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List of Christian Nobel laureates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901-2000 about 65.4% of Nobel prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1] Here is a non exhaustive list of some of the prize winners who publicly identified themselves as Christians.

Physics

By one estimate made by Weijia Zhang from Arizona State University and Robert G. Fuller from University of Nebraska–Lincoln, between 1901 to 1990, 60% of Physics Nobel prize winners had Christian backgrounds.[2] In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 65.3% of Physics Nobel prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1904
John William Strutt.jpg
Lord Rayleigh  United Kingdom Anglican[3][need quotation to verify][4][need quotation to verify] "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"[5]
1906
J.J Thomson.jpg
Joseph John Thomson  United Kingdom Anglican[6] "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"[7]
1909
Guglielmo Marconi.jpg
Guglielmo Marconi
Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg
Italy
Roman Catholic[8] "for his contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[9]
1914
Max von Laue 1914.jpg
Max von Laue
Flag of Germany (1867–1919).svg
Germany
Christian[10][11][12] "for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals",[13] an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
1917
Charles Glover Barkla.jpg
Charles Glover Barkla  United Kingdom Methodist[14][15][16] "for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements",[17] another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy
1923
Robert Andrews Millikan 1920s.jpg
Robert Andrews Millikan  United States Christian[18][19][20][21] He dealt with this in his Terry Lectures at Yale in 1926–7, published as Evolution in Science and Religion.[22] "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[23]
1927
Arthur Compton.jpg
Arthur Holly Compton  United States Presbyterian[24][25] "for his discovery of the effect named after him"[26]
1932
Bundesarchiv Bild183-R57262, Werner Heisenberg.jpg
Werner Heisenberg  Weimar Republic Lutheran[27][28] "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[29]
1936
Hess.jpg
Victor Francis Hess
State flag of Austria (1934–1938).svg
Austria
Roman Catholic[30] He wrote on the topic of science and religion in his article "My Faith".[31] "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[32]
1951
Ernest Walton.jpg
Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton  Ireland Methodist[33] "for his pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[34]
1964
Charles Townes Nobel.jpg
Charles Hard Townes  United States Protestant (United Church of Christ)[35] "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle"[36]
1974
Nobel prize medal grey.png
Antony Hewish  United Kingdom Christian[37] "for his pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[38]
1997
William D. Phillips.jpg
William Daniel Phillips  United States Protestant (United Methodist Church)[39] "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[40]
2007
Peter Gruenberg 01.jpg
Peter Grünberg  Germany Roman Catholic[41][42] "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[43]

Chemistry

In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 72.5% of Chemistry Nobel prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1918
Fritz Haber.png
Fritz Haber  Germany Converts to Protestantism from Judaism[44] "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[45]
1996 Richard E. Smalley  United States Christian[46] "for the discovery of fullerenes"[47]
2007
Prof Ertl-Portrait.jpg
Gerhard Ertl  Germany Christian[48] "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[49]

Physiology or Medicine

In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 62% of Medicine Nobel prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1906
Cajal-Restored.jpg
Santiago Ramón y Cajal  Spain Roman Catholic[50] "in recognition of his work on the structure of the nervous system"
1909
Emil Theodor Kocher nobel.jpg
Emil Theodor Kocher
Flag of Switzerland.svg
Switzerland
Protestant (Moravian Church)[51] "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[52]
1912
Alexis Carrel 02.jpg
Alexis Carrel  France Roman Catholic[53] "[for] his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"[54]
1930
Karl Landsteiner nobel.jpg
Karl Landsteiner  Austria-Hungary converted to Roman Catholicism from Judaism in 1890[55] "for his discovery of human blood groups"[56]
1947
Gerty Theresa Cori.jpg
Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz  United States converted to Roman Catholicism from Judaism in 1920[57]
1963
Eccles lab.jpg
Sir John Carew Eccles  Australia Roman Catholic[58] "for his discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"[59]
1978
Werner Arber 2008.jpg
Werner Arber
Flag of Switzerland.svg
Switzerland
Protestant[60] "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[61]
1998
Ferid Murad.jpg
Ferid Murad  United States Christian[62]
2012
John Gurdon Cambridge 2012.JPG
Sir John B. Gurdon  United Kingdom Protestant (Anglican)[63] "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"[64]

Literature

In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 49.5% of Literature Nobel Prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1902
T-mommsen-2.jpg
Theodor Mommsen
Flag of Germany (1867–1919).svg
Germany
Protestant[65] "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome"[66]
1903
Björnstjerne Björnson, 1901.jpg
Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
Union Jack of Sweden and Norway (1844-1905).svg
Norway
Protestant[67] "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"[68]
1904
Frédéric Mistral by Paul Saïn.jpg
Frédéric Mistral
Flag of France.svg
France
Roman Catholic[69] "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"[70]
José Echegaray y Eizaguirre.jpg
José Echegaray
Flag of Spain (1785–1873, 1875–1931).svg
Spain
Roman Catholic[71] "in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"[70]
1905
Henryk Sienkiewicz 02.jpg
Henryk Sienkiewicz
Military ensign of Vistula Flotilla of Congress Poland.svg
Poland
Roman Catholic[72] "because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"[73]
1909
Selma Lagerlöf.jpg
Selma Lagerlöf  Sweden Christian[74] "in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"[75]
1910
Adolf Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel 042.jpg
Paul von Heyse
Flag of Germany (1867–1919).svg
Germany
Protestant of Jewish descent[76] "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[77]
1916
Johan Krouthén - Porträtt av Verner von Heidenstam.jpg
Verner von Heidenstam  Sweden Christian[78] "in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"[79]
1923
William Butler Yeats by George Charles Beresford.jpg
William Butler Yeats
Flag of Ireland.svg
Ireland
Anglican[80] "for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"[81]
1924
Władysław Reymont.jpg
Władysław Reymont
Flag of Poland (1928–1980).svg
Poland
Roman Catholic[82] "for his great national epic, The Peasants"[83]
1926
Grazia Deledda 1926.jpg
Grazia Deledda
Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg
Italy
Roman Catholic[84] "for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"[85]
1928
Sigrid Undset 1928.jpg
Sigrid Undset  Norway
(Born in  Denmark)
Roman Catholic[86] "principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"[87]
1929
Thomas Mann 1937.jpg
Thomas Mann
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Germany
Protestant (Lutheran)[88][89] "principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"[90]
1933
Ivan Bunin 1933.jpg
Ivan Bunin
Flag of France.svg
France (Born in
Flag of Russia.svg
Russia)
Eastern Orthodox[91] "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"[92]
1938
Pearl Buck (Nobel).jpg
Pearl S. Buck  United States Protestant (Southern Presbyterian)[93] "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"[94]
1945
Gabriela Mistral-01 cropped.jpg
Gabriela Mistral
Flag of Chile.svg
Chile
Roman Catholic[95] "for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"[96]
1946
Hermann Hesse 1946.jpg
Hermann Hesse
Flag of Switzerland.svg
Switzerland
(Born in
Flag of Germany (1867–1919).svg
Germany)
Christian[97][98] "for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"[99]
1947
André Gide.jpg
André Gide
Flag of France.svg
France
Protestant[100] "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"[101]
1948
T.S. Eliot, 1923.JPG
T. S. Eliot  United Kingdom
(Born in the  United States)
Anglican[102][103] "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"[104]
1949
Carl Van Vechten - William Faulkner.jpg
William Faulkner  United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[105] "for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"[106]
1952
François Mauriac (1932).jpg
François Mauriac
Flag of France.svg
France
Roman Catholic[107] "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"[108]
1953
Churchill portrait NYP 45063.jpg
Sir Winston Churchill  United Kingdom Anglican[109] "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"[110]
1954
ErnestHemingway.jpg
Ernest Hemingway  United States Converts to Roman Catholicism[111] "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"[112]
1955
Halldór Kiljan Laxness 1955.jpg
Halldór Laxness  Iceland Converts to Roman Catholicism[113] "for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"[114]
1956
JRJimenez.JPG
Juan Ramón Jiménez
Flag of Spain (1785–1873, 1875–1931).svg
Spain
Roman Catholic[115] "for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"[116]
1958
Boris Pasternak in youth.jpg
Boris Pasternak  Soviet Union Converts to Eastern Orthodoxy from Judaism[117] "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[118]
1961
S. Kragujevic, Ivo Andric, 1961.jpg
Ivo Andrić  Yugoslavia
(Born in  Austria-Hungary)
Roman Catholic[119][120] "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"[121]
1962
JohnSteinbeck crop.JPG
John Steinbeck  United States Episcopalian[122] "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"[123]
1963
Giorgos Seferis 1963.jpg
Giorgos Seferis
State Flag of Greece (1863-1924 and 1935-1973).svg
Greece
(Born in the  Ottoman Empire)
Greek Orthodox[124] "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"[125]
1967
MiguelAngelAsturias.JPG
Miguel Ángel Asturias  Guatemala Roman Catholic[126] "for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"[127]
1970
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn 1974crop.jpg
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn  Soviet Union Eastern Orthodox[128] "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"[129]
1972
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F062164-0004, Bonn, Heinrich Böll.jpg
Heinrich Böll
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Germany (West)
Roman Catholic[130] "for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"[131]
1979
Odysseas Elytis 1974.jpg
Odysseas Elytis  Greece Greek Orthodox[132] "for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"[133]
1980
Czesław Miłosz 2011 Lithuania stamp.jpg
Czesław Miłosz  Poland/ United States Roman Catholic[134] "who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"[135]
1982
Gabriel Garcia Marquez.jpg
Gabriel García Márquez  Colombia Roman Catholic[136] "for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"[137]
1989
Camilo José Cela Madrid 1996.jpg
Camilo José Cela  Spain Roman Catholic[138] "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"[139]
1990
Paz0.jpg
Octavio Paz  Mexico Roman Catholic[140] "for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"[141]
1992
Derek Walcott.jpg
Derek Walcott  Saint Lucia Protestant (Methodist )[142] "for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"[143]
1993
Toni Morrison 2008-2.jpg
Toni Morrison  United States Roman Catholic[144] "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"[145]
1995
Seamus Heaney Photograph Edit.jpg
Seamus Heaney  Ireland Roman Catholic[146] "for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"[147]
1999
Günter Grass, 2004.jpg
Günter Grass  Germany Roman Catholic[148][149] "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"[150]
2009
Herta Müller 1.jpg
Herta Müller  Germany
(Born in
Flag of Romania (1965-1989).svg
Romania)
Roman Catholic[151] "who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"[152]
2011
Transtroemer.jpg
Tomas Tranströmer  Sweden Christian[153] "because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality"[154]
2016
Bob Dylan - Azkena Rock Festival 2010 2.jpg
Bob Dylan  United States Born again Christian[155][156][157] "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition"[158]
2019
Peter-handke.jpg
Peter Handke  Austria Serbian Orthodox church[159] "for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience."[160]

Peace

In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 78.3% of Peace Nobel Prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1902
Ducommun.jpg
Élie Ducommun   Switzerland Protestant[citation needed] "[for his role as] the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau"[161]
Charles Albert Gobat2.jpg
Charles Albert Gobat Protestant[citation needed] "[for his role as the] first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"
1903
Cremer.jpg
William Randal Cremer
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
United Kingdom
Methodist[162] "[for his role as the] 'first father' of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[163]
1905
Bertha von Suttner nobel.jpg
Bertha von Suttner  Austria-Hungary Roman Catholic[164] for authoring Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize[165][166]
1906
President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904.jpg
Theodore Roosevelt  United States Protestant (Dutch Reformed Church)[167] "[f]or his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"[165][168]
1907
Ernesto Teodoro Moneta.jpg
Ernesto Teodoro Moneta
Flag of Italy (1861–1946).svg
Italy
Roman Catholic[citation needed] "[for his work as a] key leader of the Italian peace movement"[165][169]
Louis Renault jurist.gif
Louis Renault
Flag of France.svg
France
Roman Catholic[citation needed] "[for his work as a] leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague"
1909
Beernaert.gif
Auguste Beernaert  Belgium Roman Catholic[170] "[for being a] representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[165][171]
PaulBalluet.gif
Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant
Flag of France.svg
France
Protestant (Calvinist)[172] "[for] combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration"[165][171]
1912
Elihu Root, bw photo portrait, 1902.jpg
Elihu Root[A]  United States Protestant (Presbyterian)[173] "[f]or his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court"[165][174]
1919
President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg
Woodrow Wilson  United States Protestant (Presbyterian)[175] "[f]or his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations"[165][176]
1921
Hjalmar branting stor bild.jpg
Hjalmar Branting  Sweden Lutheran (Church of Sweden)[177] "[f]or his work in the League of Nations"[165][178]
Christian Lous Lange.jpg
Christian Lange  Norway Lutheran (Church of Norway)[179] "[for his work as] the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee" and "the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[165][178]
1925
Austen Chamberlain nobel.jpg
Austen Chamberlain[A]  United Kingdom Unitarian[180] for work on the Locarno Treaties[165][181]
Charles Dawes, Bain bw photo portrait.jpg
Charles G. Dawes[A]  United States Protestant (Congregationalist)[citation needed] "[f]or [work on] the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925"[165][181]
1926
Bundesarchiv Bild 146-1989-040-27, Gustav Stresemann.jpg
Gustav Stresemann
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Germany
Protestant[182] for work on the Locarno Treaties[165][183]
1927
Ferdinand Buisson 1924.jpg
Ferdinand Buisson
Flag of France.svg
France
Protestant[184] "[for] contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation"[165][185]
1930
Nathan Söderblom nobel.jpg
Nathan Söderblom  Sweden Lutheran (Church of Sweden)[186] "[f]or his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace"[165][187]
1931
Jane Addams profile.jpg
Jane Addams  United States Protestant (Presbyterian)[188] "[f]or her social reform work" and "leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[165][189]
Nicholas Murray Butler ppmsca.03668.jpg
Nicholas Murray Butler Protestant (Episcopalian)[190] "[for his promotion] of the Briand-Kellogg pact" and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement"[165][189]
1934
1910 Arthur Henderson.jpg
Arthur Henderson  United Kingdom Protestant (Methodist)[191] "[f]or his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament"[165][192][193]
1935
Carl von Ossietzky.jpg
Carl von Ossietzky[B]
Flag of Germany (1935–1945).svg
Germany
Protestant (Lutheran)[194] "[for his] struggle against Germany's rearmament"[165][195]
1945
Hull-Cordell-LOC.jpg
Cordell Hull  United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[196] "[for] his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization"[197]
1946
EmilyGreeneBalch.jpg
Emily Greene Balch  United States Quaker[198] "Formerly Professor of History and Sociology; Honorary International President, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[199]
John Raleigh Mott, 1910.jpg
John Raleigh Mott Protestant (Methodist)[200] "Chairman, International Missionary Council; President, World Alliance of Young Men's Christian Associations"[199]
1947
Quaker star-T.svg
Friends Service Council  United Kingdom Quaker[201] "compassion for others and the desire to help them"[202]
American Friends Service Committee  United States Religious Society of Friends (Quaker)[203]
1949
John Boyd Orr nobel.jpg
The Lord Boyd-Orr  United Kingdom Protestant (Free Church of Scotland)[204] "Physician; Alimentary Politician; Prominent organizer and Director, General Food and Agriculture Organization; President, National Peace Council and World Union of Peace Organizations"[205]
1950
Ralph Bunche - 1963 March on Washington.jpg
Ralph Bunche  United States Protestant (Baptist)[206] "Professor, Harvard University Cambridge, MA; Director, division of Trusteeship, U.N.; Acting Mediator in Palestine, 1948"[207]
1952
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-D0116-0041-019, Albert Schweitzer.jpg
Albert Schweitzer
Flag of France.svg
France
Christian[208] "Missionary surgeon; Founder of Lambaréné (République de Gabon)"[209]
1953
General George C. Marshall, official military photo, 1946.JPEG
George Catlett Marshall  United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[210] "General President American Red Cross; Former Secretary of State and of Defense; Delegate U.N.; Originator of [the] 'Marshall Plan'"[211]
1957
Lester B. Pearson with a pencil.jpg
Lester Bowles Pearson  Canada Protestant (United Church of Canada)[212] "former Secretary of State for External Affairs of Canada; former President of the 7th Session of the United Nations General Assembly";[213] "for his role in trying to end the Suez conflict and to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations."[165]
1958
Georges Pire 1958.jpg
Dominique Pire  Belgium Roman Catholic[214] "Father in the Dominican Order; Leader of the relief organization for refugees "L'Europe du Coeur au Service du Monde""[215]
1959
Philip Noel-Baker 1942.jpg
Philip Noel-Baker  United Kingdom Quaker[216] "Member of Parliament; lifelong ardent worker for international peace and co-operation"[217]
1960
Albert Lutuli nobel.jpg
Albert Lutuli
Flag of South Africa (1928–1994).svg
South Africa
(Born in Southern Rhodesia)
Protestant (Methodist)[218] "President of the African National Congress,"[219] "was in the very forefront of the struggle against apartheid in South Africa."[165]
1961
Dag Hammarskjöld.jpg
Dag Hammarskjöld[C]  Sweden Protestant (Lutheran)[220] "Secretary General of the U.N.,"[221] awarded "for strengthening the organization."[165]
1964
Martin Luther King Jr NYWTS.jpg
Martin Luther King, Jr.  United States Protestant (Baptist; Progressive National Baptist Convention)[citation needed] Campaigner for civil rights, "first person in the Western world to have shown us that a struggle can be waged without violence."[222]
1971
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F057884-0009, Willy Brandt.jpg
Willy Brandt
Flag of Germany (3-2 aspect ratio).svg
Germany (West)
Protestant (Lutheran)[223] "Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany; for West Germany's Ostpolitik"[224]
1974
Seán MacBride 1984.jpg
Seán MacBride  Ireland
(Born in
Flag of France.svg
France)
Roman Catholic[225] "President of the International Peace Bureau; President of the Commission of Namibia."[226] "For his strong interest in human rights: piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"[165]
1976
Betty Williams.jpg
Betty Williams  United Kingdom Roman Catholic[citation needed] "Founder[s] of the Northern Ireland Peace Movement (later renamed Community of Peace People)"[227]
Mairead Corrigan Gaza crop.jpg
Mairead Corrigan Roman Catholic[228]
1979
MotherTeresa 090.jpg
Mother Teresa  Albania (Born in Ottoman Kosovo)[229] Roman Catholic[230] "Founder of Missionaries of Charity"[231]
1980
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel agosto 2011.jpg
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel  Argentina Roman Catholic[232] "Human rights leader;"[233] "founded non-violent human rights organizations to fight the military junta that was ruling his country (Argentina)."[165]
1982
Alfonso Garcia Robles 1981.jpg
Alfonso García Robles  Mexico Roman Catholic[citation needed] "[for] his magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"[234][235]
1983
Lech Walesa OAF Visit.jpg
Lech Wałęsa
Flag of Poland.svg
Poland
Roman Catholic[236] "Founder of Solidarność; campaigner for human rights"[237]
1984
Desmond tutu 20070607 2.jpg
Desmond Tutu  South Africa Protestant (Anglican)[238] "Bishop of Johannesburg; former Secretary General, South African Council of Churches"[239]
1987
OscarArias.jpg
Óscar Arias  Costa Rica Roman Catholic[citation needed] "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"[240]
1993
Nelson Mandela-2008.jpg
Nelson Mandela  South Africa Protestant (Methodist)[241] "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"[242]
Frederik Willem de Klerk.jpg
Frederik Willem de Klerk Protestant (Reformed)[243]
1996
Carlosbelo.jpg
Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo  East Timor Roman Catholic[244] "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."[245]
EastTimor.JoseRamosHorta.01.jpg
José Ramos-Horta Roman Catholic[246]
1998
John Hume 2008.jpg
John Hume  United Kingdom Roman Catholic[247] "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"[248]
David Trimble.jpg
David Trimble Protestant (Presbyterian)[249][250]
2000
Kim Dae-jung (Cropped).png
Kim Dae-jung  South Korea Roman Catholic[251] "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"[252]
2001
Kofi Annan, Photo: Harry Wad
Kofi Annan  Ghana Protestant[253] "for his work for a better organized and more peaceful world"[254]
2002
Jimmy Carter.jpg
Jimmy Carter  United States Protestant (Baptist)[255] "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"[256]
2004
Wangari Maathai in Nairobi.jpg
Wangari Muta Maathai  Kenya Roman Catholic[257] "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"[258]
2007
Al Gore.jpg
Al Gore  United States Protestant (Baptist)[259] "for his efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"[260]
2008
Martti Ahtisaari.jpg
Martti Ahtisaari  Finland Protestant (Lutheran)[261] "for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"[262]
2009
Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg
Barack Obama  United States Protestant[263] "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[264]
2011
Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, April 2010.jpg
Ellen Johnson Sirleaf  Liberia Protestant (Methodist)[265] "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"[266]
Leymah-gbowee-at-emu-press-conference.jpg
Leymah Gbowee Protestant (Lutheran)[267]
2016
Juan Manuel Santos in 2018.jpg
Juan Manuel Santos  Colombia Roman Catholic[268][269] "his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220 000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people"[270]
2018
Denis Mukwege par Claude Truong-Ngoc novembre 2014.jpg
Denis Mukwege  DRC Pentecostal[271] "for [his] efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict. Both laureates have made a crucial contribution to focusing attention on, and combating, such war crimes"[272]
2019
Abiy Ahmed during state visit of Reuven Rivlin to Ethiopia, May 2018.jpg
Abiy Ahmed  Ethiopia Evangelical Pentecostal[273] "for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea"[274]

Economics

In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 54.0% of Economics Nobel Prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1975
TjallingKoopmans1967.jpg
Tjalling Koopmans  Netherlands
 United States
Protestant[275] "for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[276]
1979 Theodore Schultz  United States Protestant[277] "for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries."[278]
W. Arthur Lewis  Saint Lucia
 United Kingdom
Roman Catholic[279]
1982 George Stigler  United States Christian[280] "for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"[281]
1988
ALLAIS PN Maurice-24x30-2001b.jpg
Maurice Allais  France Roman Catholic[282] "for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"[283]
1989
Trygve Haavelmo.jpg
Trygve Haavelmo  Norway Protestant[284] "for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"[285]
1996 William Vickrey  Canada
 United States
Quaker [286] "for his fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"[287]
2009
Nobel Prize 2009-Press Conference KVA-30.jpg
Elinor Ostrom  United States Protestant[288] "for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"[289]
2010
Christopher Pissarides.jpg
Christopher A. Pissarides  Cyprus Eastern Orthodox[290] "for his analysis of markets with search frictions"[291]
2013
Eugene Fama at Nobel Prize, 2013.jpg
Eugene F. Fama  United States Roman Catholic[292] "for their empirical analysis of asset prices."
Robert Shiller - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2012.jpg
Robert J. Shiller Protestant (Methodist)[293]

See also

References

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Further reading

External links

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