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List of Canadian monarchs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

St Edward's Crown with maple leaves.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Canadian politics portal

Listed here are the monarchs who reigned over the French and British colonies of Canada, followed by the Dominion of Canada, and finally the present-day sovereign state of Canada.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] The date of the first claim by a monarch over Canada varies, with most sources giving the year as 1497, when John Cabot made landfall somewhere on the North American coast (likely either modern-day Newfoundland or Nova Scotia), and claimed the land for England on behalf of King Henry VII.[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] However, some sources instead put this date at 1535 when the word "Canada" was first used to refer to the French colony of Canada,[19] which was founded in the name of King Francis I.[20][21] Monarchical governance subsequently evolved under a continuous succession of French, British, and eventually uniquely Canadian sovereigns.[4][5][17][21][22][23][24][25] Since the first claim by Henry VII,[26] there have been 33 sovereigns of Canada, including two sets of co-sovereigns.[27][28][29][30][31][32][33]

While Canada became a Dominion within the British Empire upon Confederation in 1867,[34][35][36][37] the concept of a fully independent Canada sharing the person of the sovereign with the United Kingdom and other countries, such as Australia and New Zealand, only emerged gradually over time through constitutional convention,[38] and was officially confirmed with the passage of the Statute of Westminster in 1931.[39] Since then,[28] the Canadian Crown has been legally distinct from those of the other Commonwealth realms, with its own separate and distinct monarch.[N 1] Although the term king of Canada was used as early as the beginning of the reign of George VI,[41] it was not until 1953 that the monarch's title was made official, with Elizabeth II being the first monarch to be separately proclaimed as Queen of Canada, as per the Royal Style and Titles Act.

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1066! The start of the royal family on these fair isles. Well, there were kings and mini countries before that and druids before that, and Pangaea before that, but we have to start somewhere and a millennia ago is plenty far -- if that leaves out Æthelred the Unready, so it goes. William the Conqueror, conquered in the 'Norman Conquest' -- Norman here being code for *French*. Because it's the olden days, people had lots of kids, but to keep things simple this family tree is going to leave out many of them on each branch because not every child matters. So William had three kids we care about: William II, Henry I and Adela. If you've seen the video about royal succession -- click here if you haven't -- you'll know that formal rules for passing on the crown will get established, but for now, it's a free-for-all, home team advantage to the eldest son, but never forget bigger-army diplomacy. Upon William the Conquerors death, William II became king. William II didn't marry, and on a bros day out with Henry died in a 'Hunting Accident' that gave Henry I the crown. Henry I had at least 26 children of which only two were 100% legit. He declared his daughter would rule next (after his son died in a ship wreck) and swore his knights to honor Empress Matilda by crossing their hearts, hoping to die, sticking a needle in their eye -- *but* when Henry I died while Matilda was in France, many ignored this while her cousin Stephen raced to Westminster using faster army diplomacy to get coronated first. Empress Matilda did eventually return and start a decades-long civil war -- that was pretty much a stalemate because turtling in the 1100s was an effective RTS tactic. While she did rule part of the island, as Matilda never had an official coronation, her monarchical status is disputed. Now, as Stephen's children were either dead, disinterested, or a nun -- his crown went to his nephew, Henry II who had four sons: Henry the Young, Richard the Lionheart, King John… and Geoff. (Guess who died before his turn?) Henry II saw the history thus far of conquering, assassination, (maybe) usurpation, attritional war -- and decided waiting until after the death of the current king before sorting out the *next* king didn't work. So Henry II changed the system and crowned Henry the Young co-king with him, invoking the rule of two: one is none. Two is one. If it's important, you need a backup. It was a good plan for stability, helped by the young King's popularity, but unfortunately -- the apprentice rebelled against the master, rallying his brothers -- which resulted in another civil war of disputed monarchs during which Henry the Young died of dysentery, Henry the Elder died of fever, and Richard I took the crown. After Richard came John and four eldest son successions in a row: John to Henry III (insert Magna Carta here) to Edward I (Longshanks) to Edward II -- to Edward III. Actually Ed II was overthrown by Isabelle of France A.K.A the She-Wolf of France A.K.A. his wife. After deposing her husband, she acted as regent for their son. Every one of these arrows glosses over a bit of complexity. Edward III had five sons: Edward the Black Prince, Lionel, John, Edmund, and Thomas, none of which would wear the crown. When Edward III died, his throne would have gone to The Black Prince, but he was dead at the time so the crown went to his boringly named son Richard, now the second. There's a bunch of drama lamma stuff around Richard the second which your English teacher might force you to read about -- but spoiler alert, history's ending is always the same: bigger-army diplomacy, this time from Henry IV who gets the crown and Richard II gets starvation in captivity. Another Henry before we get to the War of the Roses: A war that strikes terror (and boredom) in the minds of students of history the nation over who have to deal with *this* family tree 'simplified' to explain why everyone was angry, but the shortest version ever is Edward III's great, great, grandsons duked it out, even though one of them was dead for part of the fight -- but we can't get into that now so Henry VI to Edward IV to Henry VI to Edward IV. The end. Edward IV, on his deathbed left his crown to his son. But being twelve he needed protection, so Richard, his best-ist uncle in the world, promised to take super-good care of him. Edward V then promptly disappeared under suspicious circumstances that left Richard to become Richard the third. But he didn't stay king for long because Edward III's great, great, great, great grandson Henry VII -- took the crown, put a ring on Elizabeth of York to lock down that royal legitimacy and then sired Henry VIII -- splitter of churches, and ladies. Henry VIII thought it was high time to formalize the rules of inheritance, so he wrote them out in his will -- basically saying oldest boys first, girls only if there aren't any boys -- and Parliament approved the rules. Which should have made everything neat and tidy, but we're about to enter the really messy time... … Because Henry's son lived just long enough to screw it up -- inheriting the throne at 9 there was, of course, a scheming protectorate running things, yet he still declared at 15 that his father's rules were dumb and his sisters were dumb and that his first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, should be the next monarch instead. Then he died and Lady Jane Grey became queen at sweet sixteen, sort of -- in a disputed status way for nine days, until beheaded by Mary, the first really, truly officially nobody doubts it Queen. Mary didn't have any kids, and passed the crown to Elizabeth I who became the second queen in a row… to also not have children. But, no problem because Lady Jane Grey was next in … oh. Right. Now, this is the point at which we acknowledge, Scotland Exists. They'd been doing their own royal thing which for our purposes joins the English branch where Edward III's great granddaughter married into it in the 1400s and then goes: James, James, James, James, James, Mary Queen of Scotts, James. Bringing us back to the 1600s. Henry the VIII's sister importantly also married into this line of the family giving it English legitimacy points in the eyes of the English Parliament, which asked to borrow Scotland's James, making him king of two countries with two numbers in his name depending on where you're counting from. James had a son, Charles I, and you might think this unification of the monarchs means the very messy time is over. But no. Because Cromwell. Cromwell didn't like kings and beheaded Charles I: declaring no royals no longer, making himself The Lord Protector which was in no way like a king -- even though he was in charge and it was a hereditary office passed to his son. But the Cromwells didn't last -- mainly because his son was a fancy country squire who didn't follow rule 0: keep the army happy -- giving Charles's son, Charles II, the ability to reestablish the monarchy. Charles II had lots of children, all of which were illegitimate, leaving his brother, James II next in line. But James II was *Catholic* and ever since Henry split the church, Catholics had terrible approval ratings. But conveniently, he had nice Protestant daughters, one married to a Dutch Prince who by the nature of these things was the grandson of Charles I. Bonus English legitimacy points, plus, who doesn't like the Dutch? With James so unpopular and William and Mary so popular, the army and nobles pretty much invited the royal couple to 'invade' and James II fled. William and Mary ruled as co-monarchs, but without children the crown went to Queen Anne, who also didn't produce any heirs, though not from lack of effort -- she was pregnant *seventeen* times. Again, finding themselves with a no-royals-no-longer situation, Parliament decided it was really, truly seriously the time to sort out the rules of inheritance to avoid pretenders from every branch of this messy tree fighting over the crown. Parliament did a royal reboot to clear the cruft, defining Sophia of Hanover -- the granddaughter of James dual numbers to be the new starting point for all claims to the crown. These rules finally stuck, thus ending the very messy time. George I, son of Sophia, was the first king under the new rules, then his son George II, to George III, and even though he lost America and his mind, never fear, the rules are here, so the crown continued to calmly descend the family tree, going to George IV, who didn't have any surviving children, to William IV who had ten children -- all illegitimate, then passing through his dead younger brother to Queen Victoria who started her reign in 1837 and made it to just over the finishing line of the 20th century. Which is a doubly impressively long time given the state of medical technology then. After the end of her age, the crown went to her son Edward VII to George V… to Edward VIII who *finally* breaks up this neat and tidy (and somewhat boring) line of succession by committing a scandal: marrying a commoner. An American Commoner! An American Commoner *divorcee*! *twice over* ::Gasp:: Actually, the divorces were a real problem and weren't compatible with the Monarch's role as Head of State *and also* the Church of England in the 1930s. Edward abdicated to his brother George VI -- who was reluctant to take the crown, and then had to oversee World War II and the subsequent breakup of the British Empire -- which drained the reluctant King's health, who died at 56 leaving the crown to Elizabeth the Second, in 1952 at the age of 25. Seven years older than Victoria, her great great grandmother was on her coronation day, but in early September, 2015, Elizabeth became the longest-reigning Queen in not just British history, but world history. From Elizabeth II the crown continues on to Charles, the longest heir apparent in British history, to his son William, to his son George. And that, is a brief history of the royal family.


Sovereigns of Canada

The French Crown (1534–1763)

No. Portrait Regnal name Reign Full name Consort
France moderne.svg
Sovereigns of New France
Francis I
House of Valois
24 July 1534 31 March 1547 Francis Eleanor of Austria
Territorial claim: 1534: in Francis' name, Jacques Cartier laid claim to New France ( Canada (New France) and Acadia).[42]
Henry II of France..jpg
Henry II
House of Valois
31 March 1547 10 July 1559 Henry Catherine de' Medici
Francis II
House of Valois
10 July 1559 5 December 1560 Francis Mary, Queen of Scots
Bemberg Fondation Toulouse - Portrait de Charles IX - François Clouet - Inv.1012.jpg
Charles IX
House of Valois
5 December 1560 30 May 1574 Charles Maximilian Elisabeth of Austria
Anjou 1570louvre.jpg
Henry III
House of Valois
30 May 1574 2 August 1589 Alexandre Édouard Louise of Lorraine
Henry IV
House of Bourbon
2 August 1589 14 May 1610 Henri de Bourbon Margaret of Valois,
Marie de' Medici
Louis XIII (de Champaigne).jpg
Louis XIII
House of Bourbon
14 May 1610 14 May 1643 Louis Anne of Austria
Louis XIV of France.jpg
Louis XIV
House of Bourbon
14 May 1643 1 September 1715 Louis-Dieudonné Maria Theresa of Spain,
Françoise d'Aubigné
Territorial changes: 1655: acquired concrete claim to Placentia.
Note: 1713: ceded Acadia, Placentia, and Hudson Bay to Anne.
Louis XV France by Louis-Michel van Loo 002.jpg
Louis XV
House of Bourbon
1 September 1715 10 February 1763 Louis Marie Leszczyńska
Territorial changes: 1763: ceded the Colony of Canada, along with the rest of New France, to George III.

The English and British Crowns (1497–1931)

No. Portrait Regnal name Reign Full name Consort
Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg
Sovereigns of the colony of Canada
Henry VII
House of Tudor
24 June 1497 21 April 1509 Henry Elizabeth of York
Territorial changes: 1497: in Henry's name, John Cabot laid claim to lands that soon came to be called "Canada".[27] The English Crown did not concretely exercise this claim until the reign of King George III, when the colony of Canada was officially ceded from France to Great Britain.
Workshop of Hans Holbein the Younger - Portrait of Henry VIII - Google Art Project.jpg
Henry VIII
House of Tudor
21 April 1509 28 January 1547 Henry Catherine of Aragon (1509), Anne Boleyn (1533), Jane Seymour (1536), Anne of Cleves (1540), Catherine Howard (1540), Catherine Parr (1543)
Edward VI of England c. 1546.jpg
Edward VI
House of Tudor
28 January 1547 6 July 1553 Edward None
Maria Tudor1.jpg
Mary I
House of Tudor
19 July 1553 17 November 1558 Mary Philip II of Spain (co-sovereign)
Elizabeth I Rainbow Portrait.jpg
Elizabeth I
House of Tudor
17 November 1558 24 March 1603 Elizabeth None
Territorial changes: 1583: in Elizabeth's name, Humphrey Gilbert laid claim to the island of Newfoundland.
James I of England by Daniel Mytens.jpg
James I
House of Stuart
24 March 1603 27 March 1625 Charles James Anne of Denmark
King Charles I after original by van Dyck.jpg
Charles I
House of Stuart
27 March 1625 30 January 1649 Charles Henrietta Maria of France
Cromwellian Era 30 January 1649 29 May 1660
King Charles II by John Michael Wright or studio.jpg
Charles II
House of Stuart
29 May 1660 6 February 1685 Charles Catherine of Braganza
Note: 1670: created Rupert's Land.
James II by Peter Lely.jpg
James II
House of Stuart
6 February 1685 1 December 1688 James Mary of Modena
Vacant 1 December 1688 13 February 1689
King William III of England, (1650-1702).jpg
William III
House of Orange-Nassau
13 February 1689 8 March 1702 William Mary II of England
House of Stuart
8 March 1702 1 August 1714 Anne Prince George of Denmark
Note: 1713: acquired Acadia, Placentia, and Hudson Bay from Louis XIV of France.
King George I by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (3).jpg
George I
House of Hanover
1 August 1714 11 June 1727 George Louis Sophia Dorothea of Celle
George II by Thomas Hudson.jpg
George II
House of Hanover
11 June 1727
old calendar
25 October 1760
new calendar
George Augustus Caroline of Ansbach
Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project.jpg
George III
House of Hanover
25 October 1760 29 January 1820 George William Frederick Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Territorial changes: 1763: acquired Canada from Louis XV of France; changed its name to Province of Quebec.
1778: in George's name, James Cook laid claim to lands that later came to be called Vancouver Island.
1791: created the provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada out of the Province of Quebec.
1818: ceded Rupert's Land south of the 49th parallel to the United States; acquired the Louisiana Purchase north of the 49th parallel from the United States.
George IV van het Verenigd Koninkrijk.jpg
George IV
House of Hanover
29 January 1820 26 June 1830 George Augustus Frederick Caroline of Brunswick
William IV.jpg
William IV
House of Hanover
26 June 1830 20 June 1837 William Henry Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen
Queen Victoria 1887.jpg
House of Hanover
20 June 1837 1 July 1867 Alexandrina Victoria Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Territorial changes: 1840: united Lower and Upper Canada into the Province of Canada.
1846: acquired concrete claim to the Columbia District north of the 49th parallel and Vancouver Island.
Arms of the United Kingdom (Variant 1).svg
Sovereigns of the Dominion of Canada[N 2]
Queen Victoria 1887.jpg
House of Hanover
1 July 1867 22 January 1901 Alexandrina Victoria Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
Canadian governors general:The Viscount Monck, the Lord Lisgar, the Earl of Dufferin, the Marquess of Lorne, the Marquess of Lansdowne, the Lord Stanley of Preston, the Earl of Aberdeen, the Earl of Minto
Canadian prime ministers: John A. Macdonald, Alexander Mackenzie, John Abbott, John Thompson, Mackenzie Bowell, Charles Tupper, Wilfrid Laurier
Territorial changes: 1867: united the Province of Canada (and created out of it Ontario and Quebec), Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick into the Dominion of Canada.
1870: created the province of Manitoba.
Joined Rupert's Land (1870), British Columbia (1871), Prince Edward Island (1873), and the British Arctic Territories (1880) into the union.
Edward VII in coronation robes.jpg
Edward VII
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
22 January 1901 6 May 1910 Albert Edward Alexandra of Denmark
Canadian governors general: The Earl of Minto, the Earl Grey
Canadian prime minister: Wilfrid Laurier
Territorial changes: 1905: created the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan from part of the Northwest Territories.
George V of the united Kingdom.jpg
George V
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (until 1917)
House of Windsor (after 1917)
6 May 1910 11 December 1931 George Frederick Ernest Albert Mary of Teck
Canadian governors general: The Earl Grey, the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, the Duke of Devonshire, the Lord Byng of Vimy, the Marquess of Willingdon, the Earl of Bessborough
Canadian prime ministers: Wilfrid Laurier, Robert Borden, Arthur Meighen, William Lyon Mackenzie King, Richard B. Bennett
Territorial changes: 1931: granted Royal Assent to the Statute of Westminster 1931, thereby creating the Canadian Crown and leaving Newfoundland as the only part of Canada's current territory left under the British Crown.

The Canadian Crown (1931–present)

In 1931 the Canadian Crown emerged as an independent entity from that of the British Crown due to the Statute of Westminster 1931.

No. Portrait Regnal name Reign Full name Consort
Canadian Coat of Arms Shield.svg
Sovereigns of Canada
George V of the united Kingdom.jpg
George V
House of Windsor
11 December 1931 20 January 1936 George Frederick Ernest Albert Mary of Teck
Governors general: The Earl of Bessborough, the Lord Tweedsmuir
Prime ministers: Richard B. Bennett, William Lyon Mackenzie King
The Duke of Windsor (1945).jpg
Edward VIII
House of Windsor
20 January 1936 11 December 1936 Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David none
Governor general: The Lord Tweedsmuir
Prime minister: William Lyon Mackenzie King
King George VI of England, formal photo portrait, circa 1940-1946.jpg
George VI
House of Windsor
11 December 1936 6 February 1952 Albert Frederick Arthur George Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Governors general: The Lord Tweedsmuir, the Earl of Athlone, the Viscount Alexander of Tunis
Prime ministers: William Lyon Mackenzie King, Louis St. Laurent
Territorial change: 1949: merged Newfoundland (now Newfoundland and Labrador) into Canada, thereby putting all of Canada's current territory under the Canadian Crown.
Elizabeth II greets NASA GSFC employees, May 8, 2007 edit.jpg
Elizabeth II
(born 1926)
House of Windsor
6 February 1952 Present Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
Governors general: The Viscount Alexander of Tunis, Vincent Massey, Georges Vanier, Roland Michener, Jules Léger, Edward Schreyer, Jeanne Sauvé, Ray Hnatyshyn, Roméo LeBlanc, Adrienne Clarkson, Michaëlle Jean, David Johnston, Julie Payette
Prime ministers: Louis St. Laurent, John Diefenbaker, Lester B. Pearson, Pierre Trudeau, Joe Clark, John Turner, Brian Mulroney, Kim Campbell, Jean Chrétien, Paul Martin, Stephen Harper, Justin Trudeau


The Canadian monarchs' consort—his or her spouse—has no constitutional status or power, but is a member of the Canadian Royal Family. In the United Kingdom, all female consorts have had the right to and have held the title of Queen Consort; as Canada does not have laws or letters patent under the Great Seal of Canada laying out the styles of any Royal Family members besides the monarch, royal consorts are addressed in Canada using the style and title as they hold in the UK. After informal discussions among the various Commonwealth prime ministers between 1954 and 1957, it was decided that Prince Philip, husband of Elizabeth II, would not be granted the title of Prince Consort.[43][44]

Since Confederation, two sovereigns have reigned over Canada without a consort: Victoria, whose husband, Albert, died before Confederation, and Edward VIII, who married Wallis Simpson after his abdication. Though Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall (the current wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to the throne of Canada), will technically become queen consort in the United Kingdom, Clarence House has stated that, due to public opinion regarding her relationship with the Prince of Wales, she will be styled there as Princess Consort.[45][46][47]

See also


  1. ^ The English Court of Appeal ruled in 1982, while "there is only one person who is the Sovereign within the British Commonwealth... in matters of law and government the Queen of the United Kingdom, for example, is entirely independent and distinct from the Queen of Canada."[40]
  2. ^ In 1867, the separate colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick joined to form the Dominion of Canada. Subsequently, each of the other colonies in British North America eventually joined the union as provinces. Other provinces were created by the Dominion from its territories. Over time, Canada gradually gained increasing independence from the United Kingdom due to continued evolution in constitutional practice. However, it remained under the British Crown until 1931, when the Canadian Crown is generally accepted as having been created due to the enactment of the Statute of Westminster. The Dominion of Newfoundland continued as a separate British colony under the British Crown until it joined Canada in 1949.


  1. ^ MacLeod, Kevin S. (2012). A Crown of Maples (PDF) (2 ed.). Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-11-10. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  2. ^ "Crown in Canada – The Monarch". Queen's Printer for Canada. 1 June 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
  3. ^ Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > The Canadian Monarchy". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 14 May 2009.
  4. ^ a b Kenney, Jason (23 April 2007). "Speech to the Lieutenant Governors Meeting". Written at Regina. In Department of Canadian Heritage. Speeches > The Honourable Jason Kenney. Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
  5. ^ a b Valpy, Michael (13 November 2009). "The monarchy: Offshore, but built-in". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 14 November 2009.
  6. ^ MacLeod 2012, p. 6
  7. ^ Monet, Jacques. "The Canadian Encyclopedia". In Marsh, James Harley. Government > Parliamentary Institutions > Governor General. Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada. Archived from the original on 11 February 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
  8. ^ The Royal Household. "The Queen and the Commonwealth > Queen and Canada > History and present government". Queen's Printer. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
  9. ^ Coyne, Andrew (13 November 2009). "Defending the royals". Maclean's. Toronto: Roger's Communications. ISSN 0024-9262. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
  10. ^ Editorial (26 May 2012), "Celebrating the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Queen of Canada", Toronto Star, retrieved 27 May 2012
  11. ^ Government of Canada (24 September 2014). "The Royal Family". The Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
  12. ^ Government of Canada (1 July 2012). "Discover Canada – Canada's History". Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  13. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia (1 July 2008). "John Cabot". Historica Canada. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  14. ^ "The First Voyages of the Europeans". University of Ottawa. Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  15. ^ Croxton, Derek (1990). "The Cabot Dilemma: John Cabot's 1497 Voyage & the Limits of Historiography". Canada History. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  16. ^ Memorial University of Newfoundland (1997). "John Cabot's Voyage of 1497". Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  17. ^ a b Harper, Stephen (2008). "Letter" (PDF). In MacLeod, Kevin S. A Crown of Maples. Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada (published 2012). p. vii. ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  18. ^ Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry. "The Sovereigns of Canada". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Retrieved 5 March 2010.
  19. ^ "Origin of the Name - Canada". Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. 18 June 2013. Archived from the original on 12 April 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  20. ^ Robertson, Colin (February 2008). "The true white north: reflections on being Canadian". Institute for Research on Public Policy. Archived from the original on 2013-10-20. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
  21. ^ a b Parliament of Canada. "Canada: A Constitutional Monarchy". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 25 September 2009.
  22. ^ MacLeod 2012, pp. 2–3, 39
  23. ^ Monet, Jacques (2007). "Crown and Country" (PDF). Canadian Monarchist News. Toronto: Monarchist League of Canada. Summer 2007 (26): 8. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  24. ^ MacLeod 2012, p. 9
  25. ^ "Queen and Canada". The British Monarchy. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  26. ^ Bousfield, Arthur & Toffoli, Garry (2004). "The Monarchy and Canadian Independence". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  27. ^ a b Bousfield, Arthur; Toffoli, Garry. "The Sovereigns of Canada". Canadian Royal Heritage Trust. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  28. ^ a b MacLeod 2012, p. 78
  29. ^ "Sovereigns Who have Reigned Over Canada". The Canadian Encyclodpdia. Historica Canada. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  30. ^ Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario (22 August 2013). "Kings and Queens of Canada". Queen's Printer for Ontario. Archived from the original on September 15, 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  31. ^ Heritage Canada (2013). "The Kings and Queens of Canada" (PDF). Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-27. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  32. ^ Tidridge, Nathan (2011). Canada's Constitutional Monarchy. Toronto: Dundurn. pp. 233–236.
  33. ^ "Canada's Monarchy throughout History". Monarchist League of Canada. Archived from the original on 3 January 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  34. ^ The Canadian Encyclopedia (22 September 2013). "Confederation". Historica Canada. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
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