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List of European regions by GDP

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of European regions (NUTS2 regions) sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP). Eurostat calculates the GDP based on the information provided by national statistics institutes affiliated to eurostat.

The list presents statistics for 2017 from EUROSTAT, as of 25 February 2019. The figures are in millions of nominal euros, purchasing power standards and PPS per capita.

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Transcription

Thank you Ben for that kind introduction and for the opportunity to talk to you today about some of the work that we do at the National Minerals Information Center at the US Geological Survey. So what I would like to do today is to start off by giving some general background which may be perhaps obvious to some of you, but is I think generally not well known to the general public. First I think it's important to note that modern technology makes use of virtually the entire periodic table of elements. Even a single artifact like the cell phone contains several dozen elements, in this case 38 were analyzed in this example, including elements that previously had little or no application - major applications. Of course it's not just about consumer electronics. These exotic elements are used in everything from energy generation, including renewable energy technologies such as thin film solar photovoltaics and direct-drive wind turbines; in health care, including biomedical devices, anti-cancer drugs, diagnostic imaging equipment; in national defense applications whether it's rhenium for single crystal turbine blades or night-vision goggles or in transportation of course like the electric vehicles that are coming online and becoming much more important. This list is of course by no means exhaustive, but it gives you a sense of how these elements now find use in virtually every aspect of our daily lives whether we realize it or not. Now to meet demand for these new technologies, production has of course had to increase. For base metals that may have been used for millennia, that growth has been steady and constant. Here I'm showing the production of several metals since 1975 so their values of normalized to 1975 production at one, and you can see for example the production of zinc has more than doubled, the production of copper has nearly tripled and bauxite, the production of bauxite has almost quadrupled. As a reference, world GDP adjusted for inflation has a little more than tripled. Now in contrast, some of the minor metals have increased much more notably. For example, rhenium's production has increased almost 12 fold, indium's production 16 and a half fold, and gallium a whopping almost 43 fold. Now these elements I picked not randomly. If you look at them closely, you'll notice that the the three that are in the yellowish shades are actually byproducts of the ones in the blue shades. So we get gallium as a byproduct of bauxite, indium as a byproduct of zinc, and rhenium as a byproduct of molybdenum and copper and so what this suggests is that, you know, how could this possibly happen if the production of these sort of host metals is only doubled or quadrupled and these minor metals have increased tens of folds. Well that suggests that maybe previously we weren't recovering some of these minor metals in significant quantities and now we are recovering them, but it also suggests that this trend is potentially not sustainable in the fact that at some point we're going to recover everything that there is and the production of the base metals will to have to increase as well. So there's that dynamic going on. Now of course gallium, indium, and rhenium are not the only by-product metals. This is a study we did back in 2015 where we analyzed, you know, what percentage or what share of each element's primary production is obtained as a by-product and you can see there's something on the order of like 38 or so elements that we analyzed have at least half of their production being produced as a by-product. Another issue to consider is the concentration of production. I think it's maybe obvious to a lot of people but not to everybody that mineral resources like any other type of natural resource is neither uniformly nor randomly distributed on Earth. As a result of that and other factors, such as of course economics and policy, production is highly concentrated in a few countries. Here I'm highlighting nine countries and their share of each element's global production for those countries. So you can see some countries like Brazil dominate a few elements like niobium. Chile dominates several more - rhenium, copper, lithium. DRC Congo Kinshasa dominates tantalum and and cobalt mine production. The United States has a few more - beryllium and helium. South Africa dominates the platinum group metals as well as vanadium, chromium and manganese. Canada has a little bit of everything. Russia as well, and then we have China, which essentially today dominates everything else. So you can see this concentration of production of course leads to another concern, which is the fact that not every country has everything that it needs. So this is what we call net import reliance. We do this analysis on an annual basis in our Mineral Commodity Summary publication. This is from the 2017 publication. Our 2018 publication will be out later this month, so look for that. But basically what it highlights is all the commodities that the United States is highly important reliant on and that number has been growing. We're something on the order of 50 commodities with over 50% import reliance at this point. So that that number is large and has been growing. So if you think about all these concerns, it sort of begs the question of well okay so we have a number of different concerns regarding concentration of production, increasing demand. There are other things that I didn't mention like limited or no recycling at the end of life. They all draw the conclusion of that there's potential concern for a supply disruption and so there are a number of assessments typically referred to as criticality assessments to try to examine this issue. This is not something new. It's been done at least since the 1950s. More recently in 2008, the National Research Council put out a report that provided a basic framework for analyzing criticality which my former group at Yale and I have helped to flesh out and apply and of course the European Commission has also adopted the methodology for their own needs. Since coming to the US Geological Survey, we as part of the National Science Technology Council have taken a somewhat different approach than than to do a straight-up criticality assessment. What we've tried to do instead is try to look at a number of indicators and try to look at trends over time to highlight things that are potentially changing that might be problematic. So things that we look at are some of the things that I've already mentioned - the concentration of supply in countries of low governance, the increase of production as a proxy for increasing demand and increasing importance, and price volatility to examine the stability of the market. So we look at all these factors and come up with a single indicator that's normalized on a common zero to one scale. We look at it over time to see if we can highlight trends and concerns and so these are the results in periodic table format. So you can see a couple of things right away. Elements like copper, silver, and gold - their values are relatively low and consistently low. Others are consistently high, such as the minor platinum group metals like ruthenium and rhodium and then others still are rapidly increasing in what we call criticality potential values, such as gallium one of the main byproducts that I previously mentioned. Another thing that I think this is helpful for is to identify things before they happen. So one thing that we for example looked at was the rare earths and to see you know could we have captured that issue before it happened and in fact we possibly could have. Using these simple indicators we could have seen a problem starting to happen in the early 2000s and well before any of the disruption that happened later on. So this is work that we did and published in 2016. We've updated it in 2017 and we plan to continue to update it on a somewhat regular basis, but so once a criticality assessment is completed, the question is okay so you've identified the commodities that are perhaps of most concern. Then the question is okay well what can be done about it or what should be done about it? And I think for us, the way we try to approach this is we first want to try to understand well how is this resource essentially being managed once it's been mined. So what happens to it? How much is being mined? Where is it being used and what applications is it used in? How much is recycled? How much is lost during use? How much is lost after use? And so this is an example from a study that we recently did tantalum. So these are global tantalum flows. Everything is in tantalum content metric tons for the year 2015. Starting from the left, the production you can see is dominated by the Great Lakes region in Africa in DRC and Rwanda goes through primary production processing, which is the equivalent of a smelter, manufacturing, so these are original equipment manufacturers, through the use phase, so these are actual consumers using this tantalum-containing finished goods, and then you know what happens to them after use, after they've been potentially discarded and then the flows that you see at the bottom are recycling flows at the different lifecycle stages. So we tried to take a holistic approach. We look at the entire lifecycle from primary production all the way to end-of-life and try to understand what's going on with the commodity throughout its lifecycle. So this is just for a snapshot in time, but if you look at it over several years, you can see some trends and so here I'm showing that same figure for several different decades 1995, 2005, 2015 and you can see how things have changed over time for for tantalum. In '95 for example a significant amount of tantalum was recovered out of tin slag. In 2005 Australia was the dominant producer and now it's shifted to Rwanda and DRC. On the use side, tantalum was significantly used of course in capacitors, it still is, but as well as mill products and and carbides - that's shifted now to a significant amount of tantalum being used in chemicals and alloy additives and sputtering targets - a lot of those end up being used in electronics. So what does that mean and what kind of trends can we look at? Well in general, we can look at different recycling rates and two different indicators for recycling. One is recycled content, so this is the amount of tantalum that's flowing to the manufacturer that has been recycled at some point whether it's new scrap from the manufacturers or old scrap, and you can see that's sort of hovered between 20 and 35 percent recycled content for tantalum. The end-of-life recycling rate, which is essentially a metric of how much of the tantalum that's coming out of use actually was recycled, has actually declined since the 1990s, at least based on these modeled estimates, from a high of perhaps twenty five percent recycling rate down to around eighteen percent today and the major reason for that is again the shift from things that are heavily recycled such as carbines and mill products to things that are not namely electronics at the end of life. And so you can look at different metrics that try to understand well what is going on? What are sort of the hotspots? What are the areas that we can sort of tackle in terms of reducing our risk for a supply disruption? Now everything that I've mentioned here for tantalum is looking at flows, but you can aggregate the flows to look at stocks to get a better sense of what is the status of a commodity above ground and so that's what this waterfall diagram is looking at. So I have for example, we've mined something on the order of 50,000 plus metric tons of tantalum since 1970. Most of that is from tantalum mineral concentrates. A significant amount however is also from tantalum tin slag. We've lost quite a bit in simple processing. There's quite a bit in industry stocks that are unaccounted for. That leads us to how much is entered the manufacturing stage net of any recycling, so we call that demand net of recycling. We can subtract out the amount that's been lost during manufacturing. There's bit a little bit of loss during use, so these are carbides that get wear and tear, so you lose a little bit during use. Some of the super alloys are downgraded, so you can think about that as super alloys being downgraded to other types of steels and so you lose the functionality of the tantalum, but the majority of the losses have been at the end of life. So these are discarded products that are no longer in use. They actually may still be - they may not have been discarded, but they're no longer in use. So you can think about these as somebody's cellphone sitting in a drawer somewhere. It's not been tossed, but it's no longer in use. So these would typically cause hibernating stocks, but what we we're left with is about 21% of all tantalum that's been mined since 1970 is still in use today - about half of that is in capacitors and so this gives you a sense of you know where is tantalum, what's the status above-ground, what is it still used in today. Now this is done globally, but you can imagine doing a similar study for individual countries, and various colleagues of ours have done that and you can see, you can compare for example what is the stock of tantalum above ground versus below ground. A recent study that's come out of Europe, I believe by a group in Leiden University, looked at tantalum, sorry aluminum reserves for various countries and what ends up, what one of their results showed is that there's more aluminum reserves in the United States above-ground than there is contained in bauxite in geological reserve, so that's an interesting finding that's probably not very common yet, but as demand for these commodities grow sort of the the reserves of these commodities that might be called in urban mines might be shifting depending on where the uses are from below ground and being dispersed to uses above-ground in different countries. For tantalum what what we also found is that if you were to recycle the amount that's coming out of use every year on an annual basis, the amount that's coming out of use from carbides, if it was entirely recycled, sorry from capacitors if it was recycled completely would be more than the amount that's currently mined in DRC or Rwanda. So that sort of gives you a perspective on the numbers that's coming out of use on in annual basis. Of course economic plays a huge role in and what is or isn't recycled. So everything that I've talked about so far is sort of looking at you know what's going on today or maybe what's going on in the recent past, but we also try to look at things going to the future and we do that using scenarios. So what we found is that there's a significant amount of uncertainty regarding the new and emerging technologies, so it's hard to to put numbers with any sort of significance unless you do some sort of scenario analysis. So here's an example of paper that we recently did looking at renewable energy technologies and by-product metals required for those. Specifically here I'm showing annual requirements for tellurium in U.S. CdTe photovoltaics up to the year 2040 under various scenarios and you can see there the results vary considerably depending on the scenario. Here we're looking at whether or not the clean power plan was adopted or not. We're looking at uncertainties regarding the market share of that technology. We're also looking at uncertainties regarding the material intensity - so how much tellurium is required per megawatt of capacity, and what what you can see from these two figures is that the results vary considerably, but under the more aggressive scenarios, the demand for tellurium could be a significant part of current global production and so that's something to watch out for. A follow-up study is looking at the supply side to try to understand well how much more tellurium could be recovered from copper anode slimes, and based on preliminary results it looks like it could be significant. So we believe that you know we need to look at the past to understand what's going on. We need to understand what's going on above ground. We also need to develop scenarios to look at what's going on in the future. So with that I will summarize. So a combination of trends and issues we believe raise concerns regarding the reliability of supply for certain non-fuel mineral commodities. We've developed an early warning screening as part of the National Science and Technology Council to try to help to identify minerals that are perhaps of most concern. Doing assessments of minerals throughout their lifecycle all the way from mining to end-of-life we believe provides foundational knowledge regarding that commodity and helping reduce that supply risk, and we believe using scenario analysis can help us determine or tackle the uncertainties of what demand might be and supply might be in the future and to help inform policy or inform corporate strategies to try to address those uncertainties.

Contents

2017 list

Gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant in purchasing power standards (PPS) in relation to the EU-28 average, by NUTS 2 regions
Gross domestic product (GDP) per inhabitant in purchasing power standards (PPS) in relation to the EU-28 average, by NUTS 2 regions
List of European regions and territories by GDP in 2017[1]
Region (NUTS2) Country Nominal GDP
million EUR
GDP in PPS
million EUR
GDP in PPS per
capita in EUR
Inhabitants
(Millions)
Euro per inhabitant
 Brussels  Belgium 77,694 70,213 58,700 1.20 65,000
 Antwerp  Belgium 85,753 77,495 42,100 1.83 46,600
 Limburg (Belgium)  Belgium 27,810 25,133 28,900 0.87 32,000
 East Flanders  Belgium 53,855 48,669 32,400 1.49 35,900
 Flemish Brabant  Belgium 47,104 42,569 37,500 1.12 41,500
 West Flanders  Belgium 43,537 39,872 33,700 1.18 38,100
 Walloon Brabant  Belgium 16,815 15,400 38,700 0.40 43,700
 Hainaut  Belgium 32,304 29,585 22,100 1.34 24,800
 Liège  Belgium 29,683 27,184 24,700 1.10 27,900
 Luxembourg (Belgium)  Belgium 6,700 6,136 21,800 0.28 24,300
 Namur  Belgium 12,718 11,648 23,800 0.49 26,400
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Belgium 184 169 :
North West  Bulgaria 3,183 6,676 8,600 0.78
North Central  Bulgaria 3,775 7,919 9,800 0.82
North East  Bulgaria 5,119 10,736 11,400 0.94
South East  Bulgaria 6,236 13,080 12,500 1.05
South West  Bulgaria 23,061 48,369 22,800 2.12
South Central  Bulgaria 6,754 14,166 9,900 1.44
 Prague  Czechia 48,751 72,323 56,200 1.27 37,900
 Central Bohemia  Czechia 22,784 33,801 25,100 1.33 16,900
Jihozápad  Czechia 19,090 28,320 23,300 1.21 15,700
Severozápad  Czechia 14,315 21,237 19,000 1.12 12,800
Severovýchod  Czechia 22,981 34,093 22,600 1.51 15,200
Jihovýchod  Czechia 27,760 41,182 24,400 1.68 16,400
Central Moravia  Czechia 18,024 26,728 22,000 1.22 14,800
 Moravia-Silesia  Czechia 18,016 26,739 22,100 1.21 14,900
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Czechia
Hovedstaden  Denmark 119,567 90,356 49,800 1.79
Region Zealand  Denmark 29,060 21,960 26,300 0.83
Syddanmark  Denmark 55,282 41,776 34,300 1.21
Midtjylland  Denmark 59,585 45,028 34,400 1.29
Nordjylland  Denmark 25,537 19,298 32,800 0.58
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Denmark 3,776 2,853 :
Baden-Württemberg Stuttgart (district)  Germany 204,521 192,957 47,200 4.07
Baden-Württemberg Karlsruhe (district)  Germany 117,154 110,530 39,900 2.76
Baden-Württemberg Freiburg (district)  Germany 81,817 77,191 34,500 2.22
Baden-Württemberg Tubingen (district)  Germany 75,000 70,759 38,700 1.82
Bavaria Upper Bavaria  Germany 251,517 237,296 51,500 4.59
Bavaria Lower Bavaria  Germany 45,284 42,723 35,100 1.21
Bavaria Upper Palatinate  Germany 43,678 41,209 37,600 1.09
Bavaria Upper Franconia  Germany 37,521 35,400 33,400 1.06
Bavaria Middle Franconia  Germany 72,332 68,243 39,100 1.74
Bavaria Lower Franconia  Germany 49,682 46,873 35,800 1.31
Bavaria Swabia  Germany 70,020 66,061 35,700 1.85
Berlin Berlin  Germany 129,924 122,578 34,500 3.52
Brandenburg Brandenburg  Germany 68,757 64,870 26,100 2.48
Bremen (state) Bremen  Germany 32,376 30,546 45,200 0.67
Hamburg Hamburg  Germany 111,076 104,796 58,300 1.79
Hesse Darmstadt (district)  Germany 194,324 183,336 46,600 3.92
Hesse Gießen (district)  Germany 33,539 31,642 30,800 1.04
Hesse Kassel (district)  Germany 42,506 40,103 33,000 1.21
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Mecklenburg-Vorpommern  Germany 41,580 39,229 24,400 1.61
Lower Saxony Braunschweig (district)  Germany 58,728 55,407 34,800 1.60
Lower Saxony Hanover (district)  Germany 76,096 71,793 33,500 2.13
Lower Saxony Lüneburg (district)  Germany 46,426 43,801 25,700 1.70
Lower Saxony Weser-Ems  Germany 83,797 79,059 31,500 2.50
North Rhine-Westphalia Düsseldorf (district)  Germany 209,463 197,620 38,100 5.18
North Rhine-Westphalia Cologne (district)  Germany 183,129 172,775 39,000 4.42
North Rhine-Westphalia Münster (district)  Germany 84,151 79,393 30,300 2.61
North Rhine-Westphalia Detmold (district)  Germany 74,854 70,621 34,400 2.06
North Rhine-Westphalia Arnsberg (district)  Germany 120,511 113,697 31,700 3.60
Rhineland-Palatinate Koblenz (district)  Germany 49,228 46,444 31,100 1.48
Rhineland-Palatinate Trier (district)  Germany 15,984 15,081 28,600 0.53
Rhineland-Palatinate Rheinhessen-Pfalz  Germany 74,747 70,520 34,500 2.03
Saarland Saarland  Germany 35,231 33,239 33,300 1.00
Saxony Dresden  Germany 47,553 44,864 28,100 1.60
Saxony Chemnitz  Germany 39,925 37,668 25,800 1.45
Saxony Leipzig  Germany 31,409 29,633 29,000 1.03
Saxony-Anhalt Saxony-Anhalt  Germany 59,593 56,224 25,100 2.25
Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein  Germany 89,551 84,488 29,400 2.86
Thuringia Thuringia  Germany 61,064 57,611 26,700 2.17
Estonia Estonia  Estonia 23,615 31,114 23,700 1.33 18,000
Border, Midland and Western  Ireland 33,777 30,625 25,000 1.26
Southern and Eastern  Ireland 241,790 219,223 63,400 3.47
Eastern Macedonia and Thrace  Greece 6,709 8,175 13,500 0.60
Central Macedonia  Greece 23,850 29,063 15,400 1.88
Western Macedonia  Greece 3,849 4,690 17,200 0.27
Epirus  Greece 3,843 4,683 13,900 0.33
Thessaly  Greece 9,006 10,974 15,100 0.73
Ionian Islands  Greece 3,246 3,733 18,100 0.21
Western Greece  Greece 7,847 9,562 14,300 0.67
Central Greece  Greece 7,926 9,658 17,400 0.56
Peloponnese  Greece 7,683 9,362 16,100 0.58
Attica  Greece 83,469 101,711 26,900 3.78
North Aegean  Greece 2,412 2,940 14,700 0.20
South Aegean  Greece 5,888 7,175 21,300 0.33
Crete  Greece 8,654 10,545 16,700 0.63
 Galicia  Spain 58,449 64,903 23,900 2.72
 Asturias  Spain 22,420 24,017 23,200 1.04
 Cantabria  Spain 12,543 13,928 24,000 0.58
 Basque Country  Spain 68,817 76,417 35,300 2.16
 Navarre  Spain 19,152 21,268 33,300 0.64
 La Rioja (Spain)  Spain 7,915 8,789 28,100 0.31
 Aragon  Spain 34,368 38,164 29,000 1.32
 Madrid  Spain 211,528 234,888 36,400 6.42
 Castilla y León  Spain 55,533 61,666 25,200 2.45
 Castile-La Mancha  Spain 38,505 42,757 20,900 2.05
 Extremadura  Spain 17,902 19,879 18,400 1.08
 Catalonia  Spain 213,766 237,373 32,000 7.41
 Valencian Community  Spain 104,632 116,187 23,600 4.93
 Balearic Islands  Spain 28,651 31,815 27,800 1.14
 Andalucía  Spain 149,515 166,027 19,800 8.40
 Murcia  Spain 29,171 32,393 22,100 1.47
 Ceuta  Spain 1,628 1,808 21,300 0.08
 Melilla  Spain 1,490 1,655 19,500 0.08
 Canarias  Spain 42,460 47,149 22,000 2.14
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Spain 869 964 :
 Île-de-France  France 709,197 645,686 53,100 12.14 58,300
 Champagne-Ardenne  France 35,891 32,775 24,500 1.34
 Picardie  France 48,396 44,195 22,900 1.93
 Haute-Normandie  France 53,235 48,614 26,100 1.86
 Centre  France 70,938 64,780 25,100 2.58
 Basse-Normandie  France 39,028 35,640 24,100 1.48
 Bourgogne  France 44,176 40,341 24,600 1.64
 Nord-Pas-de-Calais  France 108,597 99,170 24,300 4.08
 Lorraine  France 60,280 55,047 23,600 2.34
 Alsace  France 57,177 52,213 27,700 1.88
 Franche-Comté  France 30,765 28,094 23,800 1.18
 Pays de la Loire  France 111,129 101,482 27,000 3.74
 Bretagne  France 94,270 86,087 26,000 3.31
 Poitou-Charentes  France 47,267 43,164 23,900 1.81
 Aquitaine  France 100,864 92,108 27,000 3.40
 Midi-Pyrénées  France 92,816 84,758 27,900 3.02
 Limousin  France 19,844 18,122 24,600 0.74
 Rhône-Alpes  France 216,502 197,708 30,000 6.57
 Auvergne  France 38,587 35,238 25,800 1.36
 Languedoc-Roussillon  France 68,417 62,478 22,300 2.79
 Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur  France 155,161 141,692 28,100 5.02
 Corse  France 9,097 8,307 25,000 0.33
 Guadeloupe  France 9,314 8,505 19,800 0.43
 Martinique  France 9,118 8,326 22,100 0.39
 Guyane  France 4,390 4,009 14,800 0.26
 Réunion  France 19,228 17,559 20,500 0.86
Mayotte  France 2,592 2,367 9,700 0.24
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  France 1,063 970
Adriatic Croatia  Croatia 15,750 24,621 17,800 1.39 11,400
Continental Croatia  Croatia 33,240 51,962 18,900 2.80 12,100
 Piemonte  Italy 132,671 134,545 30,700 4.40 30,300
 Aosta Valley  Italy 4,453 4,515 35,700 0.13 35,200
 Liguria  Italy 49,315 50,012 32,000 1.57 31,600
 Lombardy  Italy 380,955 386,338 38,500 10.01 38,000
Bolzano  Italy 22,273 22,588 42,900 0.52 42,300
Trento  Italy 19,473 19,748 36,600 0.54 36,100
 Veneto  Italy 162,224 164,516 33,500 4.92 33,100
 Friuli-Venezia Giulia  Italy 37,642 38,173 31,400 1.22 30,900
 Emilia-Romagna  Italy 157,177 159,398 35,800 4.44 35,300
 Toscana  Italy 113,798 115,406 30,900 3.74 30,400
 Umbria  Italy 21,697 22,003 24,800 0.89 24,500
 Marche  Italy 41,183 41,765 27,200 1.54 26,800
 Lazio  Italy 193,101 195,830 33,200 5.89 32,700
 Abruzzo  Italy 32,558 33,018 25,000 1.33 24,700
 Molise  Italy 6,121 6,208 20,100 0.31 19,800
 Campania  Italy 106,431 107,934 18,500 5.85 18,200
 Puglia  Italy 74,752 75,808 18,700 4.08 18,400
 Basilicata  Italy 12,023 12,192 21,400 0.57 21,100
 Calabria  Italy 33,706 34,182 17,400 1.97 17,200
 Sicily  Italy 88,112 89,357 17,700 5.07 17,500
 Sardinia  Italy 33,965 34,445 20,900 1.66 20,600
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Italy 1,139 1,161
 Cyprus  Cyprus 19,571 21,857 25,400 0.86 22,800
 Latvia  Latvia 26,996 38,845 20,000 1.95 13,900
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Cyprus 35 51
Vidurio ir vakarų Lietuvos regionas  Lithuania 25,013 39,374 19,500 2.00 12,400
Sostinės regionas  Lithuania 17,176 27,038 33,600 0.81 21,300
 Luxembourg  Luxembourg 55,299 45,326 75,900 0.59 92,600
Central Hungary  Hungary 58,255 93,471 31,100 3.00 19,400
Central Transdanubia  Hungary 11,631 19,723 18,600 1.06
Western Transdanubia  Hungary 12,481 21,164 21,500 0.98
Southern Transdanubia  Hungary 6,849 11,614 12,900 0.90
Northern Hungary  Hungary 8,832 14,976 13,000 1.15
Northern Great Plain  Hungary 10,854 18,405 12,500 1.47
Southern Great Plain  Hungary 10,400 17,635 14,000 1.26
 Malta  Malta 9,910 12,170 27,800 0.45
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Malta 16 20 :
 Groningen  Netherlands 24,102 21,729 37,200 0.58
 Friesland  Netherlands 18,581 16,751 25,900 0.65
 Drenthe  Netherlands 14,119 12,729 26,000 0.49
 Overijssel  Netherlands 39,059 35,212 30,700 1.14
 Gelderland  Netherlands 70,789 63,819 31,300 2.04
 Flevoland  Netherlands 12,959 11,683 28,800 0.40
 Utrecht  Netherlands 61,452 55,400 43,300 1.27
 North Holland  Netherlands 148,243 133,645 47,800 2.78
 South Holland  Netherlands 150,675 135,837 37,400 3.62
 Zeeland  Netherlands 12,242 11,036 29,000 0.38
 North Brabant  Netherlands 107,888 97,264 38,800 2.50
 Limburg (Netherlands)  Netherlands 39,329 35,456 31,700 1.12
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Netherlands 3,203 2,888 :
 Burgenland  Austria 8,161 7,504 25,700 0.29
 Niederösterreich  Austria 54,962 50,537 30,400 1.65
 Wien  Austria 90,110 82,855 44,700 1.84
 Kärnten  Austria 19,262 17,711 31,600 0.56
 Steiermark  Austria 44,283 40,717 33,000 1.21
 Oberösterreich  Austria 59,956 55,129 37,800 1.45
 Salzburg  Austria 26,683 24,534 44,800 0.55
 Tirol  Austria 32,479 29,864 40,200 0.74
 Vorarlberg  Austria 17,270 15,880 41,100 0.38
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Austria 131 121 :
Łódź  Poland 25,757 46,269 18,600 2.48
Masovian  Poland 94,526 169,806 31,700 5.32
Lesser Poland  Poland 33,969 61,021 18,100 3.33
Greater Poland  Poland 42,092 75,615 21,700 3.45
Lubusz  Poland 9,470 17,012 16,700 1.01
Silesian  Poland 52,485 94,284 20,700 4.52
Lublin  Poland 16,324 29,324 13,700 2.12
Lower Silesian  Poland 35,681 64,097 22,100 2.86
Podkarpackie  Poland 16,627 29,324 14,000 2.08
Swiętokrzyskie  Poland 9,969 17,908 14,300 1.24
Podlaskie  Poland 9,339 16,777 14,100 1.16
Zachodniopomorskie  Poland 15,878 28,523 16,700 1.68
Opolskie  Poland 8,804 15,815 15,900 0.95
Kujawsko-Pomorskie  Poland 18,891 33,935 16,300 2.06
Warminsko-Mazurskie  Poland 11,362 20,410 14,200 1.41
Pomorskie  Poland 24,807 44,564 19,300 2.28
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Poland : :
Norte  Portugal 54,462 68,405 19,000 3.60
Algarve  Portugal 8,323 10,454 23,700 0.44
Centro  Portugal 35,274 44,305 19,700 2.26
 Lisboa  Portugal 66,521 83,552 29,700 2.81
Alentejo  Portugal 12,163 15,277 21,200 0.72
Região Autónoma dos Açores  Portugal 3,927 4,933 20,100 0.25
Região Autónoma da Madeira  Portugal 4,353 5,468 21,400 0.26
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Portugal 155 195 :
Nord-Vest  Romania 19,519 38,427 14,900 2.58
Centru  Romania 18,761 36,936 15,800 2.34
Nord-Est  Romania 17,081 33,629 10,400 3.26
Sud-Est  Romania 18,159 35,751 14,500 2.47
Sud - Muntenia  Romania 20,583 40,522 13,400 3.03
Bucuresti - Ilfov  Romania 46,994 92,519 40,400 2.29
Sud-Vest Oltenia  Romania 12,451 24,513 12,400 2.00
Vest  Romania 16,081 31,659 17,600 1.80
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Romania 142 280 :
Eastern Slovenia  Slovenia 17,653 21,721 19,900 1.09
Western Slovenia  Slovenia 22,765 28,012 28,800 0.97
 Bratislavský kraj  Slovakia 22,819 34,234 53,700 0.63
Western Slovakia  Slovakia 25,489 38,239 20,900 1.83
Central Slovakia  Slovakia 16,022 24,037 17,900 1.34
Eastern Slovakia  Slovakia 16,823 25,238 15,600 1.61
Western Finland  Finland 48,084 39,096 28,300 1.38
Helsinki-Uusimaa  Finland 84,005 68,302 41,900 1.62
Southern Finland  Finland 40,159 32,652 28,200 1.16
North Karelia and Eastern Finland  Finland 41,942 34,102 26,300 1.30
 Åland  Finland 1,368 1,112 38,200 0.03
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Finland 58 47 :
 Stockholm  Sweden 147,822 113,494 50,400 2.23
East Middle Sweden  Sweden 66,800 51,287 31,100 1.64
Småland and the islands  Sweden 33,509 25,728 30,600 0.83
South Sweden  Sweden 57,925 44,474 30,200 1.46
West Sweden  Sweden 90,864 69,763 35,300 1.96
North Middle Sweden  Sweden 31,657 24,305 28,800 0.84
Middle Norrland  Sweden 14,695 11,283 30,200 0.37
Upper Norrland  Sweden 21,809 16,745 32,500 0.51
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  Sweden 105 80 :
Tees Valley and Durham  United Kingdom 29,216 25,113 21,100 1.19
 Northumberland and  Tyne and Wear  United Kingdom 40,253 34,599 23,900 1.44
 Cumbria  United Kingdom 16,248 13,966 28,000 0.50
 Greater Manchester  United Kingdom 87,288 75,028 27,000 2.77
 Lancashire  United Kingdom 42,252 36,317 24,500 1.48
 Cheshire  United Kingdom 40,219 34,570 37,500 0.92
 Merseyside  United Kingdom 42,302 36,361 23,700 1.53
 East Riding of Yorkshire and  Lincolnshire  United Kingdom 25,194 21,655 23,300 0.92
North Yorkshire  United Kingdom 25,053 21,534 26,500 0.81
 South Yorkshire  United Kingdom 33,963 29,193 21,100 1.38
 West Yorkshire  United Kingdom 69,594 59,819 26,000 2.29
 Derbyshire and  Nottinghamshire  United Kingdom 62,240 53,499 24,600 2.17
 Leicestershire,  Rutland and  Northamptonshire  United Kingdom 56,828 48,847 27,100 1.79
 Lincolnshire  United Kingdom 18,138 15,591 21,000 0.74
 Herefordshire,  Worcestershire and  Warwickshire  United Kingdom 46,170 39,685 29,900 1.32
 Shropshire and  Staffordshire  United Kingdom 43,728 37,587 23,400 1.60
 West Midlands  United Kingdom 83,640 71,893 25,100 2.85
 East Anglia  United Kingdom 80,329 69,047 27,800 2.48
 Bedfordshireand  Hertfordshire  United Kingdom 69,254 59,527 32,300 1.83
 Essex  United Kingdom 52,459 45,091 25,000 1.80
Inner London - West  United Kingdom 239,655 205,995 178,200 1.15
Inner London - East  United Kingdom 134,483 115,595 48,700 2.35
Outer London - East and North East  United Kingdom 49,124 42,224 22,300 1.88
Outer London - South  United Kingdom 41,812 35,939 27,800 1.29
Outer London - West and North West  United Kingdom 94,901 81,573 39,300 2.08
 Berkshire,  Buckinghamshire and  Oxfordshire  United Kingdom 121,499 104,435 43,900 2.37
 Surrey,  East Sussex and  West Sussex  United Kingdom 108,023 92,852 32,500 2.85
 Hampshire and  Isle of Wight  United Kingdom 71,908 61,808 31,400 1.96
 Kent  United Kingdom 53,490 45,977 25,300 1.81
 Gloucestershire,  Wiltshire and Bristol/Bath area  United Kingdom 92,560 79,560 32,300 2.45
 Dorset and  Somerset  United Kingdom 37,173 31,952 24,200 1.31
 Cornwall and Isles of Scilly  United Kingdom 13,010 11,182 20,100 0.55
 Devon  United Kingdom 31,869 27,393 23,300 1.17
West Wales and The Valleys  United Kingdom 45,327 38,960 19,900 1.95
East Wales  United Kingdom 36,357 31,251 27,100 1.15
Eastern Scotland  United Kingdom 72,318 62,161 29,800 2.07
South Western Scotland  United Kingdom 72,754 62,535 26,500 2.34
North Eastern Scotland  United Kingdom 24,042 20,666 42,000 0.49
Highlands and Islands  United Kingdom 14,637 12,581 26,800 0.47
 Northern Ireland (UK)  United Kingdom 51,047 43,878 23,600 1.86
Extra Region for non-assigned GDP  United Kingdom 25,450 21,876 :
Oslo and Akershus  Norway 93,234 64,336 51,800 1.25
Hedmark and Oppland  Norway 16,219 11,192 29,100 0.38
Sør-Østlandet  Norway 42,656 29,434 30,000 0.98
Rogaland, Vest-Agder & Aust-Agder  Norway 44,981 31,039 40,600 0.77
Vestlandet  Norway 50,719 34,998 39,400 0.89
Trøndelag  Norway 23,073 15,922 35,500 0.45
Nord-Norge  Norway 23,416 16,158 33,500 0.48
Extra-Regio level 2  Norway 54,109 37,338 :

See also

References

Sources

External links

This page was last edited on 12 October 2019, at 06:00
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