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List of German Americans

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

German Americans (German: Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of German ancestry; they form the largest ethnic ancestry group in the United States, accounting for 17% of U.S. population.[1] The first significant numbers arrived in the 1680s in New York and Pennsylvania. Some eight million German immigrants have entered the United States since that point. Immigration continued in substantial numbers during the 19th century; the largest number of arrivals moved 1840–1900, when Germans formed the largest group of immigrants coming to the U.S., outnumbering the Irish and English.[2] Some arrived seeking religious or political freedom, others for economic opportunities greater than those in Europe, and others for the chance to start afresh in the New World. California and Pennsylvania have the largest populations of German origin, with more than six million German Americans residing in the two states alone.[3] More than 50 million people in the United States identify German as their ancestry; it is often mixed with other Northern European ethnicities.[4] This list also includes people of German Jewish descent.

Americans of German descent live in nearly every American county, from the East Coast, where the first German settlers arrived in the 17th century, to the West Coast and in all the states in between. German Americans and those Germans who settled in the U.S. have been influential in almost every field, from science, to architecture, to entertainment, and to commercial industry.


Art and literature

Architects

Artists

Authors and writers

Businesspeople and entrepreneurs

Brewers


Distillers

Entertainment

Actors and actresses

Celebrities

Composers and musicians

Directors, producers, screenwriters, and film editors

Humorists

Models

First Ladies of the United States

(in order by their husband's presidency)

Historical figures

Military

Philosophers

Politicians

Religious

Scientists and inventors

Sports

Baseball

Basketball

Football

Golf

Ice hockey

Soccer

Tennis

Wrestling, mixed martial arts, and boxing

Other sports

See also

References

  1. ^ United States Census Bureau. "US demographic census". Retrieved November 16, 2009.; In 2009, 50.7 million claimed German ancestry. The 2000 census gives 15.2% or 42.8 million. The 1990 census had 23.3% or 57.9 million.
  2. ^ Adams, J. Q.; Pearlie Strother-Adams (2001). Dealing with Diversity. Chicago, Illinois: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7872-8145-8.
  3. ^ "German-American Heritage Foundation". Archived from the original on October 20, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  4. ^ [1] Archived 2020-02-11 at Archive.today "U.S. Census Bureau, German ancestry – German: 50,764,352"
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-06-15. Retrieved 2012-03-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Dankmar Adler (1844–1900) was born in a small town in Germany."
  6. ^ Brody, Seymour "Sy"; biographical sketch of Dankmar Adler in the Jewish Virtual Library
  7. ^ Violette, Zachary J. (April 30, 2019). The Decorated Tenement: How Immigrant Builders and Architects Transformed the Slum in the Gilded Age. U of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9781452960463. Retrieved August 6, 2019 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ [2]"Designed by German-born architect August H. Blankenstein, 74 East 4th Street is known as the Aschenbroedel Verein building. Aschenbroedel Verein was a German-American professional orchestral musician's social and benevolent association founded in 1860."
  9. ^ "Adolf Cluss, Architect: From Germany to America – The Book to Accompany the Exhibitions". Adolf-cluss.org. 2006-05-20. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  10. ^ Obituary The New York Times, October 29, 2007
  11. ^ [3] "Walter Gropius was a German architect and art educator"
  12. ^ "BHL: Albert Kahn papers 1896–2011". University of Michigan. 1909-12-06. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  13. ^ [4]" German-born and educated Richard Kiehnel (1877–1944) and his partner John Blair Elliott (b. 1868) were commissioned to design the school."
  14. ^ http://www.jsonline.com/news/wisconsin/wisconsin-historical-society-buys-henry-kochs-battle-maps-o59b9rh-200675041.html
  15. ^ [5] "German-born architect famous for his wire rope suspension bridge designs, in particular, the design of the Brooklyn Bridge."
  16. ^ [6] Archived 2012-02-02 at the Wayback Machine Quote: "Washington Roebling grew up in Saxonburg, a village of German farmers who had just made the journey to America. John Roebling founded this settlement by leading a group of immigrants from Mühlhausen, Germany, to America in 1832. Roebling surveyed and planned the village and distributed land to the families."
  17. ^ [7] "Frederick C. Sauer was a German immigrant-architect and builder who established a Pittsburgh office in 1884, and practiced locally for many years.
  18. ^ [8] "The church was designed by Frederick C. Sauer. While at Technical School in Wittenberg, Germany he worked as a stone cutter, brick layer arid carpenter. After graduation in 1879 he came to Pittsburgh at the age of 19."
  19. ^ Aurand, Martin. 1994. The Progressive Architecture of Frederick G. Scheibler Jr., University of Pittsburgh Press. Pittsburgh.
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-03-23. Retrieved 2007-04-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "German-born designer of the US capitol dome. (c. 1817–1900)"
  21. ^ [9] Archived 2014-03-22 at the Wayback Machine "The Legacy of the Schuler School of Fine Arts"
  22. ^ Faust, Albert Bernhardt (1908). The German Element in the United States with Special Reference to Its Political, Moral, Social, and Educational Influence. Houghton Mifflin Co. pp. 64–65.
  23. ^ Baltzell, Edward Digby. Puritan Boston & Quaker Philadelphia (Transaction Publishers, 1996), pp. 332–33. ISBN 1-56000-830-X
  24. ^ [10] "German-born Architect"
  25. ^ [11] "German-born American Textile Artist"], Artcyclopedia
  26. ^ Roderick Conway Morris (October 21, 2011), Making of a Bauhaus Master New York Times.
  27. ^ "Transcript: 'Project Runway' Winner Christian Siriano". The Washington Post. March 10, 2008.
  28. ^ Peter Palmquist, "Robert Benecke", Pioneer Photographers from the Mississippi to the Continental Divide (Stanford University Press, 2005), pp. 102–103.
  29. ^ [12] "German-born Bierstadt, whose teachers had included the German Romantic painter Lessing ..."
  30. ^ [13] "Born in Heide, Germany, Rudolph Dirks moved with his parents to Chicago at the age of seven."
  31. ^ "Alfred Eisenstaedt". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved June 7, 2009. born December 6, 1898, Dirschau, West Prussia ... pioneering German-American photojournalist
  32. ^ "Jimmy Ernst's Biography". The Estate of Jimmy Ernst. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  33. ^ James, George Wharton; Eytel, Carl (illustrator) (1906). The Wonders of the Colorado Desert (Southern California). Boston: Little, Brown, and Company. ISBN 978-1-103-73361-3. LCC F868.S15 J2
  34. ^ a b c d e German-American Artists. May 2010. ISBN 978-1155199375.
  35. ^ [14] "Lyonel Feininger (Léonell Charles Feininger) is born in New York City on July 17. He is the first child of the violinist Karl Feininger from Durlach in Baden (South West Germany) and the American singer Elizabeth Cecilia Feininger, born Lutz, who is also of German descent."
  36. ^ James A. Hoobler and Sarah Hunter Marks, Nashville: From the Collection of Carl and Otto Giers (Arcadia Publishing, 2000), p. 7.
  37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-06-17. Retrieved 2006-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "early 20th century German artist, George Grosz."
  38. ^ Coates, John (2014). "Formative Years". Don Heck: A Work Of Art. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1605490588.
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-19. Retrieved 2008-01-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Ulrike Herzner ("Uli"), is a 35-year-old German native who currently resides in Miami Beach."
  40. ^ [15] "German-American painter and teacher, often called the dean of abstract expressionism"
  41. ^ Penelope Green, "The Serial Sleepover Artist", The New York Times, April 13, 2011.
  42. ^ [16] "Kleibacker Clan"
  43. ^ Harold H. Knerr Lambiek Comiclopedia "Harold Hering Knerr was the son of an emigrated German physician."
  44. ^ [17] "Born in Ebingen, Württemberg. Krimmel immigrated to the United States in 1810. Settled in Philadelphia, where he painted portraits, miniatures and gently satirical street and domestic scenes. He returned to Germany from 1817 to 1818. Back in Philadelphia in 1819. Early 1821 he was elected president of the Association of American Artists, but on July 15 of the same year he accidentally drowned near Germantown, Pennsylvania."
  45. ^ [18] "German Americans also have influenced greatly our artistic heritage. Emanuel Leutze's 1851 painting, Washington Crossing the Delaware River, remains a cherished and recognized symbol of American courage and determination."
  46. ^ [19] "... born in Germany. Worked as an itinerant artist in Europe before immigrating to the United States in 1837. While living in New York City he married a French-Canadian and spent most of his life in Canada."
  47. ^ [20] "German-born artist, designed the first Confederate flag and the Confederate uniform".
  48. ^ [21] "German/American, 1832–1932"
  49. ^ [22]"Josef Muench (David's father) was born in Schweinfurt, Bavaria on February 8, 1904."
  50. ^ [23]"Josef Muench was born in Schweinfurt, Bavaria on February 8, 1904."
  51. ^ [24]"Josef Muench (Marc's grandfather) was born in Schweinfurt, Bavaria on February 8, 1904."
  52. ^ [25] "NAHL, Charles Christian (1818–1878), born in Kassel, immigrated to United States in 1849".
  53. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-05-18. Retrieved 2006-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Thomas Nast – German-born Father of American Caricature ..."
  54. ^ "Elisabet Ney-Formosa studio". City of Austin Parks and Recreation Dept. Archived from the original on 13 March 2009. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
  55. ^ [26] "German American art historian who gained particular prominence for his studies in iconography (the study of symbols and themes in works of art)."
  56. ^ [27] "German-American painter trained in the "Munich School" style who is best known for his nudes, clowns and portraits and his ill-fated voyage of the South Pacific which nearly cost him his life"
  57. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-05-02. Retrieved 2006-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "German native Severin Roesen is most famous for his abundant fruit ..."
  58. ^ [28] "... born most likely in Nuremberg, landscape and botanical painter. Studied art in Düsseldorf and Munich. In 1825 he went to Switzerland, where he stayed for 20 years before he emigrated to America in 1845."
  59. ^ [29] "... earliest type founder in America, published the first Bible in German, 1743, and the first religious magazine in America, 1764. The magazine was published by Christopher Sauer II, who took over the printshop after his father died in 1758."
  60. ^ [30] "Schwartz first worked at MetaDesign Berlin, developing typefaces for Volkswagen and logos for a number of corporations. He then returned to the US and joined the design staff at The Font Bureau, Inc., working for a wide range of corporate and publication clients."
  61. ^ [31] "... born in Tilsit, East Prussia, came to America at the age of 17."
  62. ^ [32] "Gustavus Sohon was born in Tilsit, Germany on December 10, 1825. He came to America at the age of 17 and lived in Brooklyn, New York. A gifted linguist (he spoke English, French, and German) ..."
  63. ^ [33] "Gustavus Sohon, a native of East Prussia, arrived on the Columbia River in 1852 as a private in the US Army."
  64. ^ [34] "Birthplace: Cologne, Germany"
  65. ^ [35] "Though her father (Rene Von Drachenberg) is of German descent and her mother (Sylvia Galeano) has Spanish-Italian roots, both her parents are native Argentinians."
  66. ^ "About | Kat von D Beauty". Archived from the original on 2008-04-10. Retrieved 2008-04-09. "Her father René Drachenberg and her mother Sylvia Galeano were both born in Argentina, though René's family origins were German and Sylvia's Spanish-Italian"
  67. ^ Category:German noble templates "Freiin, under German Nobles"
  68. ^ "William G. Wehner | MOWA Online Archive". wisconsinart.org. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  69. ^ [36] "German American Corner: WIMAR, Karl Ferdinand (1828–1862)"
  70. ^ [37] "German Heritage"
  71. ^ "Matthias Bartgis, MSA SC 3520-14987". msa.maryland.gov. Retrieved 2017-05-23.
  72. ^ Rogers, p. 1.
  73. ^ Actors Directors from Germany, Austria, Switzerland – German-Hollywood Connection Archived July 20, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  74. ^ "Colegio de Abogados y Abogadas de Puerto Rico". capr.org. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  75. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-06-12. Retrieved 2006-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "So when Bukowski, who was German-born, got along with this young ..."
  76. ^ Catalano, Grace (February 1997). Leonardo DiCaprio: Modern-Day Romeo. New York: Dell Publishing Group. pp. 7–15. ISBN 978-0-440-22701-4.
  77. ^ [38] "Part of a large German-American family, and the ninth of ten children, his childhood was marked by poverty." [39] "Theodore Dreiser was the son of a German Catholic immigrant father and a German-Moravian Mennonite mother."
  78. ^ [40] "1829 – Gomried Duden's published travel report encourages thousands of Germans to come to America, especially Missouri"
  79. ^ [41] "I could hear the pain in my German-American father's voice as he recalled being yanked out of Lutheran school during World War I and forbidden by his immigrant parents ever to speak German again."
  80. ^ [42] "Born May 27, 1917, in Hamburg, Germany; died February 11, 2006, in Las Vegas, Nevada. Moved to United States in 1938; resided in New York City from 1938 to 2006."
  81. ^ Max Ehrmann "An American writer, poet, and attorney from Terre Haute, Indiana. Born September 26, 1872 – Died September 9, 1945"
  82. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2005-03-24. Retrieved 2006-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Like Charles Follen and Carl Schurz, Lieber was a German revolutionary and patriot but only America allowed him to develop his talents to the full."
  83. ^ [43] "German: from a short form of a Germanic personal name cognate with Old High German gratag 'greedy'."
  84. ^ Benjamin Balint. "From Frankfurt to New Haven", The Forward, May 22, 2008.
  85. ^ Dan Webster, "Ursula Hegi" Archived 2012-01-14 at the Wayback Machine, Spokesman Review, April 3, 2003.
  86. ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Patricia Highsmith". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on April 30, 2007.. Quote: "Her father was of German descent and she did not meet him until she was twelve – the surname Highsmith was from her stepfather..."
  87. ^ [44] "The two most distinguished German Sinologists at the turn of the century, Friedrich Hirth (1845–1927) and Berthold Laufer ..."
  88. ^ Gates Jr., Henry Louis (2016). Finding Your Roots, Season 2: The Official Companion to the PBS Series. The University Of North Carolina Press. p. 17. ISBN 9781469626185.
  89. ^ [45] Archived 2007-08-10 at the Wayback Machine "German-American film historian, sociologist and author, best known for his 1947 book From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. His Theory of Film (1960) was Kracauer's second influential, if also controversial, work. Born in Germany, the former editor of a Frankfurt newspaper and German film critic moved to America in 1941. His studies concentrated on how cinema both influences and is influenced by social and economic conditions."
  90. ^ Peterson, David (1992). ""From Bone Depth": German-American Communities in Rural Minnesota before the Great War". Journal of American Ethnic History. 11 (2): 27–55. JSTOR 27500930.
  91. ^ "Feb 7 Arts and Entertainment: Poet Laureate enjoys first year". timesheraldonline.com. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  92. ^ "The American Language: Video Lesson Plan". American Writers. C-SPAN. Archived from the original on 12 October 2002. Retrieved 19 July 2016. Mencken came from a German-American neighborhood and family.
  93. ^ [46] "... largely German-speaking neighborhood (Miller's grandparents had emigrated from Germany"
  94. ^ [47] "Pennsylvania Dutch Identity: Anna Balmer Myers"
  95. ^ [48] "Public Letter to Oswald Ottendorfer" by Carl Schurz – From Frederic Bancroft, ed., Speeches, Correspondence and Political Papers of Carl Schurz, Volume III, pp. 261–280. Oswald Ottendorfer was editor of the N. Y. Staats-Zeitung. This letter was written in German. The translation, taken from one of the New York newspapers, was probably made hastily and not by Carl Schurz."
  96. ^ [49] "Ottendorfer's desire was to help to uplift both the body and the mind of his fellow Germans in the United States ('dem Körpen und dem Geisten zu helfen')."
  97. ^ [50] "In Lady Lazarus, Sylvia Plath does many things: she explores her guilt about being German during World War II ..."
  98. ^ Robertson, William. "Erich Remarque". Retrieved 2009-06-25.
  99. ^ "North Side: People: Mary Roberts Rinehart". Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on 2014-05-22. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  100. ^ [51] "When St. Louis housewife Irma von Starkloff Rombauer (1877–1962) self-published The Joy of Cooking in 1931, she was, at age 54, a total amateur in the kitchen. She sets Rombauer's German-American roots in the context of a thriving Midwestern immigrant community and also unravels both her and her daughter's tangled, acrimonious relationship with Bobbs-Merrill."
  101. ^ "Diane Finds She's a True Kentucky Woman". ABC News. 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  102. ^ "Paul J. Schrader".
  103. ^ http://paulschrader.org/articles/pdf/2007-ThinIce.pdf
  104. ^ [52][permanent dead link] "Charles Sealsfield (1793–1864): German and American novelist of the nineteenth century."
  105. ^ Soderburg, Wendy (2010-08-05). "UCLA author's latest novel: A young mother, her nanny and hard choices". UCLA Today. Archived from the original on 2017-10-23. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
  106. ^ "Bard College:faculty Biography-Mona Simpson". Bard College. Archived from the original on 2015-07-02. Retrieved 2015-07-07.
  107. ^ [53] Archived 2007-08-10 at the Wayback Machine "German screenwriter for B-movies and classic monster movies such as The Wolf Man (1941), I Walked with a Zombie (1943), Frankenstein Meets the Wolf Man (1943) and Son of Dracula (1943). He also wrote scripts for Berlin Express (1948) and Tarzan's Magic Fountain (1948). He went to Hollywood in 1938."
  108. ^ "Compare Internet and TV Service Deals in Your Area". Archived from the original on 2006-10-03. Retrieved 2007-07-08. "She is the youngest of five surviving children of Daniel Stein and Amelia Keyser. Both parents belonged to German Jewish immigrant families who settled in Baltimore, Maryland before the Civil War."
  109. ^ [54] Archived 2009-01-26 at the Wayback Machine "Allegheny City (Deutschtown), Pittsburgh, PA birth placard"
  110. ^ "About the USA > Germans in America". usa.usembassy.de. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  111. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-03-05. Retrieved 2010-04-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "John Ernst Steinbeck was born in Salinas, California, on February 27, 1902 of German and Irish ancestry."
  112. ^ "About the USA > Germans in America". U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Germany. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  113. ^ "Das Buch der Deutschen in America - Dichtkunst6". archivaria.com. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
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  115. ^ [56] "Vonnegut, a fourth generation German-American, was sent to a POW camp in Dresden." [57]
  116. ^ http://iloveyou-magazine.com/people/tessa-von-walderdorff/
  117. ^ Weigel is a German surname
  118. ^ a b [58] "German-American merchant and financier, born near Heidelberg, Germany."
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  120. ^ Alden, Henry Mills; Allen, Frederick Lewis; Hartman, Lee Foster; Wells, Thomas Bucklin (1865). "John Jacob Astor". Harper's New Monthly Magazine. 30: 308–323. Retrieved June 7, 2009.
  121. ^ [59] "German Heritage"
  122. ^ [60] "German Heritage"
  123. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-05-01. Retrieved 2007-04-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "One of the oldest continually operating companies in the US today, Bausch & Lomb traces its roots to 1853, when John Jacob Bausch, a German immigrant, set up a tiny optical goods shop in Rochester, New York."
  124. ^ [61] "German-born electrical engineer invested $200,000 in a quirky search engine in 1998. Google returned the favor—and $1.5 billion."
  125. ^ a b "Famous German-Americans | Profiles – Biographies". German.about.com. 2014-03-13. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  126. ^ [62] "The story of the Bernheim family: A book written in 1910 by Isaac Wolfe Bernheim presenting a history of the Bernheim family. Includes stories and portraits of various family members."
  127. ^ Blum, Nava. (2006). "The Development of PM&R in the USA" in the book: ha — Shikum asah historia: maarakhot shikum refui be Yisrael 1940–1956.(Tsefat)pp. 25–26.
  128. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-01-18. Retrieved 2010-01-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "William E. Boeing was born in Detroit to Wilhelm and Marie Boeing in 1881. His father, who arrived in the United States in 1868, had come from an old and well-to-do family in Hohenlimburg, Germany, and had served a year in the German army. He had a lust for adventure, however, and left his family, emigrating to the United States when he was 20 years old."
  129. ^ [63] "Bonwit, Paul J. (29 Sept. 1862-11 Dec. 1939), retail merchant, was born Paul Joseph (or Josef) Bonwit near Hanover, Germany, the son of Bernard Bonwit."
  130. ^ "Brumder, George 1839 – 1910". Wisconsin Historical Society. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
  131. ^ Bruce, William George. History of Milwaukee, city and county, Volume 2. Chicago: The S. J. Clarke Publishing Company, 1922.
  132. ^ Chance, Carl. "CLYDE VERNON CESSNA".
  133. ^ [64] "The American founder of Chrysler was a descendent of the German Johann Phillip Kreisler (1672–1742) who sailed to the New World in 1709."
  134. ^ [65] "Kay Baker Gaston, "George Dickel Tennessee Sour Mash Whiskey: The Story Behind the Label", Tennessee Historical Quarterly, Vol. 57, No. 2 (Fall 1998), pp. 51–64."
  135. ^ "MCV LEGENDS – Chris Deering" Archived 2015-11-17 at the Wayback Machine, MCVUK.com, (Retrieved 12 November 2015)
  136. ^ [66] "Noah Dietrich was born February 28, 1889 in Madison, Wisconsin and was the fourth of six children born to Sarah Peters and German-born evangelical Lutheran minister John Dietrich."
  137. ^ "Walt Disney – 100 Years of Walt Disney". 2006-03-17. Archived from the original on 2006-03-17. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  138. ^ "Driehaus at Turtletrader". Turtletrader.com. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  139. ^ a b [67] "The property No. 34, today Salzufler Strasse 48, since 1995 private home and office of HELIPAD.consulting/Germany, is the house where the brothers Fritz and August Düsenberg lived until emigration to America in the year 1885 "
  140. ^ a b [68] "Emigration from Lippe to the USA"
  141. ^ a b [69] Archived 2007-09-29 at the Wayback Machine "Fritz und August Duesenberg aus Kirchheide"
  142. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-01-09. Retrieved 2012-03-19.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "William Filene"
  143. ^ [70] "The Firestone family goes back to German immigrants named Feuerstein. Harvey Firestone's great-great-great grandfather was Hans Nikolaus Feuerstein, born March 25, 1712 in Berg, Alsace, a German-speaking region now in France. Hans and his wife Catharina arrived in America in September 1753 and Hans is believed to have died in Pennsylvania in 1763."
  144. ^ a b [71] Archived 2010-12-17 at the Wayback Machine "The grandson of German and Italian immigrants, he embodies the entrepreneurial spirit of risking it all for a shot at success."
  145. ^ a b c [72] "Germanic Surname Lexikon (Gerber)"
  146. ^ "His father was a stern, yet kind German immigrant. Hy's mother was highly respected for her gentle and kindhearted nature". Archived from the original on 2015-09-25. Retrieved 2018-06-04.
  147. ^ a b "Famous German-Americans – Part 3: G-H-I". German.about.com. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  148. ^ [73]"Robson, Charles (1876), Biographical Encyclopædia of Ohio of the Nineteenth Century, Galaxy Publishing Co."
  149. ^ [74] Archived 2009-02-24 at the Wayback Machine "Like most of the people whom he knew, he was the descendant of people who had come to Pennsylvania from Switzerland and Germany in the 1700s. He grew up speaking the "Pennsylvania Dutch" dialect and inherited from these people characteristics such as a zest for hard work, diligence, and thriftiness."
  150. ^ a b "Yahoo!". celebrity.aol.com. Archived from the original on July 5, 2006. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  151. ^ [75] Father: Augustus Holver Hilton (Norwegian) – Mother: Mary Laufersweiler (German)
  152. ^ [76] "George Albert Hormel, the son of German immigrants, used the knowledge, skills, and values he learned from his family to succeed as an independent meatpacker in an industry dominated by corporate giants."
  153. ^ [77] Archived 2011-10-06 at the Wayback Machine "When a baby was born to the 23-year-old Jandali – now known as John – and his 23-year-old German-American girlfriend, Joanne Schieble, in 1955, there was no chance he'd be able to grow up with his biological parents."
  154. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-13. Retrieved 2007-08-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Having made a fortune in the pharmaceutical industry, he endowed the Max Kade foundation with the goal of promoting the mutual understanding of the people and cultures of Germany and the United States."
  155. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-03-09. Retrieved 2006-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Born a middle-class, assimilated German Jew ..."
  156. ^ [78] "Otto Kahn was the son of banker Bernard Kahn in Mannheim, southwestern Germany."
  157. ^ [79] "German: nickname from Middle High German kec 'lively', 'active' (cognate of English quick), which later changed its meaning to 'bold', 'forward', 'fresh'."
  158. ^ East Tennessee Historical Society, Mary Rothrock (ed.), The French Broad-Holston Country: A History of Knox County, Tennessee (Knoxville, Tenn.: East Tennessee Historical Society, 1972), p. 436.
  159. ^ [80] "Kluge, a German-born billionaire, donated a whopping $60 million to start the ..."
  160. ^ [81] "Born in Bremen in Germany, Kleinfeld began his career as a marketing consultant in 1982 but before long had joined Siemens, the global engineering and technology services firm, and one of Germany's greatest companies."
  161. ^ [82] "From music have come – beside the piano- and organ-makers, Steinway, Knabe"
  162. ^ "Lynne Koplitz – Out of the Pink". Lynnekoplitzcomedy.com. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  163. ^ "Company Spotlight: Kraft Foods, Inc". The Fundraising Journal (January 2010).
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  165. ^ [84] "When he was 13, in the Panic of 1873, Bernard Kroger's German immigrant father's Cincinnati dry goods store failed."
  166. ^ [85] "Born 1743 in Germany"
  167. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-08. Retrieved 2012-03-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Johan Adam Lemp was born in Gruningen, Germany"
  168. ^ a b [86] "It's a bit of an irony that the Blue Note label — synonymous with jazz, the seminal American music form — was created by two German immigrants. In Blue Note Records, The Biography, author Richard Cook tells the story of Alfred Lion and Francis Wolff, who formed the label in 1939."
  169. ^ "The Founding Father". Flying Magazine: 76. Aug 1976.
  170. ^ a b c [87] Archived 2009-05-29 at the Wayback Machine "Famous German-Americans"
  171. ^ [88] "Bausch & Lomb Incorporated, one of the oldest continuously operating companies in the U.S. today. Bausch & Lomb traces its roots to 1853, when John Jacob Bausch, a German immigrant, set up a tiny optical goods shop in Rochester, New York."
  172. ^ Roberts, Gary Boyd (April 18, 2008). "No. 83 Royal Descents, Notable Kin, and Printed Sources: A Third Set of Ten Hollywood Figures (or Groups Thereof), with a Coda on Two Directors". New England Historic Genealogical Society. Archived from the original on October 18, 2014.
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  174. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-04-17. Retrieved 2008-01-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Among the black-and-whites is a shot of a burly German man. That would be Great Uncle Peter – more specifically, Peter Luger, who in 1887 opened a beer garden in the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn, New York, that started off selling sandwiches and steak tidbits before graduating to full-fledged steak dinners."
  175. ^ Scheiffarth, Engelbert: "Der New Yorker Gouverneur Nelson A. Rockefeller und die Rockenfeller im Neuwieder Raum". Genealogisches Jahrbuch, 9 (1969), pp. 16–41.
  176. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-12-22. Retrieved 2008-01-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Soon Oscar's brother Gottfried, a "wurstmacher" (or sausage-maker) from Nuremberg, Germany, would join Oscar in the states, and together they leased the Kolling Meat Market on Chicago's north side. Before long, customers in their German neighborhood were standing in line for Mayer specialties like bockwurst, liverwurst, and weisswurst. By the time a third brother, Max, joined them from Germany, the brothers had moved into their own establishment."
  177. ^ "Carrie Marcus Neiman (1883–1953)". Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies.
  178. ^ [90] "Bremen, Germany Merchant"
  179. ^ "The Pagenstecher Family: From Rags To Riches". Archived from the original on 2011-10-05.
  180. ^ "Database Debunkings – About". Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  181. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-05-10. Retrieved 2017-05-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "In 1849, a young German chemist, Charles Pfizer, and his cousin Charles Erhart, who had come to America seeking new opportunities, founded the business that bears the Pfizer name."
  182. ^ Jerome Anthony Watrous (1909). Memoirs of Milwaukee County: From the Earliest Historical Times Down to the Present, Including a Genealogical and Biographical Record of Representative Families in Milwaukee County. Western Historical Association. pp. 777–778.
  183. ^ [91] "Son of John Augustus Reitz, born on December 17, 1815, in Dorlar, Prussia. He grew up in a German family that emphasized skill, thrift, and hard work. He came to the United States in the 1830s when many other Germans came, and for the same reasons: to find better business opportunities and a more "republican" form of government."
  184. ^ [92] "John Augustus Reitz was born on December 17, 1815, in Dorlar, Prussia. He grew up in a German family that emphasized skill, thrift, and hard work. He came to the United States in the 1830s when many other Germans came, and for the same reasons: to find better business opportunities and a more "republican" form of government."
  185. ^ [93] "William Rittenhouse was born in what is now Germany, near the Dutch border. His name was then Wilhelm Rittenhausen, later changed in America"
  186. ^ "German American Corner: ROEBLING, John Augustus (1806–69)". Germanheritage.com. 1926-07-21. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  187. ^ [94] "Pittsburgher of the Year: Jim Rohr"
  188. ^ a b Harvey Frommer. "1927 New York Yankees: The Greatest Baseball Team Ever". Archived from the original on 2008-02-07. Retrieved 2008-07-08. The team had a pronounced German-American flavor from its owner beer baron Jacob Ruppert to Lou Gehrig, Babe Ruth, Mark Koenig, Bob Meusel, George Pipgras, Dutch Ruether and half Germans Waite Hoyt and Earle Combs.
  189. ^ [95] "Popular, wealthy, and well-connected within the German-American community, Ruppert was a natural for politics."
  190. ^ [96]"The son of German immigrants Jacob Ruppert and Anna Gillig, Ruppert was born August 5, 1867, attended Columbia Grammar School in New York, and went to work in the small Jacob Ruppert's family brewery in 1887."
  191. ^ Brendan I. Koerner (September 29, 2006). "The Other Trojan War – What's the best-selling condom in America?". Slate. Retrieved 2007-07-21. Jules Schmid, a onetime sausage-maker who'd started making lamb-gut condoms in the 1880s; by the time Trojan debuted, he was manufacturing rubber condoms under the Ramses and Sheik brand names. Schmid's packages often featured romantic Egyptian or Arab images....
  192. ^ "Julius Schmid". PBS. Retrieved 2011-09-25. Born into poverty in Schorndorf, Germany, in 1865, the half-paralyzed Jewish immigrant arrived in New York at the age of 17 to make his fortune....
  193. ^ [97] "Pauline Farabaugh and John Schwab, both of whose parents were German-born Catholics, were married in western Pennsylvania a week after the president appealed for volunteers to put down the rebellious Southern states. John wanted to join the Union Army with his pals. Pauline talked him out of it."
  194. ^ "Norton Area History". Archived from the original on 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2011-03-02.
  195. ^ When Nathan Seiberling settled in Norton he brought with him some of the German ability to build something better mechanically.
  196. ^ History of The Seiberling Family by John Frederick Seiberling
  197. ^ "Norton Area History". Archived from the original on 2010-12-13. Retrieved 2011-03-02.
  198. ^ When Nathan Seiberling settled in Norton he brought with him some of the German ability to build something better mechanically.
  199. ^ History of The Seiberling Family by John Frederick Seiberling
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  201. ^ [99] "Middle High German spiegel, German Spiegel 'mirror' (via Old High German from Latin speculum, a derivative of specere 'to look')."
  202. ^ "Modie J. Spiegel (1871–1943)". Immigrant Entrepreneurship: German-American Business Biographies.
  203. ^ [100] Archived 2006-05-18 at the Wayback Machine "Claus Spreckels was born on July 9, 1828 and started off as a poor German immigrant who first settled in North Carolina upon arriving in America in 1846."
  204. ^ [101] Archived 2016-01-22 at the Wayback Machine "Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg, a German master-carpenter, builds his first instrument in his Seesen..."
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  206. ^ [103] "the founder of the modern day denim industries"
  207. ^ [104] "Pennsylvania-German-built Conestoga wagons carried the pioneers westward, some armed with "Kentucky rifles", also made in Pennsylvania by Germans. A leading German-American wagon builder, Clement Studebaker, later produced the popular car that bore his name."
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  209. ^ [106] "German-born Swiss pioneer settler and colonizer in California..."
  210. ^ Mike Reilly, Uihlein Family History (The Milwaukee Brewing Family) Archived 2013-03-11 at the Wayback Machine, Sussex-Lisbon Area Historical Society, Inc., 1/17/00
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  212. ^ [107]"German immigrants prospered in other industries too. Guido Pfister and Frederick Vogel owned the largest of Milwaukee's numerous tanning companies in the late nineteenth century."
  213. ^ a b "Our Story". Vons.
  214. ^ "Famous German-Americans by Category". German.about.com. 2014-03-13. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  215. ^ [108]"...descendant of a Westphalian named Wistinghausen"
  216. ^ "MSOE's presidents – Only four in 100 years". Milwaukee School of Engineering. 2003. Archived from the original on 2007-03-14. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
  217. ^ [109] "1914 – ...Frederick Weyerhaeuser, German-born lumber king, dies. His fortune: $300,000,000."
  218. ^ [110] "Rudolph Wurlitzer (born January 30, 1831, Schöneck, Saxony [Germany]—d. January 14, 1914, Cincinnati, Ohio), emigrated to the United States in 1853, settling in Cincinnati."
  219. ^ [111] "German-born American cofounder of the firm later to be known as Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc., one of the largest breweries in the world."
  220. ^ [112] "Valentin was a German-American brewer and banker. He was born in Bavaria and worked at his father's brewery in his youth. He started a brewery which became home to Blatz Beer. Valentin was one of the many "beer barons" of Milwaukee. So many, in fact, that there is a section at Forest Home Cemetery in Milwaukee called 'Beer Baron's Hill' which houses a few of these men."
  221. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-08-10. Retrieved 2006-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Adolphus Busch, was a Corporal Co. E 3rd Regiment US Reserve Infantry Corps (3 months, 1861) after the war became St. Louis most famous German immigrant."
  222. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-09. Retrieved 2016-05-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "And so it was with Adolph Coors, the young German immigrant who founded Coors Brewing Company..."
  223. ^ John M. Haffen The Bronx and its people A History 1609–1927 Board of Editors: James L. Wells, Louis F. Haffen Josiah A. Briggs. Historian: Benedict Fitspatrick Publisher: The Lewis Historical Publishing Co., Inc. New York 1927
  224. ^ [113] "Frederick Miller, a German immigrant who started his own brewery in 1855..."
  225. ^ * John J. Raskob – Businessman who developed the Empire State Building [114] Archived 2007-12-05 at the Wayback Machine "The history of Penn Brewery making great German beers began with Tom Pastorius' great-great-great-great-great-great-great grandfather, Franz Daniel Pastorius. Today considered the father of German-Americans, Franz Daniel Pastorius was an idealistic scholar..."
  226. ^ [115] "'F. & M.', as most breweriana buffs know, stands for Frederick and Maximilian, the brothers who founded Schaefer. Frederick Schaefer, a native of Wetzlar, Prussia, Germany, emigrated to the US in 1838. When he arrived in New York City on October 23rd he was 21 years old and had exactly $1.00 to his name. There is some doubt as to whether or not he had been a practicing brewer in Germany, but there is no doubt that he was soon a practicing brewer in his adopted city."
  227. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-12. Retrieved 2008-04-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Schaefer Center at the 1939 World's Fair
  228. ^ "Schlitz – Go for the Gusto". Archived from the original on July 6, 2008. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  229. ^ [116] "Kosmos Spoetzl, a German immigrant brewmaster, learned of the Shiner operation and coleased the facility with Oswald Petzold with an option to buy in 1915."
  230. ^ [117] "According to Texas historian Patrick J. Wagner, an organization founded by German investors known as the Shiner Brewing Association wanted to drink home brew, rather than city brew. "So they recruited Kosmos Spoetzl, a Bavarian brewmaster with an old-world brewing recipe that had been in his family for generations." "
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  232. ^ "Mrs M. Rohnert's Uncle Is Dead. August Uihlein, of Milwaukee, is Suddenly Stricken in Switzerland". Detroit Free Press. Detroit, Michigan. October 12, 1911. p. 1. Retrieved May 29, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
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  237. ^ [123] "It's a small but serious and intriguing museum (trace their ancestry and you find that Fred Astaire, Babe Ruth and Herbert Hoover were German Americans),"
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  239. ^ "Earl Bascom".
  240. ^ "Kim Basinger". IMDb. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  241. ^ Homer, Trevor (2007). The Book of Origins: Discover the Amazing Origins of the Clothes We Wear, the Food We Eat, the People We Know, the Languages We Speak, and the Things We Use. Plume. ISBN 978-0452288324.
  242. ^ Stated on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, September 18, 2008
  243. ^ [125]"Zazie Olivia Beetz is an actress. Born in Berlin, Germany, to a German father and an African-American mother, she was raised in Manhattan (New York City) speaking both German and English at home."
  244. ^ "Ancestry of Halle Berry". 2013-01-16. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  245. ^ [126] In this interview, he states that his surname's origin is German.
  246. ^ "Jessica Biel: Actress". PEOPLE.com. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  247. ^ [127] Archived 2007-09-19 at the Wayback Machine "Born in Berlin, Bois worked as a "wide-eyed" character and stage actor for many years in Germany until he was forced to leave ..."
  248. ^ "julie bowen". ancestry.com. Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  249. ^ [128] "Born Hans Gudegast, Eric Braeden emigrated to the US in 1959 from the port city of Kiel, West Germany and became a naturalized citizen while attending college. In 1989, Eric served as a member of the German-American Advisory Board along with the likes of Dr. Henry Kissinger. Eric has also been awarded the Federal Medal of Honor by the President of Germany for promoting a "positive, realistic image of Germans in America."
  250. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-24. Retrieved 2008-01-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Hans Gudegast (a.k.a. Eric Braeden) is a German-born actor whose career has been very different from that of most other German-speaking actors who have made it big in Hollywood."
  251. ^ "#78 Royal Descents, Notable Kin, and Printed Sources: Ten Further Hollywood Figures (or Groups Thereof)". New England Historic Genealogical Society. Archived from the original on January 13, 2009. Retrieved February 6, 2009.
  252. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2009-02-06.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "After going through professional nursing school, she married my father, who was an American of German and English descent, and had five kids."
  253. ^ Ernst Klee. Das Kulturlexikon zum Dritten Reich. Wer war was vor und nach 1945. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, pp. 73–74.
  254. ^ [129] Archived 2007-09-18 at the Wayback Machine "German actor who came to Hollywood in 1937 after fleeing Nazi Germany via France. In the US he was busy as a character actor in many films of the 1940s."
  255. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-02-06. Retrieved 2007-01-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "...Bruckner is definitely German"
  256. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-06-24. Retrieved 2006-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "The half-German, half-Alabaman Bullock was born in Washington, D.C. ...
  257. ^ Sarah Chalke "Her mother is originally from Rostock, Germany. According to a Scrubs commentary track, she used to attend the German school in her hometown twice a week."
  258. ^ [130] "Her grandfather was Nordic-German ..."
  259. ^ "RetroCRUSH interviews Claudia Christian". retroCRUSH. 2007. Archived from the original on 2012-05-04. Retrieved 2016-10-19.
  260. ^ "Claudia Christian Profile". Metacritic.
  261. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20120303031957/http://www.hempinhand.com/FRANKENSTEIN_RISING1.html. Archived from the original on 2012-03-03. Retrieved 2009-02-18. Missing or empty |title= (help) "... I would learn later, after she had passed away, that her name was really Klotz! And I don't ever remember her telling me that herself, you know, that's kind of a German name, but she would always say, 'Well, I'm half Irish.'"
  262. ^ Eig, Jonathan (1 September 1992). "The voice of experience Stormy life lends emotion to Clooney's singing". The Dallas Morning News.
  263. ^ [131] "The Costners, of Irish and German descent ..."
  264. ^ [132] "Ancestry of Tom Cruise"
  265. ^ [133] Archived 2007-09-19 at the Wayback Machine "...the 19-year-old was then able to get to safety in America."
  266. ^ [134] "though as it happens, Doris Day, née Doris Kappelhoff, is purebred German. "And I have a beautiful shitsu called Wesley Winfield.""
  267. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-07-20. Retrieved 2007-07-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Doris Day (Doris Mary Ann von Kappelhoff, 1924– ; some bios claim she was born in 1922) – American film actress and TV personality born in the Cincinnati suburb of Evanston, Ohio in her family's house, "attended by a good German midwife." Both her parents were children of German immigrants. (Her maternal grandfather Welz came from Berlin.) Despite being Catholics, Doris' parents separated over William von Kappelhoff's extramarital affair when Doris was eleven, and later divorced. In the 1940s in California, the singer began to use the stage name Doris Day."
  268. ^ Levy, Shawn (2014). De Niro: A Life. Crown Archetype. ISBN 978-0307716798.
  269. ^ "About Johnny". www.johnnydepp-zone.com. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  270. ^ "Cameron Diaz: Hollywood crowd-pleaser". BBC News. 2005-07-29. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  271. ^ Jenkins, David (2003). "Girl, interrupted". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  272. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-05-09. Retrieved 2006-05-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "He's half-German, half-Italian."
  273. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-03-23. Retrieved 2006-04-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "His dad, George DiCaprio, half German and half Italian, is an underground comic book artist.... DiCaprio's mother, Irmelin Indenbirken (sometimes spelled In Den Birken), was born in a German air raid shelter in the midst of a World War II air raid. After the war, in the 1950s, she emigrated to the US with her parents as a young child.... DiCaprio's maternal grandparents, Wilhelm and Helene Indenbirken, continued to live in the US for many years before returning to Germany to enjoy their retirement."
  274. ^ [135] Archived 2007-12-27 at the Wayback Machine "How did you choose the name Leonardo Wilhelm? My daughter Irmelin's husband is Italian. Leonardo goes well with the last name DiCaprio. But so he would also have something German about him, we added the name of my husband Wilhelm. His roots, by the way, lie far to the east where our ancestors come from."
  275. ^ Sheridan, Patricia (2009-07-13). "Patricia Sheridan's Breakfast With ... Angie Dickinson". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. I came from a German Catholic family in the Depression era.
  276. ^ "VinDiesel explains why Glasgow was perfect to shoot Fast 6". May 15, 2013. Archived from the original on June 18, 2013. Retrieved June 29, 2013.
  277. ^ [136] "German-American motion-picture actress whose aura of sophistication and languid sensuality made her one of the most glamorous of all film stars."
  278. ^ [137] "German its actually von dinklage (dink-lager)".
  279. ^ [138] "Star Wars Episode 7: Six things to know about Adam Driver"
  280. ^ Call Me Anna: The Autobiography of Patty Duke. Bantam Books. 1987. p. 8. ISBN 978-0553272055.
  281. ^ [139] Archived 2006-02-28 at the Wayback Machine "... posters of this Swedish/German beauty will be plastered in locker rooms everywhere ..."
  282. ^ "Shore Leave". people.com. June 6, 1994. [Her father] Rolf Eggert, a German-born executive...
  283. ^ "12 internationally famous people you didn't know had Estonian roots". Estonian World. 2014-05-15. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  284. ^ "16 things you don't know about Chris Evans". www.msn.com. Archived from the original on 2018-03-05. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  285. ^ Dakota Fanning – "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-05-22. Retrieved 2006-07-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "I'm also half German" "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-07-01. Retrieved 2006-08-16.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "My Grandmother was German, and the tradition was to hide an ornament in a pickle, and whoever find it gets a prize. It's a lot of fun."
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  287. ^ "FAQs and Q&A with William Fichtner". WilliamFichtner.org (official site). Archived from the original on June 18, 2007. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
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  289. ^ "Jodie Foster Makes It Work". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  290. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-03-30. Retrieved 2008-11-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "In actuality, Franz is Dennis's middle name, and the first name of his father, a German immigrant. Though unfailingly mispronounced, 'Franz' is less difficult to say than his given surname. "'Schlachta' was never easy for people to hear, say or spell", says Dennis."
  291. ^ [141][dead link] "He was played by Dennis Franz, the son of German immigrant postal workers from Chicago, who was also a graduate of Robert Altman's acting company."
  292. ^ "Brendan Fraser on Playing John Crowley in Extraordinary Measures | Irish America". irishamerica.com. Retrieved 2018-03-05.
  293. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-07-20. Retrieved 2007-07-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "... born in Cadiz, Ohio. Both Gable's mother (Adeline Hershelman) and father (William H. Gable) had German ancestors (Frankenfield, Hershelman, and Haupt) who had settled in Pennsylvania."
  294. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-02-03. Retrieved 2010-10-04.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Gish Biography – Bio and Lyrics"
  295. ^ [142] "Actually, my last name does mean "glow" as it is German. My ancestry is Scotch-Irish and German."
  296. ^ "Mariette Hartley & Karl Glusman to Star in Odyssey Theatre Ensemble's GRACE NOTES & ANVILS, 7/19-22". Broadway World. July 12, 2012. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
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  373. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-08-22. Retrieved 2006-08-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "I'm Irish and German, I thought that I could go toe-to-toe but it's hard to keep up with the Aussies."
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  436. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2007-07-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Salter came to the United States in 1937 and composed scores for some 150 Hollywood movies."
  437. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-01-18. Retrieved 2008-12-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "1941 – Birth of his son Lawrence on 27 January. Arnold, Gertrud and Nuria are granted American citizenship."
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  458. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-10-07. Retrieved 2006-05-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Mike Nichols, the German-born director of HBO's Angels in America, tells the Washington Post his feel for Yiddish rushed back in a skit when Elaine May ..."
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  461. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-24. Retrieved 2007-07-05.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "... came to the US at the age of 19. The second son of Max Reinhardt (below), Gottfried was born in Berlin but lived in both Germany and the US before he died in Los Angeles in 1994."
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  464. ^ [221] Archived 2007-08-10 at the Wayback Machine "German-American cinematographer and inventor of the "Schüfftan process" for optical special effects, used until it was replaced by the simpler matte method. Camera work: Menschen am Sonntag (1929), The Hustler (1961, Acad. Award), Lilith (1964)."
  465. ^ [222] Archived 2007-08-10 at the Wayback Machine "German director and actor. After a long career in Germany that included directing and writing the screenplay for Viktor und Viktoria (1933, remade by Blake Edwards in 1982), Schünzel came to the U.S. in 1938. In Hollywood he acted (Hangmen Also Die, The Hitler Gang, Notorious, Golden Earrings, Berlin Express) and directed (Rich Man Poor Girl, Ice Follies of 1939, New Wine)."
  466. ^ [223] Archived 2007-08-10 at the Wayback Machine "German director and brother of Hollywood screenwriter, Curt Siodmak. Although born in Memphis, Tenn., Robert grew up and was educated in Germany. He began his film career at the German UFA studios in 1925"
  467. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-02-17. Retrieved 2008-01-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Wim Wenders was born Ernst Wilhelm Wenders on August 14, 1945 in Düsseldorf, Germany. After living in Los Angeles for eight years, the director returned to his homeland to make his first German-language film since moving to the US The German director has made most of his films in English in the US He has been living in Los Angeles since the 1980s, although he spends part of each year in Germany and Berlin (his favorite city)."
  468. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-10-09. Retrieved 2008-01-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "... born in Mülhausen (Mulhouse), Alsace-Lorraine (then German, now part of France) on the first day of July 1902. ... Wyler became a US citizen in 1928."
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  470. ^ "Michael Ian Black Biography (1971–)". Filmreference.com. Retrieved 2013-03-15.
  471. ^ "Ancestry of David Letterman"
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  473. ^ "Twitter/CindyCrawford". June 4, 2010.
  474. ^ Valle, Arthur Elgort, Jane Keltner de. "At Home with Supermodel Karlie Kloss and Her Sisters". Archived from the original on May 4, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
  475. ^ "Karlie Kloss: Model Profile". New York Magazine. Archived from the original on July 8, 2016. Retrieved August 8, 2016.
  476. ^ Von Kühn, Alexander (2012-02-27). "Isch geh als isch". Spiegel Online (in German). Retrieved 18 February 2014.
  477. ^ "Ancestry of Uma Thurman". William Addams Reitwiesner Genealogical Services. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  478. ^ [225] "Ancestry: German, Welsh, English, Irish; Lucretia Garfield's parental great-grandfather immigrated to Pennsylvania (in a part that is now Delaware) from Württemberg, Germany. Her mother's family all originated in New England, the latest immigrating from England six generations before her own. Among her American ancestors were James and Mary Chilton, Pilgrims on the Mayflower."
  479. ^ [226] "Brigitte Wambsganß, "Buzz Aldrin: Mond-Mann mit Trupbacher Wurzeln", Der Westen (Germany), July 17, 2009." Archived August 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  480. ^ [227]"Unsung Partner against Crime: Harry J. Anslinger and the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, 1930-1962"
  481. ^ [228]"Anslinger’s zeal for law and order manifested early. He was born in Altoona, Pennsylvania, in 1892 to Swiss German parents."
  482. ^ "Neil Armstrong grants rare interview to accountants organization", CBC News, May 24, 2012. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
  483. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2016-02-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "German-born George Atzerodt immigrated to the United States with his family in 1843, at the age of eight."
  484. ^ [229]"Meta Schlichting was born in Milwaukee in 1873 to parents who came to the city from Germany during their childhood. Schlichting's father, Bernard, who served on Milwaukee's school board, hired Victor Berger to teach German."
  485. ^ a b [230] "Ethnicity Swiss/German"
  486. ^ [231] "Hitz Name Meaning German: from a pet form of a Germanic personal name formed with the first element hild 'strife', 'battle'."
  487. ^ [232] "Willard Erastus Christiansen was born in Ephraim, Utah to a Swedish father and German mother – both Mormon converts."
  488. ^ [233] "This biography joins the ranks of several others on second-echelon German-American political and intellectual figures such as Frederick Hecker and Francis Hoffmann that have recently appeared."
  489. ^ [234] "The ancestral home of the Earhart family is in the German province of Bavaria. Earhart is a German nickname surname. Such names came from eke-names, or added names, that described their initial bearer through reference to a physical characteristic or other attribute."
  490. ^ [235] "In Texas, there were several substantial waves of German immigration. The first, when Friedrich Ernst, "Father of German Immigration to Texas", arrived in Texas in 1831 and received a grant of more than 4,000 acres (16 km²) in what is now Austin County. He set about encouraging other Germans to join him. This tract of land formed the nucleus of what is now known as the German Belt."
  491. ^ [236] "The German Belt is the product of concepts and processes well known to students of migration, particularly the concept of "dominant personality", the process called "chain migration", and the device of "America letters." Voluntary migrations generally were begun by a dominant personality, or "true pioneer." This individual was forceful and ambitious, a natural leader, who perceived emigration as a solution to economic, social, political, or religious problems in his homeland. He used his personality to convince others to follow him in migration. In the case of the Texas Germans, Friedrich Diercks, known in Texas under his alias, Johann Friedrich Ernst, was the dominant personality."
  492. ^ Reitwiesner, William Addams. "Ancestry of Bobby Fischer (Extracts from the U.S. Federal Decennial Census)". ancestry.com. Retrieved January 28, 2014.
  493. ^ Quinn, Ben; Alan Hamilton (January 28, 2008). "Bobby Fischer, chess genius, heartless son". The Sunday Times. Retrieved September 14, 2008.(subscription required)
  494. ^ [237] "... born in Kassel, Hesse, in 1805. He left Europe late in 1833 and spent a year each in London and New York and two years in New Orleans. In 1837 or early 1838 he came to Houston, Texas, where he was consul for the Hanseatic League (modern-day Germany). He became interested in the exploration and colonization of the San Saba area and in 1839 was acting treasurer of the San Saba Company, which was later reorganized as the San Saba Colonization Company."
  495. ^ [238] "Meyer, though a native speaker of German, was Swiss-German."
  496. ^ a b [239] "Peter Gusenberg (Gusenberger) 'Goosey'. 434 Roscoe St. Born September 28, 1888 in Chicago, Illinois. Married to Myrtle Coppleman Gorman. He tells her he is salesman and uses the last name Gorman. His father was named Peter Gusenberg also. He was from Germany."
  497. ^ [240] "German-born American carpenter and burglar"
  498. ^ Alfons Heck (1985). A Child of Hitler: Germany in the Days when God Wore a Swastika. p. 23. ISBN 9780939650446.
  499. ^ "German American Corner: HECKER, Friedrich Karl Franz (1811–1881)". Germanheritage.com. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  500. ^ [241] "A Pennsylvania German named Michael Hillegas was the first Continental Treasurer. "
  501. ^ [242] "Hoffa's father was a coal miner and of Pennsylvania "Dutch" (German) lineage"
  502. ^ "German American Bund". Ushmm.org. 2013-06-10. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  503. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-07-17. Retrieved 2006-06-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Lederer, a German-born physician"
  504. ^ [243] "The unknown interior of the latter colony was first explored by a young German scholar, Johann Lederer. who, born in Hamburg, came to Jamestown in 1668."
  505. ^ [244] "German-born Jacob Leisler"
  506. ^ "Hume, Edgar Erskine, "The German Artist Who Designed the Confederate Flag and Uniform". The American-German Review, August 1940."
  507. ^ [245] "Miller, Benjamin Kurtz"
  508. ^ [246] "German-American"
  509. ^ [247] "Charles Mohr (1824–1901), German-born Mobile pharmacist and botanist, is best known for the monumental Plant Life of Alabama"
  510. ^ [248] "Irish, German; Pat Nixon's mother immigrated from the Ober Rosbach region of Germany ..."
  511. ^ "Hessen is the Official Partner State of the 51st Annual German-American Steuben Day Parade in NYC". Business Wire. 2008.
  512. ^ EUM. "German-American Steuben Parade of New York". Germanparadenyc.org. Archived from the original on 2014-05-22. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  513. ^ "Bonnie Parker's Genealogy". Censusdiggins.com. Archived from the original on 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  514. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-12-20. Retrieved 2015-11-08.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "In 1683 Francis Daniel Pastorius was commissioned by the Frankfort Land Company and a group of merchants from Crefeld, Germany to form a settlement in America. They purchased fifteen thousand acres in Pennsylvania and Germantown was born."
  515. ^ Timothy R Smith (11 December 2010). "A Local Life: William Addams Reitwiesner, 56; genealogist of presidents, kings and thousands of commoners". The Washington Post. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
  516. ^ [249] "In future years many leaders of American labor were German American, including Walter Reuther"
  517. ^ "The Age of Schlesinger by James Chace". The New York Review of Books. December 21, 2000. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
  518. ^ [250] "The founder, August Schrader was a creative and inventive German immigrant"
  519. ^ [251] "Carl Schurz, one of the most celebrated German Americans"
  520. ^ [252] "the Schwarzkopfs emigrated to the US long before the rise of Nazism, are not known to have voiced Nazi leanings, and were a respected part of the substantial German-American community in New Jersey."
  521. ^ [253] "Dutch Schultz (August 6, 1902 – October 25, 1935) was a New York City-area gangster of the 1920s and 1930s. Born Arthur Flegenheimer into a German Jewish family in the Bronx, he made his fortune in bootlegging illegal alcohol and the numbers racket in Harlem."
  522. ^ The Five Families. MacMillan. September 5, 2006. ISBN 978-0-312-36181-5. Retrieved June 22, 2008.
  523. ^ [254] "Prolific mob hitman Frank "the German" Schweihs has been indicted for alleged involvement with organized crime, including 19 unsolved homicides."
  524. ^ [255] "German-born Swiss pioneer settler and colonizer in California"
  525. ^ [256] "Accordingly, in May 1842 the association sent two of its members, counts Joseph of Boos-Waldeck and Victor August of Leiningen-Westerburg-Alt-Leiningen to Texas to investigate the country firsthand and purchase a tract of land for the settlement of immigrants."
  526. ^ [257] "The Baron told the curt his grandfather was a count in Czarist Russia and that his father is a German nobleman."
  527. ^ [258] Archived 2006-09-09 at the Wayback Machine "In 1910, a German immigrant, Paul Warburg"
  528. ^ Paul A. W. Wallace, Conrad Weiser, 1696-1760, Friend of Colonist and Mohawk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1945. Reprinted Wennawoods, 2001, ISBN 1-889037-06-0
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  530. ^ [260]"Murdered German-American Mobsters: Frank Gusenberg, Peter Gusenberg, Gus Winkler, Andrew Von Etter"
  531. ^ [261] Articles on American Mobsters of German Descent, Including: Frank Gusenberg, Peter Gusenberg, Gus Winkler, Andrew Von Etter, John Dillinger, Adam Wort
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  533. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-04-20. Retrieved 2008-04-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "German immigrant printer named John Peter Zenger"
  534. ^ Judy Putnam (January 12, 2018). "Ingham judge has creative life off the bench with new crime thriller". Lansing State Journal. [Aquilina's] father was born in Malta, a Mediterranean country near Sicily, and her mother in Germany.
  535. ^ "Antietam: Maj Johann August Heinrich Heros von Borcke". Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-04-29. "German-Prussian officer, served under General Jeb Stuart"
  536. ^ George Armstrong Custer "Originally his ancestry came from Westphalia in Northern Germany. They emigrated and arrived in America in the 17th century. The original family name was 'Küster'."
  537. ^ a b Wert, Jeffry D. (1996). Custer: The Controversial Life of George Armstrong Custer. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-81043-0., p. 15.
  538. ^ a b Connell, Evan S. (1984). Son Of The Morning Star. San Francisco, California: North Point Press. ISBN 978-0-86547-160-3., p. 352.
  539. ^ "Originally his ancestry came from Westphalia in Northern Germany. They emigrated and arrived in America in the 17th century. The original family name was 'Küster'."
  540. ^ Webpage for Dilger Archived 2011-06-08 at the Wayback Machine "Dilger was born march 5, 1836 in Eugen, a Black Forest town. Named Hubert Anton Casimir Dilger, taking the two middle names from the boys paternal and maternal grandparents."
  541. ^ "Cazoo.org: German-American Cultural Center". Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  542. ^ Koster, John P. (2007-04-09). "Survivor Frank Finkel's Lasting Stand". Historynet.com. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  543. ^ "Gruenther, Alfred Maximilian". WW2 Gravestone. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  544. ^ "German-American History". Delawaresaengerbund.org. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  545. ^ Archiv der Franckeschen Stiftungen, AF St/S B I 94 I, 575–577
  546. ^ [263] Archived September 7, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  547. ^ [264]"Peter Osterhaus was born in Germany in 1823. After graduating from military school in Berlin Osterhaus took part in the 1848 German Revolution and was afterwards forced to flee the country. Osterhaus emigrated to the United States and became a bookkeeper in Missouri."
  548. ^ [265] "Notable among many German-Americans who have shaped our military to meet later challenges were John J. Pershing, whose ancestral family name was Pfoerschin."
  549. ^ [266]"Alexander Schimmelfennig was born in Germany in 1824. A graduate of the German military academy he joined Franz Sigel, Carl Schurz, August Willich, Peter Osterhaus, Max Weber in taking part in the failed 1848 German Revolution. Schimmelfennig emigrated to America and on the outbreak of the American Civil War he joined the Union Army."
  550. ^ [267] "Schoonmaker, German..."
  551. ^ [268] Archived 2006-11-04 at the Wayback Machine "military officer/Union general"
  552. ^ Sohn: "a German word meaning "son""
  553. ^ Boatner III, Mark M. (1996). The Biographical Dictionary of World War II. Presidio. pp. 518–519. ISBN 978-0891415480.
  554. ^ [269] Archived 2018-12-28 at the Wayback Machine "German-Prussian General who served with George Washington in the American Revolutionary War and is credited with teaching the Continental Army the essentials of military drill and discipline. He reorganised the Continental Army and guided it to victory."
  555. ^ "University of Cincinnati website". Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  556. ^ Ricks, Thomas E. (March 18, 2002). "Battle Brings Soldier Closer to His Ethnic Roots". Washington Post.
  557. ^ Wilson, J. G.; Fiske, J., eds. (1889). "Weber, Max" . Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
  558. ^ Eicher p.558
  559. ^ "Antietam: BGen Max Weber". antietam.aotw.org. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  560. ^ [270] "Weitzel was born on November 1, 1835, in Germany. His family moved to Cincinnati, Ohio when he was quite young. He was educated in public schools and received an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point in 1851."
  561. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2013-11-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "His last real name was von Willich. His father was an officer in the Prussian army. He was born in Braunsberg, Prussia in 1810."
  562. ^ [271]"August Willich was born in Germany in 1810. A graduate of the German military academy he joined Franz Sigel, Carl Schurz, Peter Osterhaus, Alexander Schimmelfennig, Max Weber in taking part in the failed 1848 German Revolution."
  563. ^ [272] "Jurgen Wilson was born in Hamburg, Germany, on 18th December, 1836. His parents were English and he lived for a time in Norway before emigrating to America in 1858. He settled in Madison, Wisconsin, and found work as a clerk in a drug store."
  564. ^ [273]"He was born in 1838 in Bremen, Germany, and came to the U.S. with his family in 1844."
  565. ^ Heinrich Hartmann Wirz Archived June 10, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
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  567. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-02-13. Retrieved 2006-06-29.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Felix Adler, a German-American educator"
  568. ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Hannah Arendt". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on 6 February 2007.. Quote: "Arendt, a Jew, gained fame as a German-Jewish refugee scholar"
  569. ^ [275] "Rudolf Carnap, a German-born philosopher and naturalized US citizen"
  570. ^ [276] "Francis Lieber German-born US political philosopher"
  571. ^ Edward S. Kerstein, Milwaukee's All-American Mayor: Portrait of Daniel Webster Hoan. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1966; pg. 73.
  572. ^ Torrence, Robert McIlvaine (August 6, 1961). The Barnitz family. p. 9. Retrieved August 6, 2019 – via Internet Archive.
  573. ^ [277]"A family genealogy reports that John George Carl Barnitz was the son of John Leonard Barnitz. John George Carl Barnitz born at Falkenstein, Germany on August 14, 1722, as stated in his will, dated October 12, 1796, probated January 4, 1797 (York County Will 1-J-235). However, the will of Charles Barnitz, with the dates noted, was recorded, but the recorded version makes no mention of the birthplace of Charles."
  574. ^ [278] "1806 – ...Martin Baum, riverboat pioneer on the Ohio and Mississippi, becomes mayor of Cincinnati"
  575. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-05-16. Retrieved 2008-05-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Beginning in 1795, when Martin Baum, a Maryland German industrialist, came to Cincinnati and quickly established himself as one Cincinnati's wealthiest and most influential citizens. Through his agents in Baltimore, New Orleans and Philadelphia, Baum attracted even greater numbers of German immigrants to work in his various enterprises – steamboats, a sugar refinery, a foundry and real estate. Soon, Cincinnati's German population began to soar."
  576. ^ [279] ""It was Play Or Starve": Acting in the Nineteenth Century American Popular Theatre, Pg. 90"
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  578. ^ [281]"John L. Bohn, the son of German Luthern immigrants..."
  579. ^ [282] "1842 – William Bouck (Bauk) becomes Governor of New York"
  580. ^ "Philip Becker". Through The Mayor's Eyes, The Only Complete History of the Mayor's of Buffalo, New York, Compiled by Michael Rizzo. The Buffalonian is produced by The Peoples History Union. 2009-05-27. Archived from the original on 2011-09-26. Retrieved 2019-05-29.
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  582. ^ [284] In Indiana Senate race, Republican Mike Braun avoids Trump's bravado but stays close on policy
  583. ^ Earl C. Kaylor Jr. 1996. Martin Grove Brumbaugh: A Pennsylvanian's Odyssey from Sainted Schooman to Bedeviled World War I Governor, 1862–1930. Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson Press, p. 311.
  584. ^ "Ancestry of George W. Bush (b. 1946)". Wargs.com. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  585. ^ "Missouri State Treasurer's Office - William Quintilis Dallmeyer". www.treasurer.mo.gov. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
  586. ^ Reitwiesner, William. "The Ancestors of Tom Daschle". Retrieved November 6, 2007.
  587. ^ [285]"His Great-Grandfather was one of the organizers of the German Lutheran Church in Pittsburgh."
  588. ^ Eickhoff (1847-1901) obituary in the New York Times.png "Anthony Eickhoff" Check |url= value (help). The New York Times. November 7, 1901. Retrieved 2015-07-06. Anthony Eickhoff, aged seventy-four, ex-Fire Commissioner and ex-Coroner, who lived at 118 West Ninety-fourth Street, died Tuesday at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Miehling, 854 West End Avenue. ...
  589. ^ [286] "... a descendant of Hans Nikolas Eisenhauer."
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  592. ^ "Ancestry of Dick Gephardt". Wargs.com. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
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  594. ^ Harmut Keil, "The German Immigrant Working Class of Chicago, 1875–90: Workers, Labor Leaders, and the Labor Movement," in Dirk Hoerder (ed.), American Labor and Immigration History, 1877-1920s: Recent European Research. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983; pg. 165.
  595. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2007-11-14. Retrieved 2007-08-07.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "Hagel's name is German."
  596. ^ Bill Twomey South Bronx pages 77, 78 Picturing America
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  605. ^ [294]"Charles Frederick Kirschler was born in Beaver County in 1864 to a two-generation family of German immigrant farmers from Gemmingen in the Duchy of Baden."
  606. ^ "Born in Fürth, Germany to Jewish parents. Naturalized as US citizen in 1943"
  607. ^ Men of Progress, Wisconsin. 1897, pages 596–597.
  608. ^ Fuhrig, Wolf D (24 April 2010). "Gustav Koerner, a German-American Liberal". New Harmony, Indiana: 34th Symposium of the Society of German-American Studies. Belleville Heritage Society. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 17 August 2013.
  609. ^ 'Memoirs of Milwaukee County,' vol. 1, Jerome Anthony Watrous, Historical Associates: 1909, biographical sketch of Ferdinand Kuehn, pg. 134-135
  610. ^ Clarence Monroe Burton; William Stocking; Gordon K. Miller (1922). The city of Detroit, Michigan, 1701–1922; Volume 3. The S. J. Clarke publishing company. p. 608.
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  615. ^ "Researchers: Obama has German roots". USA Today. June 4, 2009.
  616. ^ "Live blogging the RNC chairman's debate". Yahoo! News.
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  618. ^ 'History of Milwaukee, City and County,' Josial Curry Seymour, S.J. Clarke Company: Milwaukee, 1922, Biographical Sketch of William C. Rauschenberger, pg. 578–579
  619. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-01-10. Retrieved 2007-06-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "The surname Ravenstahl, of German origin, might be translated as "steadfast raven" or "steel raven." ... one of only a few German-American mayors in Pittsburgh's history."
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  621. ^ "Joseph Ritner-Susan Alter, Marriage, Family, Genealogy, 26 May 1801, Pennsylvania". www-personal.umich.edu.
  622. ^ "Chicago's First Hispanic Alderman: How William E. Rodriguez broke ethnic — and political — barriers," Chicago magazine, vol. 30, no. 11 (November 1981), pp. 144–147.
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