 2008
Democratic 2003 Mitch Landrieu
(resigned May 3, 2010)
U.S. Governor of Louisiana Bobby Jindal speaking at the 2011 Values Voter Summit in Washington, D.C (cropped).jpg
Bobby Jindal January 14, 2008

January 11, 2016
Republican 2007
Scott Angelle
Jay Dardenne
(elected November 22, 2010)
John Bel Edwards 2015.jpg
John Bel Edwards January 11, 2016

Democratic 2015
Billy Nungesser


  1. ^ Claiborne received his commission on October 31, 1803, and proclaimed the acquisition of Louisiana in New Orleans on this date.[3]
  2. ^ Lieutenant governors represented the same party as their governor unless noted.
  3. ^ Louisiana became a state on April 30, 1812, but Claiborne was not sworn in as state governor until July 30.[4]
  4. ^ Robertson resigned to take a joint seat on the United States District Court for both the Eastern and Western Districts of Louisiana; as president of the senate, Thibodaux assumed the duties of governor.
  5. ^ Derbigny died in office; as president of the senate, Beauvais assumed the duties of governor until his term as president ended, at which time the new president, Dupre, assumed the duties. Sources disagree on why Beauvais' term ended; some say he lost his bid to be reelected as senate president,[5], while others say he resigned so that he could run for governor.[6]
  6. ^ a b While all sources state Walker resigned due to objections to the 1852 constitution,[7][8][9] there is no mention made of Hébert taking office early; it's possible that Walker's resignation was a symbolic one of protest on his last day, or that it was so close to the end of the term that Hébert simply took office then. No known source elaborates.
  7. ^ a b c d e The area around New Orleans was captured by the Union on April 25, 1862. The control was enough that it operated within the United States as the legitimate state of Louisiana, electing members to the United States House of Representatives. With both governments being considered legitimate, both lines are included in all lists of governors. The schism ended when the Confederate governor fled and the whole state came under Union control.
  8. ^ Shepley was appointed military governor by General Benjamin Butler.
  9. ^ Allen fled to Mexico to avoid capture following the American Civil War.
  10. ^ Hahn resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate; however, congressmen from the Confederate states were denied their seats in the 39th United States Congress. As lieutenant governor, Wells became governor.
  11. ^ Wells was removed from office by General Philip Sheridan for failing to properly implement Reconstruction reforms. Flanders was appointed by Sheridan to replace Wells, but later resigned due to Major General Winfield Scott Hancock's removing Radical Republicans that Flanders had appointed to positions in state government. Hancock then appointed Baker to replace Flanders.
  12. ^ Represented the Democratic Party.
  13. ^ During the 1872 election, Warmoth endorsed John McEnery for governor, and the State Returning Board, which he appointed, declared McEnery the winner. However, a rival board declared William Pitt Kellogg the winner, and the legislature impeached Warmoth on charges related to the election. Impeached officials are suspended from office, so at this time, Pinchback filled the office. The term expired only 35 days later, at which point impeachment charges were dropped, as Warmoth was no longer governor.
  14. ^ The State Election Board certified McEnery as the winner of the 1872 election; however, a rival board declared Kellogg the winner, and the legislature went with that. Both McEnery and Kellogg declared victory and formed governments, and conflict culminated in the Battle of Liberty Place and the Colfax massacre. President Ulysses S. Grant issued a proclamation on May 22, 1873, declaring Kellogg the winner.[10][11]
  15. ^ Much like the 1872 election, this election was disputed. Both Packard and Nicholls declared victory and formed governments, until President Rutherford B. Hayes recognized Nicholls as governor in the Compromise of 1877.[12]
  16. ^ Wiltz died in office; as lieutenant governor, McEnery replaced him.
  17. ^ Fuqua died in office; as lieutenant governor, Simpson replaced him.
  18. ^ Long was elected to the United States Senate for a term beginning March 4, 1931; however, he did not take the seat until January 25, 1932. This was in part to prevent Cyr from replacing him as governor. When the senate term began, Cyr took the oath of office as governor and claimed the office; however, Long called this illegitimate, and said that by taking the oath of office of the governor, he had resigned from being lieutenant governor. This opened the way for the president pro tempore of the senate, King, to become lieutenant governor, and ultimately succeed Long. Cyr continued to claim the office of governor on and off until 1932, but ultimately lacked recognition.[13][14]
  19. ^ Allen died in office; as lieutenant governor, Noe replaced him.
  20. ^ Leche resigned due to scandals; as lieutenant governor, Long replaced him.
  21. ^ Bel Edwards's first term expires January 13, 2020.


  1. ^ "Louisiana Constitution of 1974" (PDF). Article IV, section 3. A person who has served as governor for more than one and one-half terms in two consecutive terms shall not be elected governor for the succeeding term.
  2. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  3. ^ "Claiborne, Proclamation to the People of New Orleans, 1803". Humanities Texas. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  4. ^ Brown, Everett Somerville (1920). The Constitutional History of the Louisiana Purchase, 1803-1812. University of California Press. p. 195. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  5. ^ "Armand Beauvais". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  6. ^ "Armand Julie Beauvais". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved November 12, 2018.
  7. ^ "Joseph Marshall Walker". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  8. ^ "Joseph M. Walker". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  9. ^ White, J. T. (1900). The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. 10. p. 77. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  10. ^ "William Pitt Kellogg is officially named Governor of Louisiana by President Grant". University of Richmond. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  11. ^ "Statutes of the United States of America passed at the First Session of the Forty-Third Congress". United States Government Printing Office. p. 293. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  12. ^ Kelman, Ari (April 24, 2008). ""The Surrender Complete"". The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  13. ^ "Alvin Olin King". National Governors Association. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  14. ^ "Alvin O. King". Secretary of State of Louisiana. Retrieved November 13, 2018.

External links

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