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List of Governors of Georgia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Governor of Georgia
Seal of Georgia.svg
Brian Kemp

since January 14, 2019
ResidenceGeorgia Governor's Mansion
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Inaugural holderArchibald Bulloch
FormationJuly 12, 1775
Salary$139,339 (2013)[1]

The Governor of Georgia is the head of the executive branch of Georgia's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. The governor also has a duty to enforce state laws, the power to either veto or approve bills passed by the Georgia Legislature, and the power to convene the legislature.

The current governor is Republican Brian Kemp who assumed office on January 14, 2019.

YouTube Encyclopedic

  • 1/1
    47 579
  • ✪ Worst 10 American Governors


I’m Mr. Beat, and I’m running for governor of Kansas in 2018. Here’s Chris Christie, the former governor of New Jersey. At one time, he was one of the most popular governors in the United States. However, by the time he left office, his approval rating had dropped all the way down to 14%. (Chris Christie clip) Many in New Jersey say he is the worst governor in their state’s history. But what about the worst governors in other states? Based on my research, here are the 10 worst governors in American history that I could find. Oh, and before we get into this list, I didn’t include the governors who are currently in office or recently got out of office. What can I say? We are always biased to have hatred to more recent politicians. #10 Edwin Edwards Governor of Louisiana from 1972 to 1980, 1984 to 1988, and 1992 to 1996, serving 16 years total in office, or 5,784 days, the sixth-longest amount of time in office for any governor since the Constitution. Widely considered one of the most corrupt governors in American history, he actually got caught for racketeering, extortion, money laundering, mail fraud, wire fraud, and conspiracy. He went to federal prison for eight years. He was unapologetic about receiving illegal campaign donations. He was accused of obstruction of justice and bribery. The only reason why Edwards is not higher up on my list is because is dedication to civil rights and protecting minorities and the poor. #9 Joel Aldrich Matteson Or MATTson. Both pronunciations are correct. I'll call him Mattyson because that's more fun. Oh Louisiana and Illinois. You both have a long history of electing corrupt and just, plain horrible governors. And Matteson is one of them. Governor of Illinois from 1853 to 1857, he actually had a few accomplishments during his tenure. This was when Illinois began public education, and Matteson oversaw a strong economy and the reduction of the state’s debt. However, after he got out of office people started to find out about his shadiness. You see, while in office, Matteson had found essentially IOU money in the form of scrips to pay for the Illinois and Michigan Canal. Even though scrips had already been cashed in, Matteson found out they could be used again due to poor record keeping. So he took a bunch of them for himself and cashed them in later on. They were like blank checks from the state. It was later estimated, that Matteson stole at least $5 million this way, adjusted for inflation. He would have probably stolen more if it weren’t for getting caught. So Matteson stole a bunch of taxpayer money. Oh yeah, and Abraham Lincoln hated him, too, so there’s that. #8 Peter Hardeman Burnett California’s first governor, and probably its worst. He was also the first California governor to resign, in office for just 14 months, from late 1849 to early 1851. He wanted the American West for whites only, supporting laws that banned blacks from living in Oregon when he lived up there and trying to get laws passed in California to ban blacks from living there after it became a state under his watch. He was also outspokenly racist toward Native Americans and Chinese immigrants. He pushed for heavy taxes on immigrants and for Indian removal. Oh, and he wanted the death penalty for theft. Peter, you were not a good start for California. #7 George Wallace Yeah, you’ve probably heard of George Wallace, he’s one of the most infamous in American history and ran for President several times. He was even in Forrest Gump. But if you want a great bio about him, I recommend this video by Connor Higgins. He’s most infamously known for the “segregation now, segregation tomorrow, and segregation forever” and racist stuff of his tenure, in which he embraced the KKK and basically argued that blacks and whites being in the same room was one of the worst things ever. He even freaking stood in front of a door to prevent black students from attending classes at the University of Alabama. But here’s the thing...he lost his first race for governor because he criticized the KKK and spoke out for African Americans. Later in life, after being paralyzed in an assassination attempt, he reversed his ways also by condemning his past racism. This just makes me assume he said whatever the majority of people wanted to hear in his state to get elected. George Wallace, were you racist or were you not? Ok yeah I think he truly was, though. He was so power hungry he got his wife elected after he couldn’t run for re-election due to term limit laws, and to do so, he hid her cancer diagnosis from her. She ended up dying less than 200 days after she took office. The bottom line is, George Wallace was as us vs. them as one could get. He knew how to divide Americans not only in Alabama, but across the country. Wallace would be higher up on this list if not for changing later in life, asking forgiveness from African Americans. "I was wrong. Those days are over, and they ought to be over." #6 Orval Faubus From one Southern racist governor to another, but at least this one has a cool name. Faubus was governor or Arkansas from 1955 to 1967. Now Faubus really just had one major decision that tainted his legacy Similar to Wallace, he was more about his political power, starting out more moderate when it came to civil rights issues, then all of sudden taking a firm pro-segregation stance after the Brown v. Board of Education Supreme Court decision. In 1957, he became internationally infamous in what is known as the Little Rock Crisis. After the federal government ordered racial desegregation, he was like, “nope,” sending the Arkansas National Guard to stop African Americans from attending Little Rock Central High School. President Eisenhower had to send in federal troops to escort them in. And then at the end of the year, the school shut down. What’s frustrating about Faubus is that he really didn’t seem that racist. He just stubbornly did the wrong thing fueled the hatred of blacks in the South. And he never apologized for it, like Wallace did. #5 Lilburn Boggs Governor of Missouri from 1836 to 1840 Boggs is best known for Missouri Executive Order 44, or as many Mormons call it, the “Extermination Order.” It was a response to the growing violence during what became known as the 1838 Mormon War, a series of clashes between Mormons and those they threatened in northeast Missouri. Governor Boggs issued the order to drive Mormons out of the state because of their “open and avowed defiance of the laws, and of having made war upon the people of this State.” He also added, “The Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace.” Geez, dude. And yep, it worked. The Mormons fled to the town of Nauvoo, Illinois. Other great stuff about Boggs. He wasted a bunch of taxpayer money building a new capitol. Oh, and he almost caused a war with Iowa Territory due to a border dispute. Actually, it was known as a war. The Honey War. Awwww, what a sweet name for a war. #4 Len Small Well, here we go. Another Illinois governor. In office during the Roaring Twenties, from 1921 to 1929. His corruption started long before he was governor, back when he was the Illinois Treasurer. He was charged with embezzling over a million dollars through money laundering, by “misplacing” state funds into a fake bank. He went to trial for it while he was governor, and despite there being pretty good evidence that he was guilty, got off scot-free. Coincidentally, eight of the jurors who said he was not guilty in his trial later got cushy state jobs, and so did the brothers of the judge in that case. Coincidence? In 1925, when the Illinois Supreme Court said that yep, Small was guilty and he had to pay back that $1 million after all, Small fought back with a legal team and forced his own state employees to help pay for his defense. Small pardoned or released more than 1000 convicted felons, including a dude who was convicted of kidnapping young girls and making them slaves in which they were forced to be prostitutes. Also, Small released a bootlegger who later became the leader of one of the most powerful bootlegging gangs in Chicago. Oh Lenny. I can’t make this stuff up, can I? #3 Wilson Lumpkin Another great name, another bad governor. He was in office for the lovely state of Georgia from 1831 to 1835. He thought his biggest accomplishment, you know, something he was most proud of, was the removal of the peaceful Cherokee Indians from north Georgia. Yep, he was proud of kicking the Cherokee off their land, which led to the Trail of Tears and eventual death of 4,000 people. Wow, Wilson. Just wow. Did I mention he went against the Supreme Court by kicking them out? Check out that decision, by the way, I have a video about that called Worcester v. Georgia. He encouraged white settlers to take their land while they were still there. And did I mention he was a big supporter of slavery? Of course he was. And speaking of slavery... For #2, it’s a tie. In fact, 28 governors all tie for #2 on this list. They are the 28 Southern governors who all agreed to secede from the Union and become leaders in the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. Here are their names. I’m not going to read them off for you, but all of them declared allegiance to the Confederacy in the name of preserving the institution of slavery. I’m not going to call them traitors, because they didn’t think they were traitors. But they were wrong, and in my opinion, they do not deserve to be honored. And this last one will likely surprise you… #1 Brigham Young If you’re one of his 1,000 direct descendants, I’m pretty sure you are going to be offended by what I’m about to say. And if you’re Mormon, well I talked trash about Boggs earlier so hopefully this evens out. In case you didn’t know, Brigham Young was governor of the Territory of Utah from 1851 to 1858. Governor? Dictator might be a better word. I mean, he had absolute power. And there was no separation of church and state, it was a theocracy. After he led his Mormon followers into what is now known as Utah, and before the Feds go involved, whatever he said went. He argued slavery was a “divine institution.” Yep, people forget Utah used to allow slavery. Ok, and obviously the polygamy thing. He had 55 wives, for crying out loud. After he couldn’t convert the local Native American population to the Church of Latter Day Saints, he basically ordered to kill them. Yep. Genocide. Ethnic cleansing. And under his watch, the Mountain Meadows Massacre happened. Just Google it. It’s horrific, and it caused him to step down as governor. When the federal government came to challenge him during the Utah War, Young declared marital law and told his followers they may have to burn down their homes, hide in the woods, and conduct guerilla warfare to defend their way of life. He maybe started out as a nice guy, but in the end I think the power corrupted him, as power tends to do. So that’s it. I’m sure that last one surprised you, probably because you didn’t realize how horrible Brigham Young was or maybe you didn't realize he was a governor for a short while. He does have tons of monuments out there celebrating him and even a university named after him that’s one of the biggest universities in the country. Before I go, I want to point out that I was fairly out of my comfort zone when researching for this video There are so many governors in American history. that it's really hard to keep track of them. Plus, there's a lot of really bad ones and a lot of governors that we don't know much about in the early years. So if there are any governors that I did not include, that I totally missed please let me know in the comments. I will not be offended. Just let it all out. I do have a list of honorable mentions. Or should I say "DIShonorable mentions." That I included in the description of this video. They didn't quite make the cut. But as far as I know, this is the only video out there about the worst governors in American history. And thank you to Ian for giving me the idea. This video is dedicated to him. And to his mom. Thank you to you both for your support on Patreon. It means so much. I'll be back with a new episode of Supreme Court Briefs next week. Thank you for watching. And there's just one more thing. I'm really not running for Kansas governor in 2018. I just made that up.



For the period before independence, see the list of colonial governors of Georgia.

Georgia was one of the original Thirteen Colonies and ratified the Constitution of the United States on January 2, 1788.[2] Before it declared its independence, Georgia was a colony of the Kingdom of Great Britain. Like most early states, Georgia had claims to western areas, but did not cede its claims during the formation of the country like the other states. It sold this area, the Yazoo Lands, to the federal government on April 24, 1802,[3] when it was assigned to Mississippi Territory.

In Georgia's Rules and Regulations of 1776, considered by some to be the first constitution, the chief executive was a president chosen by the legislature every six months.[4] This was quickly superseded by the 1777 constitution, which called for a governor to be chosen by the legislature each year,[5] with a term limited to one year out of every three.[6] In the event of a vacancy, the president of the executive council acted as governor.[7] The governor's term was lengthened to two years in the 1789 constitution.[8] The 1798 constitution modified succession so that the president of the senate would act as governor should that office become vacant. An 1818 amendment to that constitution extended the line of succession to the speaker of the house,[9] and an 1824 amendment provided for popular election of the governor.[10]

While the 1861 secessionist constitution kept the office the same, the other constitutions surrounding the American Civil War brought lots of changes. The 1865 constitution, following Georgia's surrender, limited governors to two consecutive terms of two years each, allowing them to serve again after a gap of four years.[11] The Reconstruction constitution of 1868 increased the governor's term to four years.[12] The 1877 constitution, after local rule was re-established, returned the office to the provisions of the 1865 constitution.[13] An amendment in 1941 lengthened terms to 4 years, but governors could no longer succeed themselves, having to wait four years to serve again.[14] The constitution does not specify when terms start, only that the governor is installed at the next session of the General Assembly.[15]

The 1945 constitution provided for a lieutenant governor, to serve the same term as governor and to act as governor if that office became vacant. Should it become vacant within 30 days of the next general election, or if the governor's term would have ended within 90 days of the next election, the lieutenant governor acts out the term; otherwise, a successor is chosen in the next general election.[16] This was retained in the 1976 constitution. The current constitution of 1983 allows governors to succeed themselves once before having to wait four years to serve again,[17] and lieutenant governors now become governor in the event of a vacancy. Should the office of lieutenant governor be vacant, the speaker of the house acts as governor, and a special election to fill the office must happen in 90 days.[18]

The revolutionary government was thrown into disarray by the Capture of Savannah in 1778, which led to two governments with varying levels of influence; they would reunite in 1780. This article relies on the Official and Statistical Register of Georgia, which ignores the Council of Safety of William Ewen in favor of Archibald Bulloch's government, and omits the government of William Glascock and Seth John Cuthbert.[19]

Governors of the State of Georgia[a]
No.[b] Governor Term in office Party Election Lt. Governor[c]
Archibald Bulloch 1.jpg
  Archibald Bulloch January 22, 1776

February 22, 1777
(died in office)
None [d] Office did not exist
Button Gwinnett.jpg
Button Gwinnett March 4, 1777

May 8, 1777
None [e]
John Adam Treutlen.jpg
John A. Treutlen May 8, 1777

January 10, 1778
10 John Houstoun January 10, 1778

December 29, 1778[f]
Vacant December 29, 1778

August 6, 1779
Government in
chaos after fall
of Savannah
11   John Wereat August 6, 1779

November 1779[g]
George Walton.jpg
George Walton November 1779[g]

January 4, 1780
13 Richard Howly January 4, 1780

February 5, 1780
None [i]
Stephen Heard.jpg
Stephen Heard February 18, 1780

August 18, 1781
None [i][j]
15 Nathan Brownson August 18, 1781

January 3, 1782
(term limited)
None 1781
16 John Martin January 3, 1782

January 8, 1783
(term limited)
None 1782
Lyman Hall.jpg
Lyman Hall January 8, 1783

January 9, 1784
(term limited)
None 1783
10 John Houstoun January 9, 1784

January 6, 1785
(term limited)
None 1784
Samuel Elbert January 6, 1785

January 9, 1786
(term limited)
None 1785
19 Edward Telfair January 9, 1786

January 9, 1787
(term limited)
None 1786
George Mathews from The Nation Makers by Howard Pyle.jpg
George Mathews January 9, 1787

January 26, 1788
(term limited)
None 1787
21 George Handley January 26, 1788

January 7, 1789
(term limited)
None 1788[k]
George Walton.jpg
George Walton January 7, 1789

November 9, 1789
(term limited)
Jan. 1789
19 Edward Telfair November 9, 1789

November 7, 1793
(lost election)
Nov. 1789[l]
George Mathews from The Nation Makers by Howard Pyle.jpg
George Mathews November 7, 1793

January 15, 1796
(not candidate for election)
Jared Irwin.jpg
Jared Irwin January 15, 1796

January 12, 1798
(not candidate for election)
James Jackson January 12, 1798

March 3, 1801
24 David Emanuel March 3, 1801

November 7, 1801
(not candidate for election)
Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
25 Josiah Tattnall November 7, 1801

November 4, 1802
John Milledge November 4, 1802

September 23, 1806
Jared Irwin.jpg
Jared Irwin September 23, 1806

November 10, 1809
(not candidate for election)
Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
David Brydie Mitchell November 10, 1809

November 5, 1813
(not candidate for election)
Peter Early November 5, 1813

November 20, 1815
(lost election)
David Brydie Mitchell November 20, 1815

March 4, 1817
29 William Rabun March 4, 1817

October 24, 1819
(died in office)
Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
Matthew Talbot.jpg
Matthew Talbot October 24, 1819

November 5, 1819
(successor took office)
Succeeded from
President of
the Senate
John Clark.jpg
John Clark November 5, 1819

November 7, 1823
(not candidate for election)
George M. Troup.jpg
George Troup November 7, 1823

November 7, 1827
(not candidate for election)
John Forsyth November 7, 1827

November 4, 1829
(not candidate for election)
George Rockingham Gilmer.jpg
George Rockingham Gilmer November 4, 1829

November 9, 1831
(not candidate for election)
Wilson Lumpkin.jpg
Wilson Lumpkin November 9, 1831

November 4, 1835
(not candidate for election)
Union (Democratic) 1831
William Schley.jpg
William Schley November 4, 1835

November 8, 1837
(not candidate for election)
Union (Democratic) 1835
George Rockingham Gilmer.jpg
George Rockingham Gilmer November 8, 1837

November 6, 1839
(not candidate for election)
State Rights (Whig) 1837
Charles James McDonald November 6, 1839

November 8, 1843
(not candidate for election)
Union (Democratic) 1839
George W. Crawford November 8, 1843

November 3, 1847
(not candidate for election)
Whig 1843
George W. Towns November 3, 1847

November 5, 1851
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1847
Howell Cobb-crop.jpg
Howell Cobb November 5, 1851

November 9, 1853
(not candidate for election)
Constitutional Union 1851
Herschel V. Johnson cph.3a02862.jpg
Herschel Vespasian Johnson November 9, 1853

November 6, 1857
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1853
Joseph Emerson Brown.jpg
Joseph E. Brown November 6, 1857

June 17, 1865[r]
Democratic 1857
JJohnson Governor.jpg
James Johnson June 17, 1865

December 14, 1865[t]
(provisional term ended)
Democratic Provisional
appointed by
Charles J. Jenkins December 14, 1865

January 13, 1868
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1865[v]
Thomas H. Ruger.jpg
Thomas H. Ruger January 13, 1868

July 4, 1868
(state readmitted)
Rufus Bullock - Brady-Handy.jpg
Rufus Bullock July 4, 1868[x]

October 30, 1871[y]
Republican 1868[aa]
Benjamin Conley.jpg
Benjamin F. Conley October 30, 1871

January 12, 1872
Republican President of
the Senate
acting as
James Milton Smith January 12, 1872

January 12, 1877
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1871
Alfred Holt Colquitt.jpg
Alfred H. Colquitt January 12, 1877

November 4, 1882
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1876
Alexander Stephens.jpg
Alexander H. Stephens November 4, 1882

March 4, 1883
(died in office)
Democratic 1882
James S. Boynton.jpg
James S. Boynton March 4, 1883

May 10, 1883
(not candidate for election)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Henry Dickerson McDaniel May 10, 1883

November 9, 1886
(not candidate for election)[ad]
Democratic 1883
John Brown Gordon November 9, 1886

November 8, 1890
(term limited)
Democratic 1886
William J. Northen.jpg
William J. Northen November 8, 1890

October 27, 1894
(term limited)
Democratic 1890
William Yates Atkinson.jpg
William Yates Atkinson October 27, 1894

October 29, 1898
(term limited)
Democratic 1894
Allen D. Candler.jpg
Allen D. Candler October 29, 1898

October 25, 1902
(term limited)
Democratic 1898
Joseph M. Terrell October 25, 1902

June 29, 1907
(term limited)
Democratic 1902
M. Hoke Smith, 1912.jpg
M. Hoke Smith June 29, 1907

June 26, 1909
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1906
Joseph Mackey Brown June 26, 1909

July 1, 1911
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1908
M. Hoke Smith, 1912.jpg
M. Hoke Smith July 1, 1911

November 15, 1911[ag]
Democratic 1910
John Marshall Slaton.jpg
John M. Slaton November 16, 1911

January 25, 1912
(not candidate for election)
Democratic President of
the Senate
acting as
Joseph Mackey Brown January 25, 1912

June 28, 1913
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1912
John Marshall Slaton.jpg
John M. Slaton June 28, 1913

June 26, 1915
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1912
Nathaniel Harris 1882.png
Nathaniel Edwin Harris June 26, 1915

June 30, 1917
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1914
Hugh Dorsey.jpg
Hugh Dorsey June 30, 1917

June 25, 1921
(term limited)
Democratic 1916
Senator Thomas Hardwick.jpg
Thomas W. Hardwick June 25, 1921

June 30, 1923
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1920
Clifford Walker June 30, 1923

June 25, 1927
(term limited)
Democratic 1922
Lamartine Griffin Hardman June 25, 1927

June 27, 1931
(term limited)
Democratic 1926
Richard RussellJr.jpg
Richard Russell Jr. June 27, 1931

January 10, 1933
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1930[aj]
Eugene Talmadge, Georgia Governor.jpg
Eugene Talmadge January 10, 1933

January 12, 1937
(term limited)
Democratic 1932
E. D. Rivers Georgia Governor.jpg
Eurith D. Rivers January 12, 1937

January 14, 1941
(term limited)
Democratic 1936
Eugene Talmadge, Georgia Governor.jpg
Eugene Talmadge January 14, 1941

January 12, 1943
(not candidate for election)
Democratic 1940
69 Ellis Arnall January 12, 1943

January 14, 1947
(term limited)
Democratic 1942[ak]
Eugene Talmadge, Georgia Governor.jpg
Eugene Talmadge Died before taking office Democratic 1946[al]   Melvin E. Thompson
Herman Talmadge January 14, 1947

March 18, 1947
(removed from office)
70 Melvin E. Thompson March 18, 1947

November 17, 1948
(lost election)
Democratic Succeeded from
Herman Talmadge November 17, 1948

January 11, 1955
(term limited)
Democratic 1948
Marvin Griffin
Marvin Griffin January 11, 1955

January 13, 1959
(term limited)
Democratic 1954 Ernest Vandiver
Ernest Vandiver (1962).jpg
Ernest Vandiver January 13, 1959

January 15, 1963
(term limited)
Democratic 1958 Garland T. Byrd
Carl Sanders.jpg
Carl Sanders January 15, 1963

January 11, 1967
(term limited)
Democratic 1962 Peter Zack Geer
Lester Maddox.jpg
Lester Maddox January 11, 1967

January 12, 1971
(term limited)
Democratic 1966 George T. Smith
Jimmy Carter official portrait as Governor.jpg
Jimmy Carter January 12, 1971

January 14, 1975
(term limited)
Democratic 1970 Lester Maddox
George Busbee.jpg
George Busbee January 14, 1975

January 11, 1983
(term limited)
Democratic 1974 Zell Miller
Joe Frank Harris.jpg
Joe Frank Harris January 11, 1983

January 14, 1991
(term limited)
Democratic 1982
Zell B Miller.jpg
Zell Miller January 14, 1991

January 11, 1999
(term limited)
Democratic 1990 Pierre Howard
Governor Roy Barnes.jpg
Roy Barnes January 11, 1999

January 13, 2003
(lost election)
Democratic 1998 Mark Taylor[an]
Sonny Perdue at rally.jpg
Sonny Perdue January 13, 2003

January 10, 2011
(term limited)
Republican 2002
2006 Casey Cagle
Nathan Deal, official 110th Congress photo.jpg
Nathan Deal January 10, 2011

January 14, 2019
(term limited)
Republican 2010
David Perdue and Brian Kemp (cropped).jpg
Brian Kemp January 14, 2019

Republican 2018 Geoff Duncan

See also


  1. ^ Data is sourced from the Official and Statistical Register of Georgia[19], unless supplemental references are required.
  2. ^ The state says Brian Kemp is the 83rd governor; this number is derived from the Official and Statistical Register of Georgia, last published by the Office of Secretary of State in 1978. It begins the numbering from the colonial governors and omits repeat governors, thus marking Archibald Bulloch as 7th and George Busbee as 77th.[19]
  3. ^ The office of Lieutenant Governor was created in 1945, first being filled in 1947.
  4. ^ The revolutionary government did not necessarily follow any schedule or term lengths, and thus the election year is omitted until 1781, when it becomes easier to determine.
  5. ^ Gwinnett was elected by the council to succeed Bulloch.
  6. ^ The date given is the Capture of Savannah, where the New Georgia Encyclopedia says his last official act as governor was to flee.[20]
  7. ^ a b c The Capture of Savannah threw the government into disarray and exile, and records are scarce as to dates and leadership. William Glascock (elected January 21, 1779)[21] and Seth John Cuthbert (elected July 24, 1779), while often included in lists of governors, are omitted from the official state register, likely because of this reason. A school pamphlet from 1977 notes, "This confusing situation resulted in a number of radical Whigs, mainly from Wilkes County, organizing a second government with George Walton as governor and Glascock as speaker of the assembly. ... As a result of this makeshift election, there were two Whig governments plus the restored loyalist government."[22]
  8. ^ Howly resigned to be a delegate to the Continental Congress.
  9. ^ a b George Wells succeeded Howly, but was killed in a duel on February 16, 1780; he is omitted from nearly every list of governors, including the official register. Stephen Heard then became governor.[23]
  10. ^ Some sources say Myrick Davies was elected in August 1780 and served until his death;[24] however, he is omitted from the official state register.
  11. ^ James Jackson was elected in 1788, but declined the position, citing inexperience.[25]
  12. ^ First term under the 1789 constitution, which lengthened terms to two years.
  13. ^ Jackson resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  14. ^ Tattnall resigned due to declining health.
  15. ^ Milledge resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  16. ^ Special election to fill the remainder of Josiah Tattnall's term.[26]
  17. ^ Mitchell resigned to be agent to the Creek Indians.
  18. ^ One source states Brown left office on June 25, which could make sense as it would take several days for news of Johnson's appointment to reach Georgia. However, this source has not been corroborated.[27]
  19. ^ Brown resigned following the defeat of the Confederate States of America.
  20. ^ At least one source states Johnson left office "five days after" Jenkins took office, which would be December 19.[28] However, more contemporary sources say he left office on December 14.[29]
  21. ^ Johnson was appointed provisional governor by the Union occupation.[30]
  22. ^ Jenkins was removed from office by the military because he refused to allow state funds to be used for a racially integrated state constitutional convention; the state was still under military occupation during Reconstruction.
  23. ^ Provisional governor appointed by General George Meade.
  24. ^ Some sources state Bullock took office on July 21, but more contemporary sources say July 4.[29]
  25. ^ Some sources state Bullock resigned on October 23, but that is when he secretly submitted his resignation; it did not take effect until October 30.[31]
  26. ^ Bullock resigned and fled the state to avoid impeachment; he was arrested in 1876 and found not guilty of embezzlement.
  27. ^ First term under the 1868 constitution, which lengthened terms to four years.
  28. ^ Special election for the remainder of Rufus Bullock's term.
  29. ^ First term under the 1877 constitution, which shortened terms to two years.
  30. ^ McDaniel's first term was shortened, so it is not known if he can be considered term limited.
  31. ^ Special election for the remainder of Alexander Stephens' term.
  32. ^ The start of a gubernatorial term has always been set by the legislature, rather than the constitution; it appears the start of this term changed from the last Saturday in October to the last Saturday in June, lengthening it by eight months.
  33. ^ Sources are split on whether Smith resigned on November 15 or November 16, with contemporary sources leaning towards November 15.[32]
  34. ^ Smith resigned to take an elected seat in the United States Senate.
  35. ^ Special election for the remainder of Hoke Smith's term.
  36. ^ The start of the term changed from the last Saturday in June to the second Tuesday in January, shortening this term by five months.[33]
  37. ^ First term under the 1945 constitution, which lengthened terms to four years.
  38. ^ Eugene Talmadge was elected to a third term in 1946, but died before taking office. Ellis Arnall, governor at the time, claimed the office, as did Lieutenant Governor Melvin Thompson. The state legislature chose Eugene Talmadge's son, Herman Talmadge, to be governor, but during what came to be called the "Three Governors controversy", the state supreme court declared this unconstitutional and declared Thompson rightful governor, and Talmadge stepped down after 67 days. Talmadge later defeated Thompson in a special election.
  39. ^ Special election to fill Eugene Talmadge's term.
  40. ^ Represented the Democratic Party.
  41. ^ Kemp's first term expires January 9, 2023.


  • "Governors of Georgia". National Governors Association. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  • "The New Georgia Encyclopedia". Archived from the original on December 11, 2012. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  • A History of Georgia, second ed. Kenneth Coleman, general editor. University of Georgia Press: 1991.
  • The Revolutionary Records of the State of Georgia Volume 1. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
  1. ^ "CSG Releases 2013 Governor Salaries". The Council of State Governments. June 25, 2013. Retrieved November 23, 2014.
  2. ^ "Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Georgia - January 2, 1788". The Avalon Project at Yale Law School. Retrieved January 9, 2011.
  3. ^ "Yazoo Land Fraud". Our Georgia History. Archived from the original on 2006-09-07. Retrieved 2006-08-04.
  4. ^ 1776 Const. art. I
  5. ^ 1777 Const. art. II
  6. ^ 1777 Const. art. XXIII
  7. ^ 1777 Const. art. XXIX
  8. ^ 1789 Const. art. 2, § 1
  9. ^ 1798 Const. Amendment 4
  10. ^ 1798 Const. Amendment 7
  11. ^ 1865 Const. art III, § 1
  12. ^ 1868 Const. art. IV, § 1
  13. ^ 1877 Const. art. 5, § 1 par. 2
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ GA Const. art V, § 1 par. 2
  16. ^ 1945 Const. art. V, § 1 par. 7
  17. ^ GA Const. art V, § 1 par 4
  18. ^ GA Const. art. V, § 1 par 5
  19. ^ a b c "Georgia Official and Statistical Register, 1977-1978 - page 1145". Digital Library of Georgia. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  20. ^ "John Houstoun". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  21. ^ Autobiography of a Colony: The First Half-Century of Augusta, Georgia. University of Georgia Press. 2009. p. 127. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  22. ^ "Political Changes in Georgia 1775-1787" (PDF). Georgia Department of Education. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  23. ^ JSTOR 40579633
  24. ^ "Stephen Heard". New Georgia Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  25. ^ "James Jackson". National Governors Association. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  26. ^ "Georgia 1802 Governor, Special". Tufts University. Retrieved August 28, 2016.
  27. ^ Otto, John Henry (2004). Memoirs of a Dutch Mudsill. Kent State University Press.
  28. ^ "James Johnson". National Governors Association. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  29. ^ a b The Government of the People of the State of Georgia. 1896. pp. 184–186. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  30. ^ "James Johnson". National Governors Association. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  31. ^ "This Day in Georgia History - October 23, 1871: Rufus Bullock Resigned". Georgia Library Learning Online. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  32. ^ Official Congressional Directory. 1919. p. 17. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  33. ^ "Richard Brevard Russell". National Governors Association. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
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