To install click the Add extension button. That's it.

The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. You could also do it yourself at any point in time.

4,5
Kelly Slayton
Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!
Alexander Grigorievskiy
I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like.
Live Statistics
English Articles
Improved in 24 Hours
Added in 24 Hours
What we do. Every page goes through several hundred of perfecting techniques; in live mode. Quite the same Wikipedia. Just better.
.
Leo
Newton
Brights
Milds

List of ancient Celtic peoples and tribes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Map1: Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BCE   maximal Celtic expansion, by 275 BCE   Two land areas in Iberian Peninsula where Celtic presence is uncertain or disputed by some: Lusitanian and Vettonian land (Para-Celtic?), Caristii and Varduli land (Celtic or Para-Celtic?), in today's Basque Country.   the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period   areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today
Map1: Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:
  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BCE
  maximal Celtic expansion, by 275 BCE
  Two land areas in Iberian Peninsula where Celtic presence is uncertain or disputed by some: Lusitanian and Vettonian land (Para-Celtic?), Caristii and Varduli land (Celtic or Para-Celtic?), in today's Basque Country.
  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period
  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today

This is a list of Celtic tribes, organized in order of the likely ethnolinguistic kinship of the peoples and tribes. In Classical antiquity, Celts were a large number and a significant part of the population in many regions of Western Europe, Southern Central Europe, British Isles and parts of the Balkans, in Europe, and also Central Asia Minor or Anatolia.

Continental Celts

Continental Celts were the Celtic peoples that inhabited mainland Europe. In the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC Celts inhabited a large part of mainland western Europe, southern Central Europe and some regions of the Balkans and Anatolia. They were most of the population in Gallia, today’s France, Switzerland, possibly Belgica – far Northern France, Belgium and far Southern Netherlands, large parts of Hispania, i.e. Iberian PeninsulaSpain and Portugal, in the northern, central and western regions; southern Central Europe – upper Danube basin and neighbouring regions, large parts of the middle Danube basin and the inland region of Central Asia Minor or Anatolia. They lived in these many regions forming a large arc stretching across from Iberia in the west to the Balkans and Anatolia in the east. Many of the populations from these regions were called Celts by ancient authors. They are thought to have spoken Gaulish (P-Celtic type), Lepontic (Q-Celtic type), Hispano-Celtic (Celtiberian and Western Hispano-Celtic or Gallaecian) (Q-Celtic type), Eastern Celtic or Noric (unknown type). P-Celtic type languages are more innovative (*kʷ > p) while Q-Celtic type languages are more conservative.Q However, it is not fully known if this grouping of peoples, such as their languages, is a genealogical one (phylogenetic), based on kinship, or if it is a simple geographically based group. Classical Antiquity authors did not call the peoples and tribes of the British Islands as “Celts” or “Galli” but by the name “Britons”. They only used the name “Celts” or “Galli” for the peoples and tribes of mainland Europe.[1]

Eastern Celts[2]

Map 2: Roman district (probably not yet a full province by then) of Raetia et Vindelicia, as it stood in AD 14. Celts dwelt in most part of the shown land on the map except for the Rhaetians.
Map 2: Roman district (probably not yet a full province by then) of Raetia et Vindelicia, as it stood in AD 14. Celts dwelt in most part of the shown land on the map except for the Rhaetians.
Map 3: Ancient tribes in the middle Danube river basin around 1st C. BCE
Map 3: Ancient tribes in the middle Danube river basin around 1st C. BCE
Map 4: Central and northern Illyrian tribes and neighbouring Celtic tribes (most in magenta) to the North and Northwest during the Roman period.
Map 4: Central and northern Illyrian tribes and neighbouring Celtic tribes (most in magenta) to the North and Northwest during the Roman period.
Map 5: Tribes in Thrace before the Roman period. Some of the tribes shown, such as the Serdi were Celts.
Map 5: Tribes in Thrace before the Roman period. Some of the tribes shown, such as the Serdi were Celts.

They lived Southern Central Europe (in the Upper Danube basin and neighbouring regions) which is hypothesized as the original area of the Celts (Proto-Celts), corresponding to the Hallstatt Culture. Later they expanded towards the Middle Danube valley and to parts of the Balkans and towards inland central Asia Minor or Anatolia (Galatians). Hercynian Forest (Hercynia Silva), north of the Danube and east of the Rhine was in their lands. Celts, especially those from Western and Central Europe, were generally called by the Romans “Galli” i.e. “Gauls”, this name was synonym of “Celts”, this also means that not all of the peoples and tribes called by the name “Gauls” (Galli) were specifically Gauls in a narrower more regional sense. ( ) Their language is scarcely attested and can not be classified as a P-Celtic or Q-Celtic. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Galatians

Map 6: Classical regions of Asia Minor / Anatolia. Galatia were Galatians dwelt is in the centre.
Map 6: Classical regions of Asia Minor / Anatolia. Galatia were Galatians dwelt is in the centre.

In the middle 3rd century BC, Celts from the middle Danube valley, immigrated from Thrace into the highlands of central Anatolia (modern Turkey), that was called Galatia after that. These people, called Galatians, a generic name for “Celts”, were eventually Hellenized,[22][23] but retained many of their own traditions. They spoke Galatian, a name derived from the generic name for “Celts”. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Gauls (Galli or Celtae)

Map 7: Gaul (58 BC) with important tribes, towns, rivers, etc. and early Roman provinces.
Map 7: Gaul (58 BC) with important tribes, towns, rivers, etc. and early Roman provinces.
Map 8: Gaul (Gallia) on the eve of Roman conquest (Celtica, which included Armorica, Belgica and Aquitania Propria were conquered while Narbonensis was conquered earlier, already ruled by the Roman Republic). The map shows the ethnic and linguistic kinship of the tribes by different colours (the map is in French).
Map 8: Gaul (Gallia) on the eve of Roman conquest (Celtica, which included Armorica, Belgica and Aquitania Propria were conquered while Narbonensis was conquered earlier, already ruled by the Roman Republic). The map shows the ethnic and linguistic kinship of the tribes by different colours (the map is in French).
Map 9: Roman Gaul at the end of the 1st century B.C. (Droysens Allgemeiner historischer Handatlas, 1886), with important tribes, towns, rivers, etc. and Roman provinces.
Map 9: Roman Gaul at the end of the 1st century B.C. (Droysens Allgemeiner historischer Handatlas, 1886), with important tribes, towns, rivers, etc. and Roman provinces.

Gauls were the Celtic people that lived in Gaul having many tribes but with some influential tribal confederations. Galli (Gauls), for the Romans, was a name synonym of “Celts” (as Julius Caesar states in De Bello Gallico[25]) which means that not all peoples and tribes called “Galli” were necessarily Gauls in a narrower regional sense. Gaulish Celts spoke Gaulish, a Continental Celtic language of the P Celtic type, a more innovative Celtic language - *kʷ > p. Romans initially organized Gaul in two provinces (later in three): Transalpine Gaul, meaning literally "Gaul on the other side of the Alps" or "Gaul across the Alps", is approximately modern Belgium, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, and Western Germany. in what would become the Roman provinces of Gallia Narbonensis, Gallia Celtica (later Lugdunensis and Aquitania) and Gallia Belgica. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Cisalpine Gauls

Map 10: Peoples of northern Italy during the 4th to 3rd centuries BC (Celtic tribes are shown in blue) (map names are in French)
Map 10: Peoples of northern Italy during the 4th to 3rd centuries BC (Celtic tribes are shown in blue) (map names are in French)

Lepontine Celts

They seem to have been an older group of Celts that lived in Cisalpine Gaul before the Gaulish Celtic migration. They spoke Lepontic (a Continental Celtic language) a Celtic language that seems to precede Cisalpine Gaulish.

Hispano-Celts / Celts of Hispania

Map 11: Main language areas, peoples and tribes in Iberian Peninsula c. 300 BC.
Map 11: Main language areas, peoples and tribes in Iberian Peninsula c. 300 BC.

They lived in large parts of the Iberian Peninsula, in the Northern, Central, and Western regions (half of the Peninsula's territory). The Celts in the Iberian peninsula were traditionally thought of as living on the edge of the Celtic world of the La Tène culture that defined classical Iron Age Celts. Earlier migrations were Hallstatt in culture and later came La Tène influenced peoples. Celtic or (Indo-European) Pre-Celtic cultures and populations existed in great numbers and Iberia experienced one of the highest levels of Celtic settlement in all of Europe. They dwelt in northern, central and western regions of the Iberian Peninsula, but also in several southern regions. They spoke Celtic languages - Hispano-Celtic languages which were of the Q-Celtic type, more conservative Celtic languages (*kʷ > k). Romans initially organized the Peninsula in two provinces (later in three): Hispania Citerior ("Nearer Hispania", "Hispania that is Closer", from the perspective of the Romans), was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly occupying the northeastern coast and the Iberus (Ebro) Valley and later the eastern, central, northern and northwestern areas of the Iberian peninsula in what would become the Tarraconensis Roman province (of what is now Spain and northern Portugal). Hispania Ulterior ("Further Hispania", "Hispania that is Beyond", from the perspective of the Romans) was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly located in what would become the provinces of Baetica (that included the Baetis, Guadalquivir, valley of modern Spain) and extending to all of Lusitania (modern south and central Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of Salamanca province). The Roman province of Hispania included both Celtic speaking and non-Celtic speaking tribes. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Western Hispano-Celts (Celts of Western Hispania)

Western Hispano-Celts were Celtic peoples and tribes that inhabited most of north and western Iberian Peninsula regions. They are often confused or taken as synonym of Celtiberians but, in fact, they were a distinct Celtic population that was most part of Iberian Peninsula Celtic populations. They spoke Gallaecian (a Continental Celtic language of the Q Celtic type, a more conservative Celtic language - *kʷ > k) which was not Celtiberian (Celtic languages of Iberian Peninsula are often lumped as Hispano-Celtic).

Eastern Hispano-Celts (Celtiberians)

Map 12: Territory of the Celtiberi, mixed Celtic and Iberian tribes or Celtic tribes influenced by Iberians, with the possible location of the tribes. The names of the tribes are in Castillian or Spanish (whose plural grammatical number descends from the Latin plural accusative declension).
Map 12: Territory of the Celtiberi, mixed Celtic and Iberian tribes or Celtic tribes influenced by Iberians, with the possible location of the tribes. The names of the tribes are in Castillian or Spanish (whose plural grammatical number descends from the Latin plural accusative declension).

Eastern Iberian meseta (Spain), mountains of the headwaters of the rivers Douro, Tagus, Guadiana (Anas), Júcar, Jalón, Jiloca and Turia, (tribal confederation). Mixed Celtic and Iberian tribes or Celtic tribes influenced by Iberians. Not synonymous of all the Celts that lived in the Iberian Peninsula but to a narrower group (the majority of Celtic tribes in the Iberian Peninsula) were not Celtiberians. They spoke Celtiberian (a Continental Celtic language of the Q Celtic type, a more conservative Celtic language - *kʷ > k ).

Insular Celts

Insular Celts were the Celtic peoples and tribes that inhabited the British Islands, Britannia (Great Britain), the main largest island to the east, and Hibernia (Ireland), the main smaller island to the west. There were three or four distinct Celtic populations in these islands, in Britannia inhabited the Britons, the Caledonians or Picts, the Belgae (not surely known if they were a Celtic people or a distinct but closely related one); in Hibernia inhabited the Hibernians or Goidels or Gaels. Britons and Caledonians or Picts spoke the P-Celtic type languages, a more innovative Celtic language (*kʷ > p) while Hibernians or Goidels or Gaels spoke Q-Celtic type languages, a more conservative Celtic language (*kʷ > k). Classical Antiquity authors did not call the British islands peoples and tribes as Celts or Galli but by the name Britons (in Britannia). They only used the name Celts or Gauls for the peoples and tribes of mainland Europe. [35]

Britons (Celts)

Map 13: Southern Britain about the year 150 CE
Map 13: Southern Britain about the year 150 CE
Map 14: Wales about the year 40 CE
Map 14: Wales about the year 40 CE

They spoke Brittonic (an Insular Celtic language of the P Celtic type). They lived in Britannia, it was the name Romans gave, based on the name of the people: the Britanni. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe but others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Picts / Caledonians

Map 15: Northern Britain about the year 150 CE
Map 15: Northern Britain about the year 150 CE

They were a different people from the Britons[citation needed], but may have shared common ancestry. They lived as a tribal confederation in Caledonia (today's Northern Scotland); the Caledonian Forest (Caledonia Silva) was in their land.

Goidels / Gaels / Hibernians

Map 16: The population groups (tribes and tribal confederations) of Ireland (Iouerníā / Hibernia) mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia in a modern interpretation. Tribes' names on the map are in Greek (although some are in a phonetic transliteration and not in Greek spelling).
Map 16: The population groups (tribes and tribal confederations) of Ireland (Iouerníā / Hibernia) mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia in a modern interpretation. Tribes' names on the map are in Greek (although some are in a phonetic transliteration and not in Greek spelling).

They spoke Goidelic (an Insular Celtic language of the Q Celtic type. According to Ptolemy's Geography (2nd century AD) (in brackets the names are in Greek as on the map):

  • Autini (Aouteinoi - Auteinoi on the map, not the Greek spelling)
  • Brigantes (Britons? A tribe of the same name lived in northern Britannia or they could have been two different tribes that shared the same name)
  • Cauci (Kaoukoi - Kaukoi on the map, not the Greek spelling) A tribe of the same name (Chauci) lived in Northern Germany or they could have been two different tribes that shared the same name.
  • Coriondi (or Koriondoi) A tribe of a similar name (Corionototae) lived in Northern Britannia.
  • Darini (Darinoi)
  • Eblani (Eblanioi)
  • Erdini (Erdinoi)
  • Gangani (Ganganoi) (Britons? A tribe of the same name lived in western Britannia (today’s northwestern Wales) they could have been two branches of the same tribe, two related tribes with common ancestors or two different tribes that shared similar names.
  • Iverni (Iouernoi - Iwernoi on the map, not the Greek spelling)
  • Manapii (Manapioi) (Belgae? A tribe of similar name, the Menapii, lived in the coast of Belgica province or they could have been two different tribes that shared similar names)
  • Nagnatae or Magnatae (Nagnatai or Magnatai)
  • Robogdii (Rhobogdioi)
  • Usdiae (Ousdiai - Usdiai on the map, not the Greek spelling)
  • Uterni (Outernoi - Uternoi on the map, not the Greek spelling)
  • Velabri or Vellabori (Ouellaboroi - Wellabrioi on the map, not the Greek spelling)
  • Vennicnii (Ouenniknioi - Wenniknioi on the map, not the Greek spelling)
  • Volunti (Ouolountioi - Woluntioi on the map, not the Greek spelling) – identifiable with the Ulaidh/Uluti[36]

Possible Para-Celts

Para-Celtic has the meaning that these peoples had common ancestors with the Celts but were not Celts themselves (although they were later Celticized and belong to a Celtic culture sphere of influence), they were not direct descendants from the Proto-Celts. They may in fact have been Proto-Celto-Italic, predating the Celtic or Italic languages and originated earlier from either Proto-Celtic or Proto-Italic populations who spread from Central Europe into Western Europe after new Yamnaya migrations into the Danube Valley.[37] Alternatively, a European branch of Indo-European dialects, termed "North-west Indo-European" and associated with the Beaker culture, may have been ancestral to not only Celtic and Italic, but also to Germanic and Balto-Slavic.[38]

Belgae[39]

Map 17: According to Strabo, the Belgian tribes (in orange) (the map is in French).
Map 17: According to Strabo, the Belgian tribes (in orange) (the map is in French).
Map 18: Belgae (Belgae Proper tribe, the Atrebates and possibly the Regnenses or Regni and Catuvellauni) and neighbouring tribes (Britons Proper) in Britannia (Britain).
Map 18: Belgae (Belgae Proper tribe, the Atrebates and possibly the Regnenses or Regni and Catuvellauni) and neighbouring tribes (Britons Proper) in Britannia (Britain).

A people or a group of related tribes that dwelt in Belgica, parts of Britannia, and may have dwelt in parts of Hibernia and also of Hispania) (large tribal confederation). According to classical authors works, like Caesar's De Bello Gallico,[40] they were a different people and spoke a different language (Ancient Belgic) from the Gauls and Britons; they were clearly an Indo-European people and may have spoken a Celtic language. There is also the possibility that their language may have been a different language branch of Indo-European from the Nordwestblock culture, which may have been intermediary between Germanic and Celtic, and might have been affiliated to Italic (according to a Maurits Gysseling hypothesis).

Ligurians

Map 19: Peoples of northern Italy during the 4th to 3rd centuries BC. Ligurians are shown in the west coastal region (north coast of the Ligurian Sea, part of the Mediterranean Sea) to the south of the Celts (shown in blue) and to the northwest of the Etruscans, in the left side of the map. (map names are in French)
Map 19: Peoples of northern Italy during the 4th to 3rd centuries BC. Ligurians are shown in the west coastal region (north coast of the Ligurian Sea, part of the Mediterranean Sea) to the south of the Celts (shown in blue) and to the northwest of the Etruscans, in the left side of the map. (map names are in French)

Northern Mediterranean Coast straddling South-east French and North-west Italian coasts, including far Northern and Northwestern Tuscany and Corsica. Because of the strong Celtic influences on their language and culture, they were known already in antiquity as Celto-Ligurians (in Greek Κελτολίγυες, Keltolígues).[42] Very little is known about this language, Ligurian (mainly place names and personal names remain) which is generally believed to have been Celtic or Para-Celtic;[43][44] (i.e. an Indo-European language branch not Celtic but more closely related to Celtic). They spoke ancient Ligurian.

Lusitanians-Vettones

Map 20: Main language areas, peoples and tribes in Iberian Peninsula c. 300 BC. Lusitanians (Lusitani) and Vettones are shown in light pink in the central western area of the Peninsula.
Map 20: Main language areas, peoples and tribes in Iberian Peninsula c. 300 BC. Lusitanians (Lusitani) and Vettones are shown in light pink in the central western area of the Peninsula.

Turdetanians

Today's Western Andalucia (Hispania Baetica), Baetis (Guadalquivir) river valley and basin, Marianus Mons (Sierra Morena), some consider them Celtic.,[48] may have been Pre-Celtic Indo-European people as the Lusitani and Vettones. If their language, called Turdetanian or Tartessian, was not Celtic it may have been Para-Celtic like Ligurian (i.e. an Indo-European language branch not Celtic but more closely related to Celtic). Also may have been a non-Indo-European people related to the Iberians, but not the same people. A tribal confederation but with much more centralized power, may have formed an early form of Kingdom or a Proto-civilisation (see Tartessos)

Veneti (Adriatic Veneti)

Transitional people between Celts and Italics? Celticized Italic people? Para-Celtic people?

Possible Celts mixed with other peoples

Celto-Dacian-Germanic

Celto-Germanic

Celtic-Germanic-Iranian

Celto-Illyrians?

Celto-Ligurians?

Ibero-Ligurians?

Non-Celtic people, heavily Celticized

Rhaetians

Map 21: Roman district (probably not yet a full province by then) of Raetia et Vindelicia, as it stood in AD 14, with some Rhaeti tribal names (Breuni, Camunni, Isarci, Vennones or Vennonetes, Venostes).
Map 21: Roman district (probably not yet a full province by then) of Raetia et Vindelicia, as it stood in AD 14, with some Rhaeti tribal names (Breuni, Camunni, Isarci, Vennones or Vennonetes, Venostes).

They lived in Central Alps, eastern parts of present-day Switzerland, the Tyrol in Austria, and the Alpine regions of northern Italy. They spoke the Rhaetian language. There is evidence that the non-Celtic (and Pre-Indo-European) elements (see Tyrsenian languages) had, by the time of Augustus, been assimilated by the influx of Celtic tribes and had adopted Celtic speech.[56] In addition, the abundance of Celtic toponyms and the complete absence of Etruscan place names in the Rhaetian territory leads to the conclusion that, by the time of Roman conquest, the Rhaetians were completely Celticized.[57][better source needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Collis, John (2003). The Celts: Origins, Myths and Inventions. Stroud: Tempus Publishing. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7524-2913-7
  2. ^ a b Mallory, J.P.; Douglas Q. Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5
  3. ^ a b Ioana A. Oltean, Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization, ISBN 0-415-41252-8, 2007, p. 47.
  4. ^ Andrea Faber, Körpergräber des 1.-3. Jahrhunderts in der römischen Welt: internationales Kolloquium, Frankfurt am Main, 19.-20. November 2004, ISBN 3-88270-501-9, p. 144.
  5. ^ Géza Alföldy, Noricum, Tome 3 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1974, p. 69.
  6. ^ a b c Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia (illustrated ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 224–225. ISBN 1-85109-440-7.
  7. ^ a b c "Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 5, chapter 34". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-12.
  8. ^ A. Mocsy and S. Frere, Pannonia and Upper Moesia. A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. p. 14.
  9. ^ Pannonia. A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. p. 14.
  10. ^ Frank W. Walbank, Polybius, Rome and the Hellenistic World: Essays and Reflections, ISBN 0-521-81208-9, 2002, p. 116: "... in A7P 60 (1939) 452 8, is not Antigonus Doson but barbarians from the mainland (either Thracians or Gauls from Tylis) (cf. Rostovizef and Welles (1940) 207-8, Rostovizef (1941) 111, 1645), nor has that inscription anything to do with the Cavan expedition. On ..."
  11. ^ Velika Dautova-Ruševljan and Miroslav Vujović, Rimska vojska u Sremu, 2006, p. 131: "extended as far as Ruma whence continued the territory of another community named after the Celtic tribe of Cornacates"
  12. ^ Ion Grumeza, Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe, ISBN 0-7618-4465-1, 2009, p. 51: "In a short time the Dacians imposed their conditions on the Anerati, Boii, Eravisci, Pannoni, Scordisci,"
  13. ^ John T. Koch, Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia, ISBN 1-85109-440-7, 2006, p. 907.
  14. ^ a b J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 81: "In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of ..."
  15. ^ J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 140: "... Autariatae at the expense of the Triballi until, as Strabo remarks, they in their turn were overcome by the Celtic Scordisci in the early third century"
  16. ^ a b J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 217.
  17. ^ Population and economy of the eastern part of the Roman province of Dalmatia, 2002, ISBN 1-84171-440-2, p. 24: "the Dindari were a branch of the Scordisci"
  18. ^ John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC, ISBN 0-521-22717-8, 1992, p. 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century BC. It has for long been supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin"
  19. ^ Dio Cassius, Earnest Cary, and Herbert B. Foster, Dio Cassius: Roman History, Vol. IX, Books 71–80 (Loeb Classical Library, No. 177), 1927, Index: "... 9, 337, 353 Seras, philosopher, condemned to death, 8. 361 Serdi, Thracian tribe defeated by M. Crassus, 6. 73 Seretium,""
  20. ^ Dubravka Balen-Letunič, 40 godina arheoloških istraživanja u sjeverozapadnoj Hrvatskoj, 1986, p. 52: "and the Celtic Serretes"
  21. ^ Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69, 1996, p. 580: "... 580 I3h. DANUBIAN AND BALKAN PROVINCES Tricornenses of Tricornium (Ritopek) replaced the Celegeri, the Picensii of Pincum ..."
  22. ^ William M. Ramsay, Historical Commentary on Galatians, 1997, p. 302: "... these adaptable Celts were Hellenized early. The term Gallograecia, compared with Themistius' (p. 360) Γαλατία ..."
  23. ^ Roger D. Woodard, The Ancient Languages of Asia Minor, 2008, p. 72: "... The Phrygian elite (like the Galatian) was quickly Hellenized linguistically; the Phrygian tongue was devalued and found refuge only ..."
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Prifysgol Cymru, University of Wales, A Detailed Map of Celtic Settlements in Galatia, Celtic Names and La Tène Material in Anatolia, the Eastern Balkans, and the Pontic Steppes.
  25. ^ Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Book I, chapter 1
  26. ^ Plutarch, Marcellus, chapters 6-7 [1]
  27. ^ von Hefner, Joseph (1837). Geographie des Transalpinischen Galliens. Munich.
  28. ^ Venceslas Kruta: La grande storia dei celti. La nascita, l'affermazione e la decadenza, Newton & Compton, 2003, ISBN 88-8289-851-2, ISBN 978-88-8289-851-9
  29. ^ Long, George (1866). Decline of the Roman republic: Volume 2. London.
  30. ^ Snith, William George (1854). Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography: Vol.1. Boston.
  31. ^ Titus, Livius. Ab Urbe Condita. p. 5,34.
  32. ^ http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=1404299
  33. ^ a b c d e Jorge de Alarcão, “Novas perspectivas sobre os Lusitanos (e outros mundos)”, in Revista portuguesa de Arqueologia, vol. IV, n° 2, 2001, p. 312 e segs.
  34. ^ Ptolemy, Geographia, II, 5, 6
  35. ^ Collis, John (2003). The Celts: Origins, Myths and Inventions. Stroud: Tempus Publishing. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-7524-2913-7
  36. ^ The Encyclopedia of Ireland, B. Lalor and F. McCourt editors, © 2003 New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 1089 ISBN 0-300-09442-6, noting that Ulaidh was the original tribal designation of the Uluti, who are identifiable as the Voluntii of the Ptolomey map and who occupied, at start, all of the historic province of Ulster.
  37. ^ Indoeuropeos y no Indoeuropeos en la Hispania Prerromana, Salamanca: Universidad, 2000
  38. ^ Indoeuropeos y no Indoeuropeos en la Hispania Prerromana, Salamanca: Universidad, 2000
  39. ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia (illustrated ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 198–200. ISBN 1-85109-440-7.
  40. ^ Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. Julius Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico, Book I, chapter 1
  41. ^ a b Mountain, Harry. (1997). The Celtic Encyclopedia p.225 ISBN 1-58112-890-8 (v. 1)
  42. ^ Baldi, Philip (2002). The Foundations of Latin. Walter de Gruyter. p. 112. ISBN 978-3-11-080711-0.
  43. ^ Kruta, Venceslas, ed. (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p. 54. ISBN 978-0500015247.
  44. ^ Kruta, Venceslas, ed. (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p. 55. ISBN 978-0500015247.
  45. ^ (Liv. v. 35; Plin. iii. 17. s. 21.)
  46. ^ Indoeuropeos y no Indoeuropeos en la Hispania Prerromana, Salamanca: Universidad, 2000
  47. ^ Indoeuropeos y no Indoeuropeos en la Hispania Prerromana, Salamanca: Universidad, 2000
  48. ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia (illustrated ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 198–200. ISBN 1-85109-440-7, ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0. ^ Jump up to: a b Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia (illustrated ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 224–225. ISBN 1-85109-440-7, ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0.
  49. ^ Smith, William. "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), BAETIS". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. www.perseus.tufts.edu. Perseus Digital Library.
  50. ^ The Osi's categorization as Celtic is disputed; see Osi; also may have been a Dacian or Germanic tribe.
  51. ^ Adrian Goldsworthy, How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower, ISBN 0-300-13719-2, 2009, p. 105: "... who had moved to the Hungarian Plain. Another tribe, the Bastarnae, may or may not have been Germanic. ..."
  52. ^ Christopher Webber and Angus McBride, The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms), ISBN 1-84176-329-2, 2001, p. 12: "... never got near the main body of Roman infantry. The Bastarnae (either Celts or Germans), and `the bravest nation on earth' – Livy ..."
  53. ^ Charles Anthon, A Classical Dictionary: Containing The Principal Proper Names Mentioned In Ancient Authors, Part One, 2005, p. 539: "... Tor, " elevated," " a mountain. (Strabo, 293)"; "the Iapodes (Strabo, 313), a Gallo-Illyrian race occupying the valleys of ..."
  54. ^ J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 79: "along with the evidence of name formulae, a Venetic element among the Japodes. A group of names identified by Alföldy as of Celtic origin: Ammida, Andes, Iaritus, Matera, Maxa,"
  55. ^ J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, Tome 2 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1969, pp. 154 and 482.
  56. ^ Géza Alföldy, Noricum, Tome 3 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1974, p. 24-5.
  57. ^ Cowles Prichard, James (1841). Researches Into the Physical History of Mankind: 3, Volume 1. Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper. p. 240.
  58. ^ Markey, Thomas (2008). Shared Symbolics, Genre Diffusion, Token Perception and Late Literacy in North-Western Europe. NOWELE.

References

Further reading

  • Sims-Williams, Patrick. "The location of the Celts according to Hecataeus, Herodotus, and other Greek writers". In: Études Celtiques, vol. 42, 2016. pp. 7-32. [DOI:https://doi.org/10.3406/ecelt.2016.2467]; [www.persee.fr/doc/ecelt_0373-1928_2016_num_42_1_2467]

External links

This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 01:43
Basis of this page is in Wikipedia. Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported License. Non-text media are available under their specified licenses. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. WIKI 2 is an independent company and has no affiliation with Wikimedia Foundation.