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List of ancient Celtic peoples and tribes

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:    core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BCE   maximal Celtic expansion, by 275 BCE   Lusitanian and Vettonian area of Iberian Peninsula where Celtic presence is uncertain, Para-Celtic?   the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period   areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today
Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:
  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BCE
  maximal Celtic expansion, by 275 BCE
  Lusitanian and Vettonian area of Iberian Peninsula where Celtic presence is uncertain, Para-Celtic?
  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period
  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today

This is a list of Celtic tribes, listed in order of the Roman province (after Roman conquest) or the general area in which they lived. This geographical distribution of Celtic tribes does not imply that tribes that lived in the same general geographical area were more related. Some tribes' or tribal confederation's names are listed under more than one region because they dwelt in several of the regions.

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Transcription

While much has been written on the arrival of the Danes, Angles, Saxons and Normans to the British Isles, few have explored the origins of the people who occupied the land before them. Just where did the Celts come from? After the decline of the Roman Empire, around 410 AD the Angles and Saxons began moving from mainland Europe and settling all across England and lower parts of Scotland. By the 9th Century the Danes started building settlements around the British Isles and in the early part of the 11th Century, in 1066, the Normans invaded. Long before all of this, the Celts were living in the British Isles, they had arrived centuries before even the Romans were established in Europe. If you visit the British Isles today you may well come across a Celtic revival as the National Curriculum in Wales requires all students to learn the Welsh language. This ancient language is a branch of the wider Celtic languages spoken along the western isles of Scotland, Ireland, Cornwall and Brittany. Historians have traditionally seen the Celts as just another Germanic tribe that migrated west from central Europe but a relatively new scientific study has found genealogical evidence to the contrary. Dr. Mark Jobling from the Department of Genetics at the University of Leicester published a journal on the Y-chromosomal lineage of the Celts. In this journal the lineage of European male Y chromosomes were tested and analysed with DNA evidence strongly supporting the theory that Celtic men "spread from a single source from the Near East" or Middle East as it is more commonly called. What is fascinating about the findings in this journal is that the route in which the migration occurred is entirely mappable. Moving through modern day Turkey, across Europe and in particular, around the Mediterranean coastline and the Iberian peninsula, through the Gibraltar straights and up along the coast of Western Europe into the British Isles, is a clearly defined path. The "increases in frequency and [reduction] in diversity from east to west" of the Y-Chromosome supports a "rapid expansion" as a fading trail of the chromosome shows the path of migration from the Middle East to the region where the Celtic people reside today. The study estimates that the timeframe of expansion was approximately over a period of 4,500 years and that this likely happened from 7,000 BC until as recently as 2,500 BC but regardless of the accuracy of their dating methods, the migration did occur and there is a corroborating historical document that I would like to cross examine with the scientific research which may suggest a more recent date for the migration. Written in 1320 by Scottish Barons and nobles and submitted to Pope John the 22nd, the Declaration of Arbroath is Scotland's claim for independence. The document describes the sovereignty of its people and supports Jobling's claim by describing how they came to settle in the British Isles. "...we know and from the chronicles and books of the ancients we find that among other famous nations our own, the Scots, has been graced with widespread renown. It journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain among the most savage peoples.... Thence it came, twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, to its home in the west where it still lives today." These nobles firmly believed that their ancestors migrated from East to West following the exact pattern as described in the journal on the Celtic Y Chromosome. These men share the DNA evidence that corroborates their historical records. For more information on the history and origins of the British people please read our free booklet called The United States and Great Britain in Prophecy. I am Jonathan Riley for Tomorrow's World Viewpoint. Since the research and production of this video took place it has come to our attention that Dr. Mark Jobling released a second journal in 2015 which proposed a much more recent migration. The new estimated time frame now sits between 2000 to 4000 years ago. This now agrees with the corroborating evidence found in the Declaration of Arbroath. The links to both journals can be found in the description below. To subscribe to our channel click here. To access articles, telecasts and booklets from Tomorrow's World visit our website TWCanada.org. Few things seem to work some scientists into a frenzy more than the words Intelligent Design. Why isn't Intelligent Design science?

Contents

High Danube-Hercynia

Map showing the Roman district (probably not yet a full province by then) of Raetia et Vindelicia, as it stood in AD 14, with some Raeti tribal names
Map showing the Roman district (probably not yet a full province by then) of Raetia et Vindelicia, as it stood in AD 14, with some Raeti tribal names

Southern Central Europe, roughly upper Danube river basin and neighboring regions, is hypothesized as the original area of the Celts (Proto-Celts), corresponding to the Hallstatt Culture. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Hercynia

Noricum

Rhaetia

Vindelicia

Venetia

Liguria

Gaul (Gallia)

Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina)

Celtic tribes in orange. Many Roman writers thought the Umbrians to be Celtic as well.[12][13][14]
Celtic tribes in orange. Many Roman writers thought the Umbrians to be Celtic as well.[12][13][14]
Peoples of northern Italy during the 4th to 3rd centuries BC (Celtic tribes in blue).
Peoples of northern Italy during the 4th to 3rd centuries BC (Celtic tribes in blue).

Cisalpine Gaul (Gallia Cisalpina), also called Gallia Citerior or Gallia Togata,[15] was the part of Italy continually inhabited by Celts since the 13th century BC.[16] Conquered by the Roman Republic in the 220s BC, it was a Roman province from c. 81 BC until 42 BC, when it was merged into Roman Italy.[17] Until that time, it was considered part of Gaul, precisely that part of Gaul on the "hither side of the Alps" (from the perspective of the Romans), as opposed to Transalpine Gaul ("on the far side of the Alps").[18]

Transalpine Gaul (Gallia Transalpina)

Transalpine Gaul, meaning literally "Gaul on the other side of the Alps" or "Gaul across the Alps", is approximately modern Belgium, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, and Western Germany. in what would become the Roman provinces of Gallia Narbonensis, Gallia Celtica (later Lugdunensis and Aquitania) and Gallia Belgica. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

List of peoples of Gaul (with their capitals/major settlements):

Map of Gaul (58 BC) with important tribes, towns, rivers, etc.
Map of Gaul (58 BC) with important tribes, towns, rivers, etc.

Aquitania Propria (Aquitania Proper)

Belgica

Celtica

Narbonensis

Great Britain (Britannia)

Northern Britain about the year 150 CE
Northern Britain about the year 150 CE
Southern Britain about the year 150 CE
Southern Britain about the year 150 CE
Wales about the year 40 CE
Wales about the year 40 CE

Britannia was the name Romans gave, based on the name of the people: the Britanni. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe but others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Britain Proper (Britannia Propria)

Caledonia

Ireland (Hibernia)

The population groups (tribes and tribal confederations) of Ireland (Iouerníā/Hibernia) mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia in a modern interpretation.
The population groups (tribes and tribal confederations) of Ireland (Iouerníā/Hibernia) mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia in a modern interpretation.

According to Ptolemy's Geography (2nd century AD):

  • Gaels
    • Autini (Auteinoi)
    • Brigantes (Britons? A tribe of the same name lived in northern Britannia or they could have been two different tribes that shared the same name)
    • Cauci (Kaukoi) A tribe of a similar name (Chauci) lived in Northern Germany or they could have been two different tribes that shared similar names.
    • Coriondi (or Koriondoi) A tribe of a similar name (Corionototae) lived in Northern Britannia.
    • Darini (Darinoi)
    • Eblani (Eblanioi)
    • Erdini (Erdinoi)
    • Gangani (Ganganoi) (Britons? A tribe of a similar name lived in western Britannia or they could have been two different tribes that shared similar names)
    • Iverni (Iwernoi)
    • Manapii (Manapioi) (Belgae? A tribe of similar name, the Menapii, lived in the coast of Belgica province or they could have been two different tribes that shared similar names)
    • Nagnatae or Magnatae (Nagnatai or Magnatai)
    • Robogdii (Rhobogdioi)
    • Usdiae (Ousdiai)
    • Uterni
    • Velabri or Vellabori (Wellaboroi)
    • Vennicnii (Wenniknioi)
    • Volunti (Woluntioi) – identifiable with the Ulaidh/Uluti[24]

Iberian Peninsula (Hispania)

Main language areas, peoples and tribes in Iberian Peninsula c. 300 BC.
Main language areas, peoples and tribes in Iberian Peninsula c. 300 BC.
Territory of the Celtiberi, mixed Celtic and Iberian tribes or Celtic tribes influenced by Iberians, with the possible location of the tribes.
Territory of the Celtiberi, mixed Celtic and Iberian tribes or Celtic tribes influenced by Iberians, with the possible location of the tribes.

The Celts in the Iberian peninsula were traditionally thought of as living on the edge of the Celtic world of the La Tène culture that defined classical Iron Age Celts. Earlier migrations were Hallstatt in culture and later came La Tène influenced peoples. Celtic or (Indo-European) Pre-Celtic cultures and populations existed in great numbers and Iberia experienced one of the highest levels of Celtic settlement in all of Europe. They dwelt in northern, central and western regions of Iberian Peninsula, but also in several southern regions. The Roman province of Hispania included both Celtic speaking and non-Celtic speaking tribes. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Citerior Iberia (Hispania Citerior)

Hispania Citerior ("Nearer Hispania", "Hispania that is Closer", from the perspective of the Romans), was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly occupying the northeastern coast and the Iberus (Ebro) Valley and later the eastern, central, northern and northwestern areas of the Iberian peninsula in what would become the Tarraconensis Roman province (of what is now Spain and northern Portugal).

Tarraconensis

  • Volcae
    • Volciani – may have been a tribe related to the Volcae and not to the Hispano-Celts/Iberian Celts (i.e. the Celts of the Iberian Peninsula). Located north of the river Iberus (Ebro), but not very precisely.
  • Gauls (Galli) – Some gaulish tribes may have migrated towards south and crossed the Pyrenees (by the north, the central or the south areas of the mountains) in a second or a third Celtic wave to the Iberian Peninsula. These tribes were different from the Hispano-Celtic/Iberian Celtic tribes. They spoke Gaulish (a Continental Celtic language of the P Celtic type).
    • Galli (tribe) – along Gallicus (Gállego) river banks, see place names (toponyms) like Forum Gallorum, Gallur, a different tribe from the Suessetani; may have been a tribe related to the Galli (Gauls) and not to the Hispano-Celts/Iberian Celts.

Ulterior Iberia (Hispania Ulterior)

Hispania Ulterior ("Further Hispania", "Hispania that is Beyond", from the perspective of the Romans) was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly located in what would become the provinces of Baetica (that included the Baetis, Guadalquivir, valley of modern Spain) and extending to all of Lusitania (modern south and central Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of Salamanca province).

Baetica

Lusitania

Middle and Low Danube

Dacia

Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Illyricum

Ancient tribes in the middle Danube river basin around 1st C. BCE
Ancient tribes in the middle Danube river basin around 1st C. BCE
Central and northern Illyrian tribes and neighbouring Celtic tribes to the North and Northwest during the Roman period.
Central and northern Illyrian tribes and neighbouring Celtic tribes to the North and Northwest during the Roman period.

Pannonia

Illyria

Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Tribes in Illyricum and environs during AD 6 showing the extent of Celtic influence
Tribes in Illyricum and environs during AD 6 showing the extent of Celtic influence
Tribes in Thrace before the Roman period.
Tribes in Thrace before the Roman period.

This list includes tribes parts of which migrated to Illyria.

Moesia

Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Thrace (Thracia)

Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Anatolia (Asia Minor)

Classical regions of Asia Minor/Anatolia
Classical regions of Asia Minor/Anatolia

In the 3rd century BC, Gauls immigrated from Thrace into the highlands of central Anatolia (modern Turkey), that was called Galatia after that. These people, called Galatians, were eventually Hellenized,[51][52] but retained many of their own traditions. Some closely fit the concept of a tribe. Others are confederations or even unions of tribes.

Bithynia

Galatia

Mysia

Phrygia

Unlocated

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mallory, J.P.; Douglas Q. Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. London: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5
  2. ^ a b c Ioana A. Oltean, Dacia: Landscape, Colonization and Romanization, ISBN 0-415-41252-8, 2007, p. 47.
  3. ^ a b c d Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia (illustrated ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 224–225. ISBN 1-85109-440-7. ,.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  4. ^ a b c d "Titus Livius (Livy), The History of Rome, Book 5, chapter 34". www.perseus.tufts.edu. Retrieved 2018-02-12.
  5. ^ The Osi's categorization as Celtic is disputed; see Osi; also may have been a Dacian or Germanic tribe.
  6. ^ Géza Alföldy, Noricum, Tome 3 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1974, p. 24-5.
  7. ^ Cowles Prichard, James (1841). Researches Into the Physical History of Mankind: 3, Volume 1. Sherwood, Gilbert and Piper. p. 240.
  8. ^ Baldi, Philip (2002). The Foundations of Latin. Walter de Gruyter. p. 112. ISBN 978-3-11-080711-0.
  9. ^ Kruta, Venceslas, ed. (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p. 54. ISBN 978-0500015247.
  10. ^ Kruta, Venceslas, ed. (1991). The Celts. Thames and Hudson. p. 55. ISBN 978-0500015247.
  11. ^ (Liv. v. 35; Plin. iii. 17. s. 21.)
  12. ^ Percivaldi, Elena (2003). I Celti: una civiltà europea. Giunti Editore. p. 82.
  13. ^ Leonelli, Valentina. La necropoli delle Acciaierie di Terni: contributi per una edizione critica (Cestres ed.). p. 33.
  14. ^ Farinacci, Manlio. Carsulae svelata e Terni sotterranea. Associazione Culturale UMRU - Terni.
  15. ^ von Hefner, Joseph (1837). Geographie des Transalpinischen Galliens. Munich.
  16. ^ Venceslas Kruta: La grande storia dei celti. La nascita, l'affermazione e la decadenza, Newton & Compton, 2003, ISBN 88-8289-851-2, ISBN 978-88-8289-851-9
  17. ^ Long, George (1866). Decline of the Roman republic: Volume 2. London.
  18. ^ Snith, William George (1854). Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography: Vol.1. Boston.
  19. ^ Titus, Livius. Ab Urbe Condita. p. 5,34.
  20. ^ Plutarch, Marcellus, chapters 6-7 [1]
  21. ^ Markey, Thomas (2008). Shared Symbolics, Genre Diffusion, Token Perception and Late Literacy in North-Western Europe. NOWELE.
  22. ^ a b Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia (illustrated ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 198–200. ISBN 1-85109-440-7. ,.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)
  23. ^ a b Mountain, Harry. (1997). The Celtic Encyclopedia p.225 ISBN 1-58112-890-8 (v. 1)
  24. ^ The Encyclopedia of Ireland, B. Lalor and F. McCourt editors, © 2003 New Haven: Yale University Press, p. 1089 ISBN 0-300-09442-6, noting that Ulaidh was the original tribal designation of the Uluti, who are identifiable as the Voluntii of the Ptolomey map and who occupied, at start, all of the historic province of Ulster.
  25. ^ http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=1404299
  26. ^ Ptolemy, Geographia, II, 5, 6
  27. ^ Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia (illustrated ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 198–200. ISBN 1-85109-440-7, ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0. ^ Jump up to: a b Koch, John T. (2006). Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia (illustrated ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. pp. 224–225. ISBN 1-85109-440-7, ISBN 978-1-85109-440-0.
  28. ^ a b c d e Jorge de Alarcão, “Novas perspectivas sobre os Lusitanos (e outros mundos)”, in Revista portuguesa de Arqueologia, vol. IV, n° 2, 2001, p. 312 e segs.
  29. ^ Indoeuropeos y no Indoeuropeos en la Hispania Prerromana, Salamanca: Universidad, 2000
  30. ^ Adrian Goldsworthy, How Rome Fell: Death of a Superpower, ISBN 0-300-13719-2, 2009, p. 105: "... who had moved to the Hungarian Plain. Another tribe, the Bastarnae, may or may not have been Germanic. ..."
  31. ^ Christopher Webber and Angus McBride, The Thracians 700 BC-AD 46 (Men-at-Arms), ISBN 1-84176-329-2, 2001, p. 12: "... never got near the main body of Roman infantry. The Bastarnae (either Celts or Germans, and `the bravest nation on earth' – Livy ..."
  32. ^ Ion Grumeza, Dacia: Land of Transylvania, Cornerstone of Ancient Eastern Europe, ISBN 0-7618-4465-1, 2009, p. 51: "In a short time the Dacians imposed their conditions on the Anerati, Boii, Eravisci, Pannoni, Scordisci,"
  33. ^ Andrea Faber, Körpergräber des 1.-3. Jahrhunderts in der römischen Welt: internationales Kolloquium, Frankfurt am Main, 19.-20. November 2004, ISBN 3-88270-501-9, p. 144.
  34. ^ Géza Alföldy, Noricum, Tome 3 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1974, p. 69.
  35. ^ A. Mocsy and S. Frere, Pannonia and Upper Moesia. A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. p. 14.
  36. ^ Pannonia. A History of the Middle Danube Provinces of the Roman Empire. p. 14.
  37. ^ Velika Dautova-Ruševljan and Miroslav Vujović, Rimska vojska u Sremu, 2006, p. 131: "extended as far as Ruma whence continued the territory of another community named after the Celtic tribe of Cornacates"
  38. ^ John T. Koch, Celtic culture: a historical encyclopedia, ISBN 1-85109-440-7, 2006, p. 907.
  39. ^ Charles Anthon, A Classical Dictionary: Containing The Principal Proper Names Mentioned In Ancient Authors, Part One, 2005, p. 539: "... Tor, " elevated," " a mountain. (Strabo, 293)"; "the Iapodes (Strabo, 313), a Gallo-Illyrian race occupying the valleys of ..."
  40. ^ J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 79: "along with the evidence of name formulae, a Venetic element among the Japodes. A group of names identified by Alföldy as of Celtic origin: Ammida, Andes, Iaritus, Matera, Maxa,"
  41. ^ J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, Tome 2 of History of the Provinces of the Roman Empire, 1969, pp. 154 and 482.
  42. ^ a b J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 81: "In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of ..."
  43. ^ a b J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 140: "... Autariatae at the expense of the Triballi until, as Strabo remarks, they in their turn were overcome by the Celtic Scordisci in the early third century"
  44. ^ a b J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, p. 217.
  45. ^ Population and economy of the eastern part of the Roman province of Dalmatia, 2002, ISBN 1-84171-440-2, p. 24: "the Dindari were a branch of the Scordisci"
  46. ^ Dubravka Balen-Letunič, 40 godina arheoloških istraživanja u sjeverozapadnoj Hrvatskoj, 1986, p. 52: "and the Celtic Serretes"
  47. ^ Alan Bowman, Edward Champlin, and Andrew Lintott, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 10: The Augustan Empire, 43 BC-AD 69, 1996, p. 580: "... 580 I3h. DANUBIAN AND BALKAN PROVINCES Tricornenses of Tricornium (Ritopek) replaced the Celegeri, the Picensii of Pincum ..."
  48. ^ John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, E. Sollberger, and N. G. L. Hammond, The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 3, Part 2: The Assyrian and Babylonian Empires and Other States of the Near East, from the Eighth to the Sixth Centuries BC, ISBN 0-521-22717-8, 1992, p. 600: "In the place of the vanished Treres and Tilataei we find the Serdi for whom there is no evidence before the first century BC. It has for long been supposed on convincing linguistic and archeological grounds that this tribe was of Celtic origin"
  49. ^ Dio Cassius, Earnest Cary, and Herbert B. Foster, Dio Cassius: Roman History, Vol. IX, Books 71–80 (Loeb Classical Library, No. 177), 1927, Index: "... 9, 337, 353 Seras, philosopher, condemned to death, 8. 361 Serdi, Thracian tribe defeated by M. Crassus, 6. 73 Seretium,""
  50. ^ Frank W. Walbank, Polybius, Rome and the Hellenistic World: Essays and Reflections, ISBN 0-521-81208-9, 2002, p. 116: "... in A7P 60 (1939) 452 8, is not Antigonus Doson but barbarians from the mainland (either Thracians or Gauls from Tylis) (cf. Rostovizef and Welles (1940) 207-8, Rostovizef (1941) 111, 1645), nor has that inscription anything to do with the Cavan expedition. On ..."
  51. ^ William M. Ramsay, Historical Commentary on Galatians, 1997, p. 302: "... these adaptable Celts were Hellenized early. The term Gallograecia, compared with Themistius' (p. 360) Γαλατία ..."
  52. ^ Roger D. Woodard, The Ancient Languages of Asia Minor, 2008, p. 72: "... The Phrygian elite (like the Galatian) was quickly Hellenized linguistically; the Phrygian tongue was devalued and found refuge only ..."
  53. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Prifysgol Cymru, University of Wales, A Detailed Map of Celtic Settlements in Galatia, Celtic Names and La Tène Material in Anatolia, the Eastern Balkans, and the Pontic Steppes.

References

External links

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